1. Mr WILLIAM FUNNEL's Voyage to the South-Sea, &c. in the Ship St George, Captain William Dampier Commander.[Page 1]
The Deſign of the Voyage. The A's Departure. Arrival at St Jago. A Deſcription of that Iſland. Of the Shark. Of the Dolphin. Of the Jelly-Fiſh. Of the Old-Wife. Deſcription of the Iſlands of St Ann. Of the Boobie. Of the Iſland Le Grand. Of the Silver-Fiſh. A ſtrange Bird taken off the Sibbel de Wards. Arrival at Juan Fernando's.
WE were at firſt Two Ships, of Twenty-ſix Guns and One hundred and twenty Men each; deſigned [Page 2] for the South-Seas: The one was named the St George, Captain William Dampier Commander, on Board of which I was; and the other was named the Fame, John Pulling Captain. We were each of us ſupplied with all War-like Stores, and very well victualled for nine Months; and had Commiſſions from his Royal Highneſs the Lord High-Admiral, to proceed in a War-like manner againſt the French and Spaniards: And we Both were upon the ſame Terms, of no Purchaſe no Pay. But whilſt we were in the Downs, there ariſing ſome Difference between the two Captains, Captain Pulling in his Ship the Fame went away and left us; intending, as he ſaid, to go and cruize among the Canary-Iſlands; and we never ſaw him after. But before our going away from Ireland, we were joyned by another Ship ſent after us on purpoſe. She was a ſmall Ship, named the Cinque-ports Gally, burthen about ninety Tuns, ſixteen Guns, and ſixty three Men, Charles Pickering Captain: Which Ship was alſo very well victualled and provided for the ſaid Voyage. Our Propoſals were to go into the River of Plate, to Buonas Aires, to take two or three Spaniſh Galleons which Captain Dampier gives an account are uſually there: And if by that Expedition we got to the value of 600000 Pounds, [Page 3] then to return again without proceeding further: But if we miſſed of Succeſs there, then to cruize upon the Coaſt of Peru, for the Valdivia Ships, which commonly are ſaid to bring down ſtore of Gold to Lima: But if that Deſign ſhould alſo fail, then to attempt ſome rich Towns, according as Captain Dampier ſhould think fit: And after that, we were at the uſual time of the Year to go down upon the Coaſt of Mexico, to ſeek for a great Galleon, which Trades from Manila, one of the Philippine Iſlands, to Acapulco on the Coaſt of Mexico; and which is commonly reported to be worth thirteen or fourteen Millions of Pieces of Eight. The Reaſon we did not go to Buonas Aires, was becauſe upon our arrival at Madera, we had advice that the Galleons before-mentioned were arrived at Teneriff. The Succeſs of our other Deſigns, are ſet down particularly in the following Relation.
year 1703 On the 30th of April 1703, we ſailed out of the Downs, and on the 18th of May anchored at Kingſale in Ireland. Here we refitted and victualled our Ship; and were joined by another Ship named the Cinque-ports, burthen about ninety Tuns, ſixteen Guns, and ſixty three Men, Charles Pickering Captain: And on the 11th of [Page 4] year 1703 September, we in company of our Conſort Captain Pckering, left Kingſale, and on the 25th we reached the Iſland of Madera, where we did not anchor, but lay off and on for our Boats, which were ſent aſhore for ſome Neceſſaries. By a good obſervation I make this Iſland to lye in the Latitude of 32 d. 20 m. N. And Longitude by my account from London, W. 18 d. 5 m. It is a very pleaſant Iſland, inhabited by Portugueze; it abounds in Corn, Wine, Honey, Sugar, Madder, Oranges, Lemons, Pomegranets, &c.
Having done our Buſineſs here, we departed Sept. 28, and on the 30th ſaw Palma and Fero, the two Weſtermoſt of the Canary-Iſlands, they being in all ſeven, ſo called from Canaria the Chief; They are alſo called Fortunate, from their Fruitfulneſs, being plentiful in ſeveral ſorts of Commodities, but eſpecially in the Wine called Canary, brought from hence in abundance. We did not ſtop here, but made the beſt of our way for the Cape de Verde Iſlands; and October the 6th ſaw the Iſland of Mayo, lying in the Latitude of 15 d. 10 m. N. and Longitude from London, W. 24 d. 29 m. The chief o [...] what this Iſland produces, is Salt; o [...] which here is plenty for fetching. W [...] [...]ay off and on all Night, but could no [...] [Page 5] year 1703 get off any, becauſe here ran ſo great a Surf that we durſt not venture our Boats aſhore. So October the ſeventh, in the Morning, we bore away for the Iſland St Jago, and at Noon anchored at Prior Bay. This Bay lies in the Latitude of 14 d. 50 m. N. and Weſt from London 24 d. 47 m.
This is one of the Southermoſt and moſt fruitful of the Cape de Verde Iſlands; it abounding in Hogs, Fowls, Guinea-Hens, Monkies, Maiz, Oranges, Lemons, Dates, Water-melons, Plantains, Bonanoes, &c. Here is good Water to be had, but troubleſome fetching of it; and Wood is very dear, by reaſon of its ſcarcity. The Natives of this place were formerly Portugueze, who were baniſhed to this place for Murthers, Thefts, and other Villanies; but now they are moſtly black, by reaſon of their Converſe amongſt their Womenſlaves (which are Guinea Negroes;) And although they have changed their Colour, yet they ſtill retain their Vices; thieving being commoner here than in any place I have been in; inſomuch that they will take your Hat off your Head at Noon-day, although you be in the midſt of Company. You muſt alſo be very wary how you Trade with them; for if you let them have your Goods, before you have theirs, you will [Page 6] year 1703 be ſure to loſe them. At this place we was ter'd our Ship and refreſh'd our ſelves; and here being ſome Diſagreement between our Captain and firſt Lieutenant, our Captain turned him aſhore with his Cheſt and and Cloaths and Servant, much againſt both their Wills, about twelve at Night. At four the next Morning, it being the 13th of October, we parted from the ſaid Iſland, not fully reſolved what place to touch at next. On October the 22d (being in the Latitude of 6 d. 36 m. N. and Longitude from London W. about 19 d. 57 m.) we caught four Fiſh; a Shark, a Dolphin, a Jelly-fiſh and an Old-wife.
The Dolphin [Note: See FIG. II.] is between four and five feet in length, ſome more, ſome leſs. It is a very pretty coloured Fiſh, and very good to eat, but ſomething dry; They feed moſtly upon Flying-fiſh, a ſort of Fiſh about the bigneſs of an ordinary Herring, and much like one; the Dolphins are ſo nimble, as to catch them when they light in the Water to wet their Wings, or rather Fins. For they can fly no longer than their Wings are wet, but then fall into the Water and mount again. It is very pretty to ſee what ſhifts and turns they will make, to get clear of their great Enemy the Dolphin; and rather than be taken by them, they will often fly into a ſhip; but when they are in, unleſs they happen to fall into a puddle of Water they cannot fly out again, for want of moiſture in their Wings.
[Page 8] year 1703 The Jelly-fiſh [Note: See Fig. III.] was about fourteen Inches long, and about 2 Inches deep; with a very ſharp ſet of Teeth, a very curious ſparkling Eye, a long extended Mouth, a monſtrous high Fin on his Back, being of a ſlimy ſubſtance, only the Ribs which ſtretched it out (being thirty two in number) were firm and ſtiff. He had one ſmall Fin under his Jaw, of the ſame ſlimy Subſtance. That part of him which is without ſmall ſpots, is a perfect green Jelly, whence he was called by us a Jelly-fiſh: The reſt of him was firm, of a Silver colour, with ſmall ſpots, and ſtreaks or partings, as is expreſt in the Figure.
The Old-wife [Note: See Fig. IV.] was a Fiſh about two foot long, and 9 Inches high; He hath a ſmall Mouth, a large Eye; a great Fin on his back, beginning at the hinder part of his Head, and ſtretching to his Tail; he hath a large broad Fin on each ſide near the Gills, with one pretty large one under his Belly; his Body is of a deep Blue, and his Fins of a very light Blue, the ends of which are Yellow. His Body and Head have a great many ſpots and croſs ſtreaks or partings, as is expreſt in the Fig. There is alſo another ſort of Old-wife, ſuch as is deſcribed by Captain Dampier in his third Volume.
On November 8th, in the evening, we obſerved by A Zth compaſs, and found the Variation by a good amplitude to be 5d 20 m Eaſterly. Latitude by Obſervation S. 10 d 20 m. and Longitude Weſt from the Iſland St Jago, 5 d 36 m. November 10th in the morning we obſerved again by A Zth compaſs, and found Variation by the Medium of 3 A Zths to be 5 d 39 m Eaſterly. Latitude by Obſervation S. 13 d 48 m. Longitude from London Weſt, 31 d 4 m. November 15th we found the variation to be 7 d 44m E. Latitude by Obſervation S. 20 d 13 m. Longitude from London W. 35 d 28 m. This day fourteen or fifteen of our people fell ill of a Fever. November 19, we anchored at the Iſlands St Anns; which by my account lie in the Latitude of 22 d 20 m 8. Longitude W. from London 38 d 23 m. and we reckon here about 10 d Eaſterly Variation. We went aſhoar here, intending to wood and water, but could find no Water; ſo we cut a Long-boat-load of Wood, and came on board again, and got up our Anchors, intending to wood and water at the I [...]land Le Grand.
[Page 10] year 1703 There are three of the Iſlands, called by the name of St Anns, not above a Stones caſt from each other; they are very full of Wood, as is all the Braſilian Coaſt. Theſe Iſlands are diſtant from the Main, about four Miles. This place is very much troubled with Southerly Winds, which blow extraordinarily in guſts; therefore the only way is to lay your beſt Anchor to the Southward, and all little enough ſometimes. The Iſlands produce nothing but Wood; and have a vaſt many Sea-fowl upon them by Sailours called Boobies. See a draught of the three Iſlands of St Anns. [Note: See Fig. V.]
The Booby [Note: See Fig. VI.] is much about the bigneſs of a Duck; ſome are quite White, ſome Grey; They have Feet like a Duck, being a Water-foul; They feed moſtly upon Flyingfiſh, which they catch Flying. I have made many a Meal of this ſort of Birds, but it was for want of other Victuals; They taſte very Fiſhy; and if you do not ſalt them very well before you eat them, they will make you ſick; They are ſo ſilly, that when they are weary of flying, they will, if you hold out your Hand, come and ſit upon it: From thence I conjecture that they are called Boobies.
The Silver-fiſh [Note: See Fig. VIII] is about twenty Inches long; in height from the top of his Head to the bottom of his Belly eight Inches; he hath five ſmall Fins on the hinder-part of his Head, and one large one reaching from the hindermoſt of the five ſmall ones to the Tail. He has two midling ones, one on each ſide near the Gills, and one large one ſtretching from the middle of the bottom of his Belly to his Tail; which is half-mooned. He has a large Eye, a wide pair of Noſtrils, and a ſmall Mouth. It is a very thin Fiſh, and very bony. He is of a fine tranſparent White, and thence called by us a Silver-fiſh.
December the 29th, betimes in the Morning we ſaw the Iſlands of Sibbil de Wards, which are three in Number, lying in the Latitude of 51 d. 35 m. S. Longitude W. from London, by my account 51 d. 37 m. and had a good Obſervation by AZth Compaſs and found Variation to be 24 d. 00 m. Eaſterly. Captain Dampier in his Voyage round the World, computes the Longitude of theſe Iſlands Weſt from the Lizard, to be 57 d. 28 m. The occaſion of which difference I ſuppoſe to be his having made longer Runs in that Voyage, and ſo more liable to miſtakes of this Nature. Whether there be any Water upon theſe Iſlands, I know not; but never did hear of any. From the time of our paſſing the Latitude of 40 d. S. we ſaw a great many Birds about the Ship. And when we were off the Sibbil de Ward Iſlands, we took one remarkable Bird, which we [Page 14] year 1703 ſuppoſe came from thoſe Iſlands; It was about the bigneſs of a Duck, and of a very fine white colour. [Note: See Fig. IX.] His Bill was yellow, and both above and below the Bill were long grey hairs like whiskers; And inſtead of Feathers, at the bottom of his Eye-lids, he had ſhort ſtiff hairs, which were black. We did not ſtop at theſe Iſlands, but kept on our way for the South-ſeas. January 4th 1703/4 being in the Latitude of 57 d. 50 m. S. we met with a very hard ſtorm of Wind at S. W. in which ſtorm we loſt Company of our conſort, but hoped to find him again at Juan Fernandoes, that being the appointed place of Rendezvous. January the 8th we found the Variation by a good Amplitude to be 25 d. 30 m. Eaſterly. Latitude by a good Obſervation, S. 58 d. 05 m. Longitude from London Weſt, 66 d, 09 m. January 9th, Captain Dampier thinking we were to the Weſtward of Cape Horn, ordered to put the ſhip about: We had then the Wind at W. S. W. and ſtood away South; but tacking we ſtood away to the Northward; and at noon had Latitude by Obſervation S. 57 d. 10 m. and made Longitude from London. W. 69 d. 29 m.
January 11th betimes in the morning, we ſaw Land, contrary to all our expectations; which proved to be four Iſlands lying about five Leagues to the Eaſtward [Page 15] year 1703 of the Iſland Terra Del Fuego, or the Land of Fire, ſo called by the Spaniards, the firſt diſcoverers of it, becauſe as they paſt by it they ſaw a great many Fires, as I ſuppoſe, made by the Inhabitants. So we tackt and ſtood to the Southward, and had Latitude by Obſervation S. 55 d. 20 m. and Longitude from London, W. 73 d. 57 m. January 14th, one of our Men being dead, his things were ſold as follows. A Cheſt, value five Shillings, was ſold for three Pounds: A pair of Shooes, value four Shillings and ſix Pence, ſold for thirty one Shillings: Half a pound of Thread, value two Shillings, ſold for ſeventeen Shillings and ſix Pence. January the 20th, we found Latitude by obſervation S. 60 d. 51 m. which is the furtheſt South we ever were; And made Longitude from London W. 84 d. 01 m. And now being pretty well aſſured we were about the Cape Horn, we tackt and ſtood to the Northward. January the 24th, having made 88 d. 56 m. W. Longitude from London, and being in the Latitude of 54 d. 36 m. we hauled away N. to edge in with the Land. January the 28th. we found Variation by Amplitude to be 10 d. Eaſterly, and had Latitude by obſervation S. 47 d. 46 m. and Longitude from London W. 86 d. 23 m. January the 31ſt, we found the Variation to be [Page 16] year 1703 9 d. 6 m. Eaſterly: Latitude 42 d. 24 m. S. and Longitude from London W. 81 d. 45 m.
February the 4th, we ſaw the Iſland La Moucha, whoſe Latitude is 38 d. 30 m. S. Longitude from London W. 77 d. 37 m. and we found the Variation by a good Amplitude juſt off this Iſland, to be 8d. 44m. Eaſterly. This Iſland is very well inhabited by Indians, who are always at Wars with the Spaniards (or with any white Men; for they think all white Men are Spaniards.) It is a high Iſland, four Leagues in length, and has many Shoals on the Weſt ſide, which run a League or more into the Sea. It is diſtant from the Port of Valdivia 25 Leagues Northward, and from the River Imperial N. N. W. February the 5th, we obſerved by AZth Compaſs, and found Variation by Amplitude to be 7 d. 02 m. Eaſterly. Latitude by obſervation S. 35 d. 33 m. Longitude from London W. 80 d. 19 m.
February the 7th, we ſaw the Iſland Juan Fernando's: And ſo ſtood off and on; but drawing pretty near it, our Captain thought it not to be the right Iſland; ſo we tackt and ſtood to the Eaſtward: But on February the 10th, after we had ſtood about thirty Leagues to the Eaſtward, not ſeeing any Land, we ſtood back again to the ſame Iſland; and paſſing by the great [Page 17] year 1703 Bay, we ſaw our Conſort Capt. Stradling in the Cinque-ports, who had been arrived three Days before; ſo we anchored in the little Bay in twelve Fathom Water, oazy Ground; but finding it not convenient lying here, we weigh'd and went to the great Bay, where we anchored in 35 Fathom Water, and found Variation to be 6 d. 05 m. Eaſterly. Latit: of the Bay is 33 d. 50 m. S. [Note: See Fig. X.]
Deſcription of Juan Fernando's. Of the Cabbage-tree. Wild Cats. Goats. The Humming-bird. Deſcription of the Sea-Lion. Of the Seal. Another ſort of Silver-fiſh. A Sea-fight. Departure for the Coaſt of Peru. Sea Coloured red with a multitude of the ſpawn of Fiſh. The Port of Arica. Arrival at the Iſland Gallo. Its Deſcription. Lion-Lizards.
AT this Iſland of Juan Fernando's we wooded, water'd, heel'd and refitted our Ships. Here Captain Stradling and his Crew having ſome difference, they to the number of forty two went on ſhoar; [Page 18] year 1703 ſo that for two Days, the Ship lay as it were without Men; But by the endeavours of Captain Dampier they were again reconciled, and returned aboard their own Ship again.
This Iſland is ſo called from the firſt Diſcoverer of it, who was a Spaniard, named Juan or John Fernando. It is about fourteen Leagues round; full of high Hills, and ſmall pleaſant Valleys. The Woods afford ſeveral ſorts of Trees, but none fit for Maſts. Here are Pamento-Trees in abundance, but the Spice was not ripe whilſt we were here: Alſo abundance of Cabbage-trees, altho ſmall, yet very good and ſweet.
[...]m ye Mountain of Sama, to ye Mountain [...] Arica, is 12 Leagues. The Coaſt from [...] to ye other is N.E and S.W. This Port [...] Arica is a good place to anchor in, clear of [...]ger; and your anchoring place is to leward [...] ye small Iſland, and under ye Mountaine of [...]ca in 8 Fad.m water.
There are in this Iſland a great many Wild-Cats, of the fineſt Colour I ever ſaw, which were put aſhoar here (as I ſuppoſe) by the Spaniards to deſtroy the Goats: But their Project has not taken effect; for here are vaſt numbers of Goals. The old ones, both Male and Female, take turns to guard their Young; ſo that the Cats durſt not venture upon the Young, the old ones being always their Guard. I wonder the Spaniards ſhould think that by ſetting Cats aſhoar here, they ſhould deſtroy the Goats; when at the ſame time there are ſuch vaſt numbers of Seales both young [Page 20] year 1703 and old, on whom the Cats may more eaſily prey, becauſe they cannot ſo well defend their young as the Goats do: I have heard of mad Dogs being put aſhoar here by the Spaniards for the ſame intent, but never ſaw any. Yet if they were, I am apt to believe they would rather prey upon the Seals than the Goats.
Of Goats, as I ſaid before, here is great plenty, and eſpecially towards the Weſt part of the Iſland; they reſort thither, by reaſon there is better Paſture for them. Of theſe Goats we uſed to get ſtore; and a Joint of one of them roaſted, with about half a foot of our Cabbage boiled makes a very good Meal. I have heard Captain Martin tell of ſome French Pirates who were in theſe Seas, that having been ſometime cruizing up and down, and no [...] meeting with a ſufficient Booty, and being every where diſcovered by the Spaniards and out of hopes of getting any more they concluded to come to this Iſland o [...] Juan Fernando's, they being twenty in number, and there to lie nine or ten Months; which accordingly they did, and landed on the Weſt ſide of the Iſland▪ then drew there little Armadilla aſhoar and in a ſmall time brought the Goats t [...] be ſo tame, as that they would many o [...] them come of themſelves to be milked▪ of which Milk they made good Butter an [...] [Page 21] year 1703 Cheeſe, not only juſt to ſupply their Wants whilſt they were upon the Iſland, but alſo to ſerve them long after; and that after they had continued here ten Months, they launched their little Man of War, went upon the Coaſt of Peru, and off the Bay of Arica met with a Spaniſh Ship and took her, in which was ſaid to be two hundred thouſand Pieces of Eight, with about the value of half as much more in gold double Doubloons.
Birds here are few or none of Note, except the Humming-Bird, which is about the bigneſs of a Bee. It hath a Bill no bigger than an ordinary Pin; his Legs are ſmall, but in proportion to his Bulk; his Feathers are very ſmall, and moſtly black. We ſeldom uſed to catch or ſee theſe Birds, unleſs toward Evening; and then they would come humming about us: But if it was dark, and we had a Fire, before Morning we ſhould have a hundred of them fly into the Fire.
Of the Sea Inhabitants here are Seals in ſuch abundance, that without driving them away, there is no going aſhoar. Here are alſo a great many Sea-Lyons; and for Cavallies, Silver-fiſh, Groopers, Breams and Craw-fiſh, here is ſuch great plenty, that it is almoſt incredible.
The Sea-Lyon is ſo called (as I conjecture) becauſe his roaring is not unlike [Page 22] year 1703 that of the Lyon; the Head likewiſe much reſembles the Lyon. He hath four large Teeth before; the reſt thick, ſhort and ſtubbed. In this he is like the Lyon; in all other parts quite different; He hath four Fins; the two foremoſt ſerve him, when he goes aſhoar, to raiſe the fore-part of his Body, and then he draws the hinder-part after him; the two hinder Fins are of no uſe to him on Land, but only in the Water. Theſe Creatures are very fat; for which reaſon we kill'd ſeveral of them, and ſoon made us a Tun of Oil for our Lamps; although moſt of us, whilſt we were here, made uſe of it in frying of Fiſh; and indeed it had no unpleaſant taſte. We killed one which was twenty three Feet in length, fourteen foot and a half round, and cut ſeventeen Inches deep in fat. They have ſhort Hair, of a light Colour, but lighter when young, than old; For when old, they look more ſandy. Their Food is Fiſh; for their prey is all in the Water, though they generally come on Land to ſleep; and then five, ſix or ſeven of them will huddle together like Swine, and lie ſo three or four Days if not moleſted. They are very much afraid of a Man; and ſo ſoon as they ſee him any thing near, they will make to the Water; for they never go far from it. If they are hard purſued, they will turn about and [Page 23] year 1703 raiſe their Body up with their Fore-fins, and face you, ſtanding with their Mouth wide open upon their Guard: So that when we wanted to kill one, to make Oil, we uſed commonly to clap a Piſtol juſt to his Mouth, as it ſtood open, and fire it down his Throat; But if we had a mind to have ſome Sport with him, which we called Lyon-baiting; uſually ſix, ſeven or eight, or more of us, would go with each a half Pike in his Hand, and ſo prick him to Death; which commonly would be a Sport for two or three Hours before we could conquer him. And often times he would find us work enough. But he being an unweildy Creature; and we aſſaulting him both behind, before, and all round; we muſt needs conquer. Yet he often put us to the run; and ſometimes he would run himſelf, but knew not which way, for we commonly got beeween the Water and him.
The Seals are much of the ſame kind; only their Heads are like a Hounds. They howl like Dogs, when old; and bark like them, when young. They have a very fine Furr; the fineſt, next the Sable, I ever ſaw. Some of them are of a bright Silvercolour, ſome of a Cheſt-nut. They feed as the Sea-lion, being Both amphibious Creatures; and ſleep like them; only when they go, their hinder as well as fore-fins [Page 24] year 1703 are of uſe to them. They are about the bigneſs of a large Maſtiff. They are very fat, but not the beſt Victuals. When they come out of the Sea, they bleat like Sheep for their Young; which, though they are to paſs through Thouſands both young and old, yet will find out their own Damm to ſuck; For none of them will ſuffer any Young to ſuck them, but only their own. Both young and old love much to lie aſhoar; but when beaten by us, they make to the Sea; and a ſmall blow on the Noſe ſoon kills them. I have eaten of theſe Seals often, but it was to ſave better Victuals; however they eat tolerably well, to thoſe that are very hungry and have no other Meat. The Lean of the Fleſh is black, and of a courſe Grain.
The Silver-fiſh here, [Note: See Fig. XII.] is quite different from thoſe at Braſil, both in ſhape and ſubſtance; This having but ſix Fins, viz. four large ones, two upon his Back, and two oppoſite under his Belly; and one ſmall one on each ſide near his Gills. It hath a ſmall Eye, and a great Bottle-noſe. It is a very fleſhy Fiſh, and the Fleſh is extraordinary white and good; they are commonly about twelve or thirteen Inches long, and about ſeven Inches deep; with a half-mooned Tail, as is expreſſed in the Figure.
[Page 25] year 1704 February the 29th 1704, at Noon we ſaw a Sail: So we got on board all our People, got up our Yards and Topmaſts; and he being pretty near, we clapt our Long-Boat on our Moorings, let ſlip, and got under ſail. He ſeeing us get under ſail, tackt and ſtood from us; and we made the beſt of our way after him; and our Conſort made what haſte he could after us; and about eleven at Night we came cloſe up with him, but did not think convenient to engage till Day. In this chace our Pinnace towed under Water; ſo we cut her looſe. Captain Stradling's Boat alſo broke looſe, and in her was a Man and a Dog. At Sun-riſe the next Morning, being March the 1ſt, we began to engage the ſaid Ship; which was a French Ship of about four hundred Tuns, and thirty Guns, well-mann'd. We fought her very cloſe, broad-ſide and broad-ſide, for ſeven Hours; and then a ſmall Gale ſpringing up, ſhe ſhear'd off. As for our Conſort, he fir'd about ten or twelve Guns, and then fell a Stern, and never came up again during the Fight. We had nine of our Men killed in the Fight, and ſeveral wounded. We were deſirous to have the other Tryal with him, knowing it would be of dangerous Conſequence to let him go; for if we did, we were ſure he would diſcover us to the Spaniards, which would [Page 26] year 1704 be of ill Conſequence to our whole Proceedings: But our Captain was againſt it, ſaying, that at the worſt, if the Spaniards ſhould know of our being in thoſe Seas, and ſo ſhould hinder their Merchant-ſhips from coming out, yet that he knew where to go and could not fail of taking to the value of 500000 l. any Day in the Year. Upon this we lay by for our Conſort, who ſoon came up; And it was quickly agreed between the two Captains to let her go. So the Enemy ſtood from us, I ſuppoſe very well ſatisfied that he had diſappointed us both: And we were very much diſſatisfied that we ſhould ſuffer our ſelves to be ſo baffled in our firſt Attempt: But however, ſince it was ſo, we concluded to return to Juan Fernando's, to get our Anchors, Cables, Long-boats, and ſeveral Tun of Water casked, with a Tun of Sea-Lions Oyl, which we had left there: And Captain Stradling had left five of his Men, who were gone to the Weſt part of the Iſland, and knew nothing of our going out after the Enemy. He had alſo left behind him all his Sails, except thoſe at the Yards, with a great many other Stores. Accordingly we ſtood away towards the ſaid Iſland; and on the 3d ſaw the Iſland bearing South, diſtant about nine or ten Leagues. We had then the Wind at South, right off the Land; ſo that we found it [Page 27] year 1704 very difficult to get up with it. But it falling calm, the Cinque-ports put out her Oars, and rowed towards the Iſland. Preſently after which, we ſaw two Sail. The Cinque-ports was pretty near them, and they fired at her ſeveral ſhots; but ſhe rowed away to us, and gave us an account that they were two French Ships, each of about thirty ſix Guns: So the two Captains thought it convenient not to go in, but to go away for the Coaſt of Peru; leaving behind Capt. Stradling's five Men, with other Neceſſaries that we could ill ſpare: For now we had neither of us any Boats. However, according to their Agreement, on March the 6th, we ſtood away for the Coaſt of Peru; and on the 11th fell in with the Land; it being very high, three rows of Hills one within another; that towards the Water loweſt, and that towards the Land higheſt. We were then in the Latitude of 24 d. 53 m. S. From thence we coaſted along ſhore to the Northward; and on the 14th paſt by the Port of Copiapo, whoſe Latitude is 21 d. 00 m. S. We obſerved here, and found the Variation by AZth Compaſs to be 2 d. 50 m. Eaſterly.
This is ſaid to be a very good Port, and to be fenced from almoſt all Winds. Near to the Port are four or five Rocks; and within Land it is inhahited by Indians, who [Page 28] year 1704 make good Wine. Here is ſaid alſo to be good Meat, Corn, and other Neceſſaries. In this Port they load Wine, Money, and other Goods for Coquimbo. We would very willingly have gone aſhoar here to have got ſome Refreſhment, but could not for want of Boats. The Land continues to be very high and mountainous, ſo that I think it is the higheſt Land I ever ſaw. We kept ſtill cruizing down along ſhore.
The 19th Inſtant, our Men being all at Dinner, and our Ship about ten Leagues off Shore, going with a fine freſh Gale of Wind at Eaſt, we were ſuddenly ſurprized with the change of the Colour of the Water, which looked as red as Blood to as great a diſtance as we could ſee, which might be about ſeven or eight Leagues. At firſt we were mightily ſurprized; but recollecting our ſelves, we ſounded, but had no Ground at one hundred and ſeventy Fathom. We then drew ſome Water up in Buckets, and poured ſome into a Glaſs. It ſtill continued to look very red, till about a quarter of an Hour after it had been in the Glaſs; when all the red Subſtance floated at top, and the Water underneath was as clear as uſual. The red which floated at top, was of a ſlimy Subſtance, with little Knobs; and we all concluded it could be nothing but the Spawn [Page 29] year 1704 of Fiſh. VVe were now in the Latitude of 16 d. 11 m. South, and had Variation 00 d. 48 m. Eaſterly; having paſt by three noted Ports, viz. Arica, Ylo, and Attiquipa.
The Port of Arica is in the Latitude of 18 d. 20 m. S. Longitude from London by my Account W. 72 d. 20 m. and juſt off it we found 1 d. 27 m. Eaſterly Variation: This Port of Arica is a very good Port, and it is the Embarcado to moſt of the Mine-Towns of Peru: It is a place of vaſt Trade and extraordinarily well-peopled. It is ſaid to be ſeldom without Shipping, altho' we ſaw none there at our paſſing by. On the South ſide of the Harbour is a pretty Town, ſituated on each ſide of a River, called after the name of the Town of Arica; and near the Town is a great Mountain, called the Mountain of Arica, under which the Shipping commonly lie in eight fathom Water; And at the other end of the Bay is another Mountain, called the Mountain of Sama, under which Mountain are four whitiſh Cliffs; And between the two Mounts of Sama and Arica, are three Rivers: The Northermoſt is called the River of Sama, the middlemoſt the River of John Deus; And, as I ſaid before, the other, the River of Arica; on the Banks of which the ſaid Town is ſituated. [Note: See Fig. XIII] As we paſt by, I took a Draught [Page 30] year 1704 of the Harbour. As for Ylo and Attiquipa I ſhall ſay little of them, till I come to ſpeak of them in my Deſcription of the Coaſt of Chili, Peru and Mexico.
From the Latitude of 16 d. 11 m. S. where we met the red Water, we kept ſtill ſtanding away to the Northward: And on the 22d of March, found our ſelves juſt off Lima, the Capital City of the two great Empires of Peru and Chili. Here we furled all our Sails to our Main-Sail, becauſe we would not be ſeen by the Spaniards; and laid our Ship by, intending to watch all Ships going in or out. At five in the Morning we made Sail again, and before we were aware, had like to have been upon the Rocks of Ormigas. Theſe Rocks are diſtant from the Iſland Calan (which is the Port for Lima) about eight Leagues; and they bear from each other S. S. E. and N. N. W. They are large Rocks, and in the middle of them are ſome Bays; about which is ſaid to be abundance of good Fiſh, ſo that the Fiſhermen come to theſe Rocks a fiſhing. Here They likewiſe make abundance of Sea-fiſh-Oil. Having narrowly eſcaped theſe Rocks, we ſtood away to the Northward, and ſoon deſcryed two Sail. We preſently made a clear Ship, and gave chaſe, and ſoon came up with the ſtern-moſt; ſhe proved to be the Ship we fought with off the Iſland Juan [Page 31] year 1704 Fernando's, and was now juſt off the Port of Lima, into which ſhe was bound to trade: We were very eager to ſtop her going in; for if we could, it would hinder the Spaniards from having Intelligence of us. Beſides, we did not queſtion the taking of her, becauſe now our Men were all in Health, whereas when we fought her before, we had between twenty and thirty Men very ſick and weak; but being willing to ſhow themſelves, they had done what good they could. We knew alſo, if we took her, that ſhe muſt needs prove a good Prize: And her Guns, Ammunition, and Proviſions, would have been very welcome to us. So we concluded to engage her our ſelves, and to ſend Captain Stradling after the other, which ſeemed not ſo big. But our Captain thought it not adviſable to venture upon her: And whilſt the Matter was diſputing, the two Ships got into Lima; from whence I queſtion whether twenty ſuch Ships as ours could have forced them out.
Being therefore very much diſcontented, we again ſtood along ſhore to the Northward; and the next Day in the Morning, being March the 24th, we ſaw a Sail which we gave chaſe to, and came up with her, and took her without any reſiſtance; She [Page 32] year 1704 proved to be a Spaniſh Ship of about 150 Tuns, laden, as far as we could perceive, with Snuff, Flanders-Lace, VVoollen-Cloth wrought and unwrought, Silk, Pitch, Tar, Tobacco, Turtle-ſhell, Bees-wax, Soap, Cinamon, Jamaica Pepper, Jars of Balſom of Peru, a few Planks, and a pretty good Sum of Money. We kept her with us till March the 30th, and then having taken out a little of every thing, our Captain diſcharged her, alledging that, if we kept her, it would be a hindrance to his greater Deſigns. We were forced to be as well content as we could. So they ſtood for Lima whereunto they were bound; and we ſtood along ſhore to the Northward; and the next Morning by break of Day we found our ſelves juſt aboard of a ſtrange Ship, which we ſoon took, not firing above 3 Guns: She was a new Ship of about two hundred Tuns, and ſailed very well, conſidering her built; She was laden with ſeveral very good Commodities, as Indico, Cochineel, &c. We were now juſt off the Port of Paita, whoſe Latitude is 5 d: 15 m. South; its Longitude from London I reckon to be VVeſt 85 d. 37 m. and we found Variation by a good Amplitude juſt off the Harbour, 2 d. 47 m. VVeſterly. A further Deſcription of the Coaſts. I took a Draught, as we lay off the Harbour; [Page 33] year 1704 but not ſeeing any Ships, we did not go in, but ſtill coaſted away to the Northward. On the 4th of April this ſecond Prize, after we had taken out a few odd Things, was, contrary to moſt of our Minds, diſmiſt; the Captain alledging, that he would not cumber up his Ship, for that he intended to make a Voyage at one ſtroke upon ſome rich Town, on which he had a ſpeedy Deſign.
On the fifth of April we began to prepare for our intended Action, our Carpenters fixing our two Launches or Spaniſh Long-Boats with two Patereroes to each Launch. On the 11th, being juſt in ſight of the Iſland Gallo (which at a diſtance looks like three Iſlands,) we ſaw a Sail, came up with her, and ſoon took her: She was a Bark of about fifty Tuns, laden with Plank; and had a conſiderable quantity of Turtle-ſhell on board. At firſt ſight of us, their Men had all took to their Boat, and got aſhore. This Bark our Captain intended to keep for the deſign in Hand; and the next Day, being April the 12th, we anchored at the Iſland Gallo, [Note: See Fig XIV] whoſe Latitude is 2 d. 45 m. Northward: Longitude from London W. 76 d. 38 m. and we found Variation 4 d. Weſterly.
It is diſtant from the Main about five Leagues. It is in length about two [Page 34] year 1704 Leagues, in breadth one. This is a very noted Iſland: When you are to the Southward of it, it appears in three Hummocks, which at a diſtance look like three Iſlands; and the Land between each Hummock, is very low. But when you are to the N. W. of it, at the South end you will ſee a ſmall Iſland, or rather Rock, which looks very much like a Ship under ſail; And when you are at the North end, you will ſo open the Land, as that you will ſee part of it does not join to the Iſland, as it ſeems to do when you are to the VVeſtward of it. At the N. E. end of this Iſland are three ſmall Iſlands, or rather Rocks; the one of which is pretty high, and at a diſtance looks like a Barn; and the other two look like two Sail of Ships. At this Iſland you may ſee the main Land, which is very low near the VVater-ſide, but prodigious high up into the Country. Here we anchored in thirty five Fathom Water two Cables length from the ſhore, hard Sand. We anchored in the N. W. part of the Iſland; the Northermoſt Point bearing N. half W. Southermoſt Point S. W. The Wateringplace goes in with a ſmall Gap; over which upon the Hill is a plain Spot of red Earth, bearing N. W. half N. Though there are alſo ſeveral other good VVatering-places upon this Iſland. And in the N. E. part at Segnetta is the beſt anchoring. Here [Page 35] year 1704 you may wood and water very ſecure from any Enemy; and if occaſion be, you may hale your Ship aſhore and clean her. For it is very good Sandy. Ground, and the Water at Spring-tides riſes and falls fourteen or fifteen foot. The Iſland is very woody, affording large Timber, which is often ſent in ſhipping up to the Coaſt of Peru. Here are ſome few wild Monkies, with abundance of Lizards; and a large ſort of Lizard called a Lion-Lizard.
They are about the bigneſs of a Man's Arm. I meaſured one, which from the Head to the end of the Tail, was three foot eleven Inches. He has a large ſort of a Comb upon his Head, which ſtands up like a Helmet or Head-piece to defend his Head. When he is aſſaulted or frightned, he ſets his Comb up an end; but otherwiſe it lies down flat in a deep Dent in his Head, juſt fitted to it; ſo that when it is down, it can hardly be perceived. He has two very large Eyes; a large Mouth, with a great many fine ſmall ſharp Teeth. His Skin is very tough, of a ſad Colour; full of black, yellow and blueiſh Spots: In all other things he reſembles the common Lizard. When they are purſued, they will run very ſwift; yet our Dog uſed often to catch them. About ſix Leagues to the S. S. W. of this Iſland, is a ſmall Iſland, or rather Rock, called Gorgonilla; [Page 36] year 1704 and not far of, is the Iſland Tumaco. Hereabouts upon the Main are a great many Rivers, which make the Currents very uncertain about this Iſland.
On April the 17th, having lain here five Days, juſt as we were going to get up our Anchors, we ſaw a Sail ſtandin for the Iſland. So we lay ſtill till ſhe was pretty near in, and then we all three got under Sail, viz. our ſelves, the Cinqueports, and a ſmall Spaniſh Bark whom we took ſix Days before. She ſtood boldly to us; and we ſoon, contrary to their expectation, made a Prize of them. They were going for the River Tumaco, to get ſome Proviſions there; but as they paſt by, ſeeing us, and not hearing of an Enemy's being in the Seas, but thinking us to be Spaniards, they made towards us, being in hopes to get ſome Proviſions of us for their Money; but on the contrary, they loſt both themſelves, their Veſſel and Money. She was a ſmall Veſſel of about fifty Tuns, in her Balaſt; commanded by an half Indian. They had on Board a Guernſey Man, whoſe Name I have forgot. He was taken in the Bay of Campeachy, having ſtrayed from his Companions, cutting of Logwood. He was ſent Priſoner to Mexico, where after he had been impriſoned for two Years, upon his turning Roman Catholick, he was at liberty either [Page 37] year 1704 to ſtay in Mexico, or to go aboard any Ship belonging to the Spaniards in the South Seas: But they would not let him come any nearer the North Sea, for fear he ſhould make his eſcape. So he being a Sea-faring Man, thought it moſt convenient to go on board ſome Ship, where we found him. He was very glad he was releaſed from the Spaniards; for had we not met with him, he muſt probably have continued there all Days of his Life.
Departure from Gallo. Deſign upon the Town of Sancta Maria. Cape Corrientes. Point Garachina. Attempt upon Santa Maria. How it miſcarried. A Prize taken very ſeaſonably, when we were in great want of Proviſions. The two Captains part company. The Iſland Iguanos deſcribed. Departure for the Coaſt of Peru. Another Prize taken. The River of St Jago. The Bay of Sardinas. Alligators deſcribed. Cape St Franciſco. The Iſland of Plata. The great City of Guiaquil. A Dangerous Sea-Fight. Point Gallera. The Bay of Tacames. Coco-Tree and Nut deſcribed. Plantain deſcrib'd. Bonanoes deſcribed. The Bay of St Matthew. Departure from the Bay of Tacames for the Gulf of Nicoya.
FRom Gallo, we ſtood along to the Northward; our Captain letting us know, that his deſign was upon the Town of Santa [Page 39] year 1704 Maria; where we did not queſtion but to get Gold enough, becauſe it is the firſt place that they ſend all the Gold to, which they dig out of Mines not far from Santa Maria: The laſt Veſſel we took, ſailing very heavy; and knowing it would be a hinderance to our deſign; we ſunk her. The Captain of her, after ſome fair Promiſes that we would give him a better, and that if we ſucceeded in our attempt on the Town of Santa Maria we would ſatisfie him otherwiſe to his Hearts Content, promiſed he would be our Pilot up to Santa Maria. So preparing for our intended Enterprize, we ſailed along ſhore to the Northward; and in our way, paſſed by Cape Corrientes, and ſeveral other noted places.
This Cape Corrientes lies in the Latitude of 5 d. N. It is a very high Land; and when you are at Sea, it looks like an Iſland, by reaſon the Land near it at the Sea ſide is not ſo high. On the top of the Cape-land are three Hillocks. It is a very good Coaſt, and clear from Rocks and Shoals, and almoſt ſteep. From hence we proceeded on for Point Garachina. Since we left the Iſland of Gallo, we had fine freſh Gales of Wind, commonly at S. W. and S. S. W. On the 25th of April, (having paſt by ſeveral good Ports, as Port Santa Clara, Port Quemado, Port [Page 40] year 1704 Pinas, and ſeveral others; (of which I ſhall ſpeak in my Deſcription of the Coaſts;) we anchored at Point Garachina, in eighteen Fathom Water, claiey Ground, diſtant from the Point two Miles
I make this Point of Garachina [Note: See Fig. XV.] to lie in the Latitude of 7 d. 20 m. N. and diſtant from Port Pinas ſeven Leagues; and from the Iſland Gallera, ſix Leagues N. W. You may ſail very well between the Iſland Gallera and the Main; but have a great care of a ſhoal of Sand which lies midd-way, and on which many good Ships have been loſt: But it is ſomething dangerous to ſail between the Iſland Gallera and the Kings Iſlands; for there are many Rocks, and if the Water ſhould abate, you muſt of neceſſity return to Point Garachina. Point Garachina makes the South Point of the Gulf of St Michael, as Cape St Laurenzo makes the North.
At our return on board, May the 6th, we were ſo ſcant of Proviſions, that there were five green Plantains order'd to be boiled for every ſix Men: But to our great comfort, when we were almoſt at our Wits-end, we deſcried a Sail at 12 this Night, who came to an Anchor cloſe by us. We ſoon got up our Anchor, and took her without any reſiſtance. This was a great Ship, of about 550 Tuns. She was deeply laden with Flower, Sugar, Brandy, Wine, about 30 Tuns of Marmalet of Quinces, a conſiderable quantity of Salt, [Page 46] year 1704 with ſome Tuns of Linnen and Woollen-Cloth; ſo that now we might ſupply our ſelves with Proviſions for four or five Years. I was put on board this Prize in behalf of Captain Dampier and our Ship's Company; and the Maſter of the Cinqueports was put on board, as Chief for Captain Stradling and their Ship's Company. Then we ſunk our Bark which had carried us up to Santa Maria, and with our two Ships and great Prize ſtood a-croſs the Bay of Panama to the Weſtward, amongſt the Kings or Pearl Iſlands. May the 12th, we ſaw the Kings Iſland, bearing N. diſt. 4 Leagues. The 13th we anchor'd in the Bay of Panama, the Iſland Tabago bearing N. diſt. 4 Leagues; the Kings Iſland E. S. E. diſt. 8 Leagues. The 14th we weighed and ran nearer to the Iſland Tabago; and brought it to bear N. by E. diſt. three Leagues. Here we anchor'd on purpoſe to romage our Prize. The 15th, 16th, 17th and 18th, vve continued taking Proviſions out of her, as Wine, Brandy, Sugar, Flower, &c. And on the 18th a ſmall Bark of about 30 Tuns coming in ſight, vve ſent our Long-boat and Canoa and took her. She had little in her, only a ſmall quantity of Money. This Bark Captain Stradling kept for his ovvn uſe.
Here our Captain and Captain Stradling having ſome diſagreement, concluded [Page 47] year 1704 to part Company; which accordingly they did; and the Men of each Ship had their liberty to go in vvhich Ship they thought convenient. So five of our Men vvent to Captain Stradling, and five of his came to us. We vvere told by the Priſoners, that there vvere 80000 Dollars on board our Prize; that they vvere taken in by ſtealth at Lima, and lay at the bottom in the Run of the Ship. Our Captain did not believe this; and vvas unvvilling to tarry longer, that vve might have romaged her to the bottom; becauſe he thought loſs of time vvould ſpoil his greater Deſigns. Having therefore taken out a quantity of Proviſions, ſhe vvas diſmiſs'd; And vve, on the 19th of May, parted from the Cinque-ports, intending to beat up upon the Coaſt of Peru again; and this day paſſed by the Iſland Iguanos.
This Iſland is not very high. It is very vvoody, and has a very good anchoringplace over-againſt the main Land in 18 Fathom Water. Here is alſo very good freſh Water; and if occaſion be, you may haul your Ship aſhoar and clean: For the Water riſes and falls ten or eleven Foot; And on the Land-ſide is good ſandy Ground: This will defend you from the S. E.; for theſe Winds often blow very hard. The Marks of this Iſland are, that to the S. W. is Punta-mala or bad Point. You muſt not [Page 48] year 1704 come near it; for it hath a great many Rocks and Shoals which come near a League into the Sea. From this Puntamala we ſtood away to the Southward for the Coaſt of Peru: And on the twenty ninth of May we ſaw Land, which proved to be the Iſland of Gallo. From Punta-mala, and during our ſtay in the Bay of Panama, we had for the moſt part dirty ſqually weather, with much Thunder and Lightning, and very uncertain Gales, but moſtly between the South and the Weſt. We ſtood off and on for five Days, endeavouring to weather the Iſland Gallo; but here being a ſtrong Current ſetting to the Northward, we found it difficult to do: Yet after much turning, on the 4th of June we weather'd it, and proceeded along the Shore for the Coaſt of Peru.
On June the 7th we ſaw a Sail, gave chaſe, came up with her and took her: ſhe was about 100 Tuns, came from Truxillo, and was bound for Panama; laden with Flower, Sugar, Brandy, &c. with ſome Bales of wrought Silk in her. We took a Packet, which we open'd; The firſt Letter vve happen'd to read, vvas from the Captain of the French Ship vve fought off the Iſland Juan Fernando's, and met with again off the Port of Lima; It vvas directed to the Preſident of Panama, and gave an [Page 49] year 1704 account, That he fought two Engliſh Privateers off the Iſland J. Fernandoes; That the ſmalleſt of the two fired but eight or ten Guns at him, and then fell a-ſtern, and did not come up again during the Fight; as he believed, for want of Wind; That the great Ship (meaning us) fought him Broad-ſide ond Broad-ſide for more than ſix Hours; That we kill'd them a great many Men; and that at his coming to Lima, he ſent aſhore thirty two of his Men, each of which had either loſt a Leg or an Arm or an Eye: and That it was a great chance we had not taken him; for that at our parting they had given themſelves over as loſt, not having Men to defend themſelves. We alſo had account by other Letters, That the two Frenchmen, which we ſaw off the Iſland Juan Fernando's, had met with a Boat at Sea, in which there was an Engliſhman and a Dog: This was the Boat which belonged to Captain Stradling, and which broke looſe from him as we chas'd the French Ship off Juan Fernando's: That the ſaid two French Ships had been in at Juan Fernando's, and had taken up our Anchors, Cables, Long-boat, with all Captain Stradling's Stores, and his five Men, and our Negro which was left there. We alſo had advice that the Spaniards had fitted out two Men of War againſt us; the one of 32 braſs Guns, 24 Pounders each; the other of 36 Guns, of the ſome bigneſs; [Page 50] year 1704 That each of them had 350 Seamen, and 150 Soldiers, choice Men; and they lay cruiſing for us in the Bay of Guiaquil, between Point St Hellena and Cape Blanco. From the 7th to the 12th, we were forced to go away with an eaſie Sail, becauſe of our Prize, who ſail'd very heavy. And ſeeing it was likely to be a great hindrance to us in beating to Windward, we concluded to go into ſome place to romage her. Accordingly on the 12th we went into Sardinas Bay, and anchor'd with our Prize in ten fathom Water, about four Miles off Shore. We durſt not venture any further in, by reaſon of ſo many Shoals and Banks of Sand which lie off it. The Sea-Coaſt here, is inhabited by Indians, but they are not very numerous. Here are ſeveral ſmall Rivers, which run with freſh Water down to the Sea-ſide. And from this place, by the Sea-ſide, all along to the Southward, till you come to the Bay of Tacames, are white Cliffs, and many Shoals, as far as to Point Gallera.
From this Bay of Sardinas, ſix Leagues to the Southward, is the great River of St Jago; the Mouth of which is ſaid to be [...] of a Mile over; but in it is no good anchoring, until you are got well within the Mouth; and if you muſt needs go into the River, keep near the Land on the South ſide. This River is ſeldom made uſe of by Shipping; it lying out of the way; [Page 51] year 1704 only in caſe of neceſſity, or by chance, they put in for refreſhment; for here is plenty of all ſorts of Proviſions. It hath on the Sea-ſide 14 or 15 pieces of broken Ground, of a whitiſh colour; and at the North-end of them is the Bay of Sardinas, wherein we careen'd our Ship, and romaged our Prize, and water'd at one of the freſh-water Rivers; the Water of which was white like Milk, and both ſmelt and taſted very ſtrong of Musk, occaſioned by the many Alligators ſwimming in the River.
We ſhot ſeveral of them, one of which meaſured thirty Feet in length, and was bigger about than a large Bullock. He is very full of great Scales, from the Neck to the end of his Tail. He has a very large ſharp ſet of Teeth, with very long Claws on his Feet. It is an amphibious Creature, living on Land as well as in the Water. When they are lying on ſhore, they look like a great fallen down Tree; and for ſuch, One would take them at a diſtance. They will run very faſt on the Land; and are of ſuch ſtrength, that they will take a Horſe or Cow and carry it down to the Water, and there devour it. They will ſeize on any thing as well on Land as in the Water; and commonly make great havock amongſt Cattle, if there be any near the place where they Harbour, which is commonly in freſh Water Rivers. [Page 52] year 1704 The Indians are not greatly afraid of them, neither in the Water nor on Land. If they are purſued by them on Land, they run in a Circle; and this great Creature is not able to turn his unweildy Body ſo quick, but that they eaſily get from him. The Indians likewiſe go into the Water to ſeek them, with a piece of Iron like a Harpoon at both ends, and two pieces of Iron a-croſs: This they hold by the middle in their Hand; and the Alligators, when they bite, raiſe their Head out of the Water: [Note: [...] ] Then the Indians hold out this piece of Iron to them, at which they bite, and it faſtens in their Mouth and keeps it open like a Gag. Theſe Creatures lay Eggs about a hundred at a time; Their Eggs are about the bigneſs of a Gooſe's, but the Shell is almoſt as thick as an Oſtridge's. I have ſeen many of them. They are quite round; although Captain Dampier in Vol. II. Part. II. page 75, ſays, that theſe Eggs are longer than a Gooſe's; which I ſuppoſe he took only upon Hear-fay. The Fleſh of the Alligators is not fit to be eaten, it being very ſtrong and musky; nay the very Water of the Rivers which they were in, taſted ſo ſtrong of them, that is, of Musk, that a Draught of it would almoſt ſuffocate us. By the Rivers ſide here were about fourteen or fifteen Indian Fiſhermen's Houſes, who, as I ſuppoſe, [Page 53] year 1704 were fled for fear of us: For we could not ſee any of them, all the time of our ſtay here.
On the 19th, having done all our buſineſs here, and diſmiſt our Prize, after having taken a few odd things out; we departed from this place, and ſtood to the Southward for the Coaſt of Peru; and the Prize ſtood to the Northward for Panama, being the place whereto ſhe was bound. The 21ſt we ſaw a Sail, being then off Cape St Franciſco; but in the Night, loſt her again. This Cape St Franciſco, is a high Cape; but far higher within Land, than it is near the Water-ſide. When you are North or South from it, it ſeems like three Capes. It is a woody mountainous Land, and has white Cliffs. It lies in the Latitude of 1 d. N. Longitude from London Weſt 81 d. 50 m. and we found the Variation to be 3 deg. 57 min. Weſterly. On the 25th, we ſaw the Sail, we had ſeen the other Day; we ſoon came up with her, and took her. She was a ſmall Bark, of about forty five Tuns, came from Ria Lexa, and was bound for Guiaquill, laden with Pitch, Tar and Cordage; And after we had taken out a ſmall quantity of each, ſhe was diſmiſſed. On the 8th of July, we ſaw the Iſland of Plata, bearing E. S. F. diſtance five Leagues. This Iſland lies in the Latitude of [...]d. [Page 54] year 1704 14 m. S. and from Cape St Laurenzo S. E. It is a pretty high Iſland, but higheſt at the North end. At ſome time of the Year here is ſaid to be plenty of very good Turtle; and on it are ſome ſmall Trees or rather Buſhes, not fit for any uſe. It is all round ſteep Rocks, unleſs near the anchoring place, which is on the Eaſt-ſide; And at both the North and South Points there are ſmall ſteep Rocks and Shoals, which ſtretch out into the Sea for a Mile or two. Upon this Iſland is ſaid to be no freſh Water.
From hence we ſtood to the Southward, and on the 11th fell in with Point Saint Hellena. This Point is diſtant from the Iſland of Plata eighteen Leagues. It is high Land, and at a diſtance looks like an Iſland, becauſe the Land to the Northward is lower than it. This Point is the North Point of the Bay of Guiaquil, as Cape Blanco is the South Point. In this Bay is the great Town or City of Guiaquil, which is ſaid to conſiſt of nine hundred and fifty Spaniſh Houſes, beſides Indians; and to have five Pariſh Churches, beſides private Chapels. It has a Governour, who is next to the Preſident of Panama, although under none but the Vice-roy of Peru. It is ſaid to be pretty well fortified, to hinder the approach of an Enemy; having two Forts, the one ſtanding at [Page 55] year 17 the South end of the Town, and the other upon a Hill.
On the 21ſt we ſaw a Sail, and ſtood towards her; and next day, being July the 22d, came up with her. She proved to be one of the Spaniſh Men of War which was fitted out on purpoſe to take us. This was the Ship of thirty two Guns. We being pretty near each other, they gave us a broad-ſide, but we did not mind them; all our care was to get the Weather-gage. In order to which, while we carried too much Sail, and the Wind blew very freſh, our fore-top Maſt unfortunately came by the board. Immediately we got our Hatchets and cut all clear way, and our Captain ordered the Helm to be clapt a Weather and bore away. The Enemy ſeeing this, immediately bore away after us with all the Sail they could, hoping to come up and take us; for now they doubted not but they ſhould take us. We obſerving that our running had increaſed their Courage, reſolved thereupon to lie by, and fight it out. Captain Dampier's Opinion was, that we could ſail better upon one Maſt than the Enemy; and therefore that it was beſt to put before the Wind. But however we being embayed, choſe rather to fight, than to be chaſed aſhoar. So hoiſting the bloody Flag at our Main-top-maſt Head, with a [Page 56] year 1704 reſolution neither to give nor take Quarter, we began the fight, and went to it as faſt as we could load and fire. The Enemy kept to windward at a good diſtance from us, ſo that we could not come to make uſe of our ſmall Arms; But we divided the two Watches, and one was to manage the great Guns, whilſt the other looked on; and when thoſe at the great Guns were weary, the other were to take their places, till they had refreſh'd themſelves. Thus we fired, I believe, five Guns to his one. We fired about 560, and he about 110 or 115; and we fought him from twelve at Noon to half an hour paſt ſix at Night, although at a good diſtance; for he kept ſo far to windward of us, that our ſhot ſometimes would hardly reach him, tho' his would at the ſame time fly over us. At half an hour paſt ſix, it growing duskiſh, they left off firing, and we did the ſame. We had by good Providence none of our Men either kill'd or wounded by the Enemy; only two thro' careleſneſs had their Hands and Faces blaſted; but in a ſmall time they both recovered. After our fight was over, we got a ſpare Main-top-maſt which we had between Decks; and our Carpenters went to work to fix it; it being of it ſelf too big for a Fore top-Maſt. VVe lay by all the Night, and in the Morning betimes looked out for our Enemy [Page 57] year 1704 expecting to have the other Battle with him; but contrary to our expectations, he had made Sail from us in the Night. Our Captain upon this, reſolved to quit the Coaſt of Peru, and told us he deſign'd to go into the Bay of Tacames, where he did not doubt but we ſhould get Proviſion enough; for now we had little beſides Flower. We were pretty well contented, and ſtood away for the ſaid Bay; and on the 28th of July we paſſed by the Point of Gallera.
This Point is low towards the Sea-ſide, and plain even Ground on the top. You muſt ſteer N. E. keeping off from it about a Mile to Leeward, by reaſon of a Shoal which lies off it, which Shoal is full of Rocks and Stones, and lies all hid under Water. And in the Point is a Bay of Sand, which you may ſee when you come in with your Ship within the Point; and coming over the ſaid Bay, you will ſee a little Lake of freſh Water running into the Sea; and when the Tide is at the higheſt, the Salt Water runs into it. Wherefore if you would take in freſh Water here, you muſt take care to go to the right of the ſaid Spring, and you will come to the Head of it, where you will find excellent good Water in a Pond, near unto a pleaſant Grove of Trees, about a Musket-ſhot within Land. But you muſt be ſure to go well [Page 58] year 1704 armed, when you fetch it. For there commonly come down Indians, who are always at War with the Spaniards, and will rob and kill any white Men, thinking all white Men to be Spaniards. Here is ſaid to be abundance of Oſtridges and wild Aſſes.
We paſſed by this Point of Gallera, and the ſame Day anchored in the Bay of Tacames; which was the place whereto we were bound, and is diſtant from the Point of Gallera between two and three Leagues. We anchored at this Tacames in ſix fathom Water, Point Gallera bearing VV. S. VV. diſtant between two and three Leagues. At our coming in, we ſent our Boat aſhore with twenty Men armed, hoping to get ſome Proviſions; but the Inhabitants having notice of an Enemy's being in thoſe Seas, as ſoon as they ſaw us, drove the Cattle from the VVater-ſide up into the Country, and they themſelves retired to the Mountains with their VVives and Children and all they had. So our Men went into the Village, which conſiſted of about fifty Indian Houſes, deſerted by the Inhabitants. Here in the River we found a Bark upon the Stocks a building, of about fifty Tuns; with new Plank enough by her, to build another. And we took another ſmall Bark of about ten Tuns, laden with Plantains. This Bark we intended [Page 59] year 1704 to keep inſtead of a Long-boat; ſhe had two Maſts and two ſquare Sails, and we named her the Dragon.
The Road on the Coaſt of Tacames, is lower Land than the Bay of St Matthew; it is indifferent clear Ground, but not very deep, where you may anchor near the Mount. And if you do not like to anchor near the Mount, you may anchor where you will by the Main Land on the VVeather-ſide; and there is VVater enough, and no danger. And if you ſend your Boat aſhoar, you may ſupply your ſelf with both VVood and VVater. In the River are pleaſant Groves of Trees; and it has in the entry of it a little Rock. The Land-marks of the River are, that the Land on the Lee-ſide is high, and you may ſee a white ſpot on it, like a white Sheet.
To the Northward eight Leagues, is the Bay of St Matthew. In this Bay is a large River, the breadth of which is three quarters of a Mile; but till you get within the Mouth, you will find no good Anchor-Ground. If you would go into it, keep near the Land on the VVeather or South ſide: This River is ſeldom uſed by the Spaniards, but only for Refreſhment; for there is plenty of all ſorts of Proviſions; and if their Ships be out of Repair, they can here have them repaired. Two Leagues [Page 60] year 1704 up the River are Indian People, who ſell to the Spaniards, when they come here, all ſorts of Fruits, as Coco-nuts, Plantains, Bonanoes, &c.
The Coco-nut-Trees are from 50 to 60, 70, 80 and 100 Foot in height, moſtly ſlender and ſtreight. They have Leaves, ſome four fathom, and four fathom and a half long, and produce a Nut call'd a Coco-nut; which, with the outer Rind on, is bigger than any Man's Head. The outer Rind being taken off, there appears a Shell, ſome of which will hold near a Quart. Within the Shell is the Nut; and within the Nut is about a Pint and a half of pure clear VVater, which is very cool, brisk, pleaſant and ſweet. The Kernel of the Nut is alſo very good; which if it be pretty old, we ſcrape all to pieces; the ſcrapings we ſet to ſoak in about a quart of freſh VVater for three or four hours, and then ſtrain the VVater; which when ſtrain'd hath both the colour and taſte of Milk: And if it ſtand a while, it will have a thick ſcum on it, not unlike Cream. This Milk being boiled with Rice, is accounted by our Doctors to be very nouriſhing; for which reaſon we often give o [...] it to our ſick Men. The Leaves of the Tree, ſerve to thatch Houſes; the outer Rind of the Nut, to make Linnen-Cloth: of it they alſo make Ropes for Ships, a [...] [Page 61] year 1704 Rigging, Cables, &c. which are a good Commodity in moſt places of the Eaſt-Indies. The Shell of the Nut will make very pretty Drinking-cups: It will alſo burn very well, and make a very fierce and hot Fire The Kernel ſerves inſtead of Meat, and the Water therein contained inſtead of Drink: And if the Nut be very old, the Kernel will of it ſelf turn to Oyl, which is often made uſe of to fry with, but moſt commonly to burn in Lamps. So that from this Tree, as I may ſay, they have Meat, Drink, Clothing, Houſes, Firing and Rigging for their Ships. Theſe Trees may be known by any Ships paſſing by; for they are void of Leaves, except juſt at the top. At the bottom of the Leaves the Coco-nuts grow, 10, 15 or 20 in a cluſter; and they hang by a ſmall ſtring, which is full of joynts.
The Plantain-tree, is about 13 or 14 foot in heighth, and about four foot round: The Leaves of the Tree are about eight or nine foot long, and two foot broad, and end in a round Point. The Fruit grows at the bottom of the Leaf, upon a great Stalk, in a Cod of about eight Inches long, and the bigneſs of a Black-pudding. The Cod is of a fine yellow colour, often ſpeckled with red. The Cod being taken off, the inſide of it is white; but the Plantain it [Page 62] year 1704 ſelf is yellow like Butter, and as ſoft as a ripe Pear. There will grow 50 or 60 ſometimes, upon a Stalk; and five or ſix Stalks upon a Tree. They are an extraordinary good Fruit; and in moſt parts of the Eaſt and Weſt-Indies there is great plenty of them.
The Bonanoe-Tree [Note: See Fig. XVII.] is much the ſame; only the Fruit is not ſo long as the Plantain, being, as I ſaid before, about eight Inches long, and the Bonanoe not above ſix. It grows in the ſame manner as the Plantain; 50 or 60 in a cluſter, upon one Stalk. The Fruit is very mellow, and extraordinary ſweet and good.
The Land-marks of this River in the Bay of St Matthew are, that the Bay is higher Land than that which is behind it towards the inward parts, to the Cape of St Franciſco, or thereabouts. It hath on the Sea-Coaſt 14 or 15 pieces of broken Ground, which are white; and in the middle of them is the ſaid Bay of St Matthew.
The Iſland Caneo. The Mountains called Sierras de los Coronadas. The Gulf of Nicoya. The Ship cleaned. Mr Clippinton the Chief-Mate leaves us. A particular Deſcription of the Gulf of Nicoya. The Maccaw deſcribed. The Carrion-Crow. The Pelican. The Guanoe. The Turtle. The Pearl-Oyſter. The Great Oyſter. Muſcles. Departure from the Gulf of Nicoya. Two Mountains of Guatimala, the one caſting out Water, the other Fire. A Prize taken. Vulcanoes. The Bay of Tewantepeque. Subvartaneo. Another Prize taken. The Bay of Martaba. The Mountains called Motines. The Mount of St Jago, and Port of Quelagna. Another Prize taken. Attempt upon the Manila-Ship, unſucceſsful. The Men deſire to return Home: But agree to cruize ſix Weeks longer, and [Page 64] year 1704 then go into India. The Albicore deſcribed. The Crew divide, part tarrying with Captain Dampier in the South-Seas, and part reſolving to go for India.
FROM the Bay of Tacames in the Latitude of about 1 d. 20 m. North, we ſtood away to the N. W. a-croſs the Bay of Panama; and on the 30th of Auguſt we fell in with an Iſland, which proved to be the Iſland Caneo. It is an indifferent high Iſland, and lies in the Latitude of 10d. N. It is not above a League round. and the anchoring-place is on the N. E, ſide, in 14 fadom Water, not above a quarter of a Mile from the Shore. Here is ſaid by our Indian Pilots to be extraordinary good Wood, VVater, Turtle, and ſtore of wild Hogs. Near this Iſland are two Iſlands more; and between them are ſeveral Shoals; and not far off, upon the main Land, is Punta-mala or bad Point; and within Punta-mala is a fine deep Bay, in which Sir Thomas Cavendiſh formerly clean'd his Ship.
From hence we coaſted away to the VVeſtward, and paſt by the Sierras de los Coronadas, or the Crowned Mountains. Theſe Mountains are very remarkable, there being none like them on this Coaſt. From [Page 65] year 1704 the Crowned Mountains we ſtill coaſted away to the VVeſtward, and paſſed by the four Rocks, called by the Spaniards, Farallones de Queipo. Theſe Rocks lie juſt at the VVeſt-end of the Crowned Mountains; and the Coaſt runs N. N. VV. and S. S. E. Near theſe Rocks is the River Eſtrella, or the Star River. This River is in the bottom of a large Bay, and here is commonly a great Sea. From this Bay to Herradura is 11 Leagues. Herradura is the South Point that makes the Gulf of Nicoya, as Cape Blanco is the North. VVe arrived at Herradura on the 16 of Auguſt; but paſt by it, and went further into the Gulf, till we came to many ſmall Iſlands, called by the Spaniards the Middle Iſlands becauſe they lie in the middle of the Gulf. VVe anchor'd between Them and the Bay of Caldera; bringing the Bay of Caldera to bear Eaſt, and the ſaid Middle Iſlands to bear VVeſt. Here we lay all this day; but ſent our little Prize the Dragon to view the Gulf, and to find out a convenient place to lay our Ship aſhore in. And the next Morning being Auguſt the 17th, our Captain and Carpenter went in the Canoa amongſt the Middle Iſlands, to ſee if there was any convenience amongſt Them for laying our Ship a-ground. In the Evening our Captain and Carpenter returned in the Canoa, and brought on board two Turtles, which [Page 64] [...] [Page 65] [...] [Page 66] year 1704 they caught as they were going aſhore. We preſently went to work in cutting up the Turtle, boiling, roaſting, frying, baking, and ſtewing, according as each one thought fit. Our Captain and Carpenter had, as they ſaid, found out a convenient place to lay our Ship aſhore, amongſt theſe middle Iſlands. So we intended to lie here this Night, and, if it was fair, to go in on the morrow.
The ſame Evening our little Prize returned to us again. They had been up the River Changel, and found two or three Indian Houſes, and ſome Plantain-Walks: The Indians climbed the Trees, and cut down for them as many Plantains as they would have. They found alſo two Canoas haul'd up upon the Sand, and brought them both off. In their way they caught eight Turtles, and eat nothing of their own Proviſions, but fed upon Turtle during the Time they were from us; They gave us an account that they had found out a very good and ſecure place at the Iſland St Lucas, for us to lay our Ship aſhore in; That it was in a fine deep Bay▪ which at the entrance was not above [...] Piſtol-ſhot [...] over: That with five or ſix Guns upon each Point at the Entrance, w [...] might ſo fortifie our ſelves, as that no Enemy durſt approach us; for that ten o [...] us might deſend our ſelves againſt fi [...] [Page 67] year 1704 hundred. However we found the Middle Iſlands to be as convenient as any place could be: And our Captain ſeeming to like this place as well, and knowing we could fortifie our ſelves as ſtrongly here and with as little trouble; we choſe this place: Accordingly on the 18th, it being fair Weather and calm, we towed our Ship in amongſt the Iſlands, and lay within Stones caſt of the Shore all round, with one Anchor a Head, and a Cable out at our Stern, which was made faſt to a great Tree on the Shore. As ſoon as we had faſtened our Ship, all Hands went aſhore and began to build Tents for our Cooper and Sail-maker to work in, and to put our Goods and Proviſions in. In the mean time our chief Mate was ſent in the little Dragon with twenty Men armed, and two Pattereroes, to cruize in the Gulf; where after he had cruized five or ſix Days, he returned with a Spaniſh Bark of about forty Tuns: She had in her ſome few Jars of Brandy, Wine, and ſome Sugar. They were going to repair her, ſhe being very old; and for that purpoſe had five or ſix Carpenters and Caukers on board, who came very opportunely to help us to repair our Ship, for we had great need of Workmen. We took out our Powder, Shot and all our Ammunition; with all our Bread, ſome of our Flower, and our [Page 68] year 1704 two Quarter-deck Guns; and put them on board this laſt Bark. Then we got all the reſt of our things aſhore, and made every thing ready for cleaning our Ship. Our Men went aſhore often with the Sain, and caught ſtore of Fiſh, eſpecially if they took the right time, which was at the Flood, and better in the Night than in the Day. The 22d of Auguſt, we ſent our Canoas to an Iſland juſt by us, upon which there were ſeveral old fallen-down Houſes; the Thatch of which we brought away to make uſe of in burning the bottom of our Ship. The bottom of our Ship was in many places eaten like a Honey-Comb; inſomuch that the firm Plank was no thicker than an old Six-pence: Nay, in ſome places in the Hold, we could thruſt our Thumbs quite through with eaſe. Our Ship being in this condition, and we in want of Planks to new bottom her; our Carpenter was forced to make a hard ſhift, and ſtop the Leaks as well as he could with Nails and Oakam.
September the 2d. Our Captain and Mr Clippinton the chief Mate falling out; Mr Clippinton, with twenty one of our Men, ſeized upon the Bark, in which was all our Ammunition, and a great part of our Proviſions; and got up her anchor, and went without the Iſlands. From thence he ſent us word, that if any of us had [...] [Page 69] year 1704 mind to go with him, we ſhould be welcome; but however, that we might not be quite deſtitute, he would reſtore us all our Powder, Shot and Ammunition; reſerving only two or three Barrels for his own uſe. And according to his promiſe he put on ſhore our Powder, Shot, and other Ammunition in an Indian Houſe, to ſhelter it from the Rain, and ſent us word of his ſo doing. And we went with our Canoas and fetcht it aboard.
And now our Captain's deſign being to take the Manila-Ship, we went to work in getting our things aboard, and watering and rigging our Ship. And on the 22d, we hal'd out from the Middle Iſlands, and anchored in the Gulf. Which before I proceed, I ſhall here give you ſome Deſcription of.
[Note: See Fig. XXVII.]In this Gulf are ſeveral Iſlands, as the Iſland of St Lucas, and the Iſland of Chira. To this latter Iſland the Spaniſh Ships come to take in their lading, which is brought from Nicoya. This Iſland is inhabited, and lies in the Latitude of 10 d. 50 m. North; and on the N. E. part is another Iſland called the Iſland Guaiabas, near which is a Bar or Shoal. Obſerve, when you enter into this Gulf, that you leave all the Iſlands to the Weſtward, except the Iſland Guaiabas, which has the Bar near it; and ſteer cloſe by the Iſland of Chira. [Page 70] year 1704 This Iſland is diſtant from from St Lucas eight Leagues; and they lie from each other North and South. To the S. S. W. of the Iſland St Lucas, diſtant about four Leagues, are the Middle Iſlands. They are a parcel of ſmall Iſlands, and amongſt them is a good Harbour, in which we wooded and watered and hal'd our Ship aſhore.
We found here ſeveral ſorts of very good Fiſh, as Mullets, Breams, Silver-fiſh, &c. Of Shell-fiſh here is Conchs, Clams, Pearl-Oyſters; and another ſort of Oyſter, called the Great-Oyſter. Of Birds here is great ſtore, viz. Maccaws and Pelicans and Carrion-Crows. And of amphibious Creatures, the Guano and the Sea-Turtle.
The Maccaw, is a very fine Bird, his Feathers being of moſt ſorts of Colours. He is about the bigneſs of a Hawk; and in ſhape like a Parrot, only his Bill is perfectly white, and his Feet and Legs quite black.
The Carrion-Crow, is as big as a ſmall Turkey, and in all reſpects very like one; for I never ſaw any difference neither in Colour nor Shape. The Fleſh of them, both ſmells and taſtes ſo ſtrong of Musk, that there is no eating of it. Theſe Creatures commonly reſort to any place where any dead Creature is, and feed upon it; for which reaſon they are called Carrion: [Page 71] year 1704 But the reaſon why they are called Crows, I know not; for they are nothing like them, but altogether like a wild Turkey.
The Pelican, [Note: See Fig. XVIII.] is almoſt as big as a Swan. Its Colour is inclining to white, only the tips of his Wings are brown. It hath a long Bill of about twenty Inches, with a very large Crop joyning to the lower part of his Bill, and ſo deſcending by the Throat, like a Bag or Satchel, very obſervable, and of a largeneſs almoſt beyond credit, into which it receiveth Oyſters, Cockles, Conchs, &c. or any other Shellfiſh; which being not able to break, it retains them until they open, and then vomiting them up, picks out the Meat. As for their making a Hole in their Breaſt to give their Blood to their Young, I do not believe, nor ever ſaw any ſuch thing, although I have ſeen thouſands both young and old together, and have eaten many of them. They are good Food; only they taſte ſomewhat fiſhy. They have broad Feet like a Duck, being Waterfowls; but they rooſt commonly on Rocks and in Trees, and always ſet with their Heads to the Wind; ſo that if the Wind changes whilſt they are at rooſt, they turn about their Heads to the Wind. They are heavy Birds, and fly very ſlow; and always, when they ſit either on Rocks, [Page 72] year 1704 Trees, or in the Water, they reſt their Bills upon their Crop.
The Guano [Note: See Fig. XIX.] is a ſort of Creature, ſome of which are found on Land, ſome in the Water. He is about three foot long, more or leſs; and is a very ugly Creature to look at; having great, ſharp, black and green Scales, from the fore-part of his Head to the end of his Tail; and a ſet of great and ſharp Teeth, with four long Claws upon each Foot. They breed commonly in the Roots of old Trees, near the Water ſide; and frequent the Water as well as Land. When they are ſtewed with a little Spice, they make good Broth; and the Fleſh looks very white, and eats very well; but if they are not extraordinarily well boiled, they are very dangerous to eat; making Men very ſick, and often putting them into a Feaver, as we were informed by our Priſoners.
Of Sea-Turtles there are ſeveral ſorts, but we always account the green Turtle to be the beſt Meat. They have ſeveral Iſlands and ſandy Bays, where they go to lay their Eggs: Which they do in different places at different times. For in ſome places, as at the Iſland of Aſcenſion in the Atlantick Ocean, their common time of laying is in April, May, June and July. In other places, as in the Bay of Motines on the Coaſt of Mexico, we took them aſhore [Page 73] year 1704 laying their Eggs in the Months of December and January. Here in the Gulf of Nicoya upon the ſame Coaſt of Mexico, in the Latitude of between 10 and 11 d. North, we caught a great many of them, and commonly found them full of Eggs, in the Months of Auguſt and September. Though therefore at one or at ſeveral conſtant places their ſeaſon of laying is always the ſame, yet in different places their Seaſons are different. I have been at the catching of them in moſt times of the Year, and commonly found them full of Eggs. When they want to lay, they go aſhore in ſome ſandy Bay, and with their Fins make a Hole in the Sand about two foot and a half deep, wherein they lay their Eggs, commonly about eighty or ninety at a time: Then they cover them up with the Sand they had ſcraped out of the Hole, and ſo leave them for the heat of the Sun to hatch. Thus they lay two or three times in a Seaſon; and after they have laid, they go off to Sea, and leave the Young, when hatcht, to ſhift for themſelves; who, as ſoon as they get out of the Shell and Sand, retire to the Water. The Eggs are round, about the bigneſs of a Duck's, with a white, thin, tough Skin over them, but no Shell: [Note: [...] ] Both the Eggs and the Turtle are extraordinary good Food, as I have experienced many [Page 74] year 1704 times. I have ſeen of this ſort of Turtle ſeveral times from 200 to 350 and 400 weight. The lean of them, before 'tis dreſt, looks like Beef; but the fat is as green as Graſs; and it is very wholeſome Food.
The Pearl-Oyſter is much about the bigneſs of our common Oyſter, but more flat and broad. It hangs to the Rocks by a long ſtringy Beard, like a Muſcle. The Pearl lies in the thickeſt part of it; ſome have five, ſix or ſeven Pearls in them. The Spaniards make ſeveral Voyages to this Gulf of Nicoya and to the Iſland California for them. The Indians go down in five, ſix, ſeven or eight fathom water, and bring up eight, ten, or twelve Oyſters at a time, while the Men on board open them. The Meat of this Oyſter is very green, and the Oyſter fat. I have eaten of this Oyſter ſeveral times, both boiled and ſtewed; and found them to be tolerable good Victuals.
The Great Oyſter grows to the Rocks, as other Oyſters; not hanging to them by a Beard, as the Pearl-Oyſter. When they are opened, one part looks of a fine Red like a Cherry, the other part is of a fine White. I have eat of this ſort of Oyſter many times; but it was for want of better Victuals. They are ſo large, that one of them cut in pieces and ſtewed, is ſufficient for a Meal for five or ſix Men.
From the middle Iſlands before-mentioned to the Iſland of Chira, is clear Ground, and ſix or ſeven fathom Water. When you ſail up the Gulf, you muſt keep nearer the Iſlands than the main Land; becauſe near the Main are ſeveral Sholes, which ſtretch a conſiderable way. From the Iſland St Lucas to Cape Blanco, is nine Leagues. Cape Blanco lies in the Latitude of 10 d. 20 m. North. It has a ſmall Iſland at the Point of it, full of high Trees; The Cape is high towards the inner Parts, and appears plain and even. The chief of what they bring from this Gulf, is Salt, Honey, Maiz, ſome Wheat and Fowls, which they ſend yearly to Panama.
On the 23 d of September, having done our Buſineſs here, we with our little Dragon Prize left this place, intending to cruize to the Weſtward. On the 7th of October, we had Latitude by obſervation 13 d. 07 m. North. Variation 4 d. 30 m. weſterly; And at the ſame time we ſaw the Land, which proved to be two high Mounts, called the Vulcans of Guatimala; the one being of Water, the other of Fire. Theſe two famous Mountains ſtand almoſt the one over-againſt the other, on [Page 76] year 1704 each ſide of the Valley; that of Water being on the South ſide, and that of Fire on the North, nearer to the old City. That of Water, is a little higher than the other, and yields a goodly Proſpect, being green all the Year round. In the Year 1534, this Mountain was ſaid to burſt open, and threw Water in ſuch large quantities, that it drowned the City of Guatimala; which cauſed the Inhabitants to remove the City three Leagues further off, where it now ſtands. The Vulcan of Fire, which ſtands oppoſite to that of Water, is at ſome certain times (eſpecially in the rainy Seaſon, which is from April to November,) very terrible to the Inhabitants. It ſometimes throws out Stones as big as a Houſe; and breaks out with ſuch a Flame, that if it be in a dark Night, although you be five or ſix Miles of, yet by the Light thereof you may ſee to read a Letter written in a ſmall Hand. This was affirmed to us by ſeveral of our Priſoners, Natives of the place.
The 8th, we had dirty ſqually Weather, with very hard Guſts of Wind from the two Vulcans aforeſaid; with ſuch prodigious Claps of Thunder and Flaſhes of Lightning, as none of us ever ſaw or heard the like. On the 9th, we took a Bark of about eighty Tuns, in ballaſt. She came from Suvartanejo, and was bound for Ria Lexa. [Page 77] year 1704 She had a ſmall quantity of Proviſions, which was very welcome to us. The Captain's name was Chriſtian Martin, a Spaniard born at the Canaries, but brought up in London. He was Servant formerly to Captain Eaton, and came with him into the South Seas, at which time he was Captain Eaton's Gunner; but falling out with the Men, ran away from them at the Iſland Gorgonia, where he lay concealed ſix Days till the Ship was gone; after which he cut him down two ſmall Trees, which he drew to the Water-ſide, and bound them together with Twigs; fixed a Maſt; and of two Shirts, which he had with him, made a Sail; and having filled a large Bag with Oyſters, which he made faſt to the ſaid two Trees, he in the Morning betimes put off from the Iſland Gorgonia, and the next Day in the Afternoon got into the River of Bonaventure, where he went aſhore, and had but ill uſage from the Spaniards, who ſent him to Lima, where he was examined, cleared himſelf, and was ſet at liberty. He could ſpeak very good Engliſh.
The 15th, we had Latitude by obſervation 13 d. 25 m. North. Variation 3 d. 00 m. Weſterly, being then off the great Vulcano of Attitlan. This Vulcan commonly caſts out ſmoak; and under it are 5 ſmall Hills, which are ſaid to be always [Page 78] year 1704 green. On the 16th, we paſſed by the Vulcan of Sapotitlan; which throws out vaſt quantities of Fire. This, and the Vulcan of Sacatapeque, are reckoned two wonders of the World. We obſerved off the Vulcan of Sapotitlan, and found variation 2 d. 51 m. Weſterly, and had Latitude by obſervation 13 d. 51 m. North. The 19th, we ſaw the Hill of Bernal, which makes the Eaſt point of the Gulf of Tecoantepeque. We obſerved off it, and found the variation, by a good Amplitude, to be 2 d. 45 m. Weſterly; and had Latitude 15 d. 00 m. N.
The 20th, we found our ſelves a-breaſt of the Bay of Tecoantepeque, which is very low Land, and full of little Hills, which look like ſmall Iſlands. This place is very ſubject to hard Gales of Wind at N. E. called Tecoantepequers, from the place whence they come; and they happen commonly about the New and Full Moons. The beſt way therefore is to keep near the Shore, after you are paſt the Bay or Gulf. In the Gulf it ſelf, you may keep three or four Leagues off; for it is ſhoal to that diſtance: But when you are to the Weſtward of the Bay, keep within two Leagues of the Shore, that you may come to an anchor if occaſion be. For if you ſhould chance to be driven off from Shore, which frequently happens; you will hardly be able to [Page 79] year 1704 get in four days, ſo much as you will drive out in one. For when you are driven out of ſight of the Land, you will have a ſtrong Current, which will drive you far to the S. W.
November the 11th, in the Even, we ſaw four ſmall White Iſlands, lying cloſe together: On the Eaſt-end of which, about two Miles diſtance, is a large Hummock, which looks like an Iſland, but is not; the Land going from it to the Main, being very low, cauſes it, till you are very near it, to look like an Iſland. This place is called Suvartaneo, inhabited by Spaniards and Indians. It lies in the Latitude of 17 d. 40 m. N; and has a ſmall Village, of about forty Houſes, ſtanding by the Sea-ſide. Here we anchored in 14 fathom Water, not above Piſtol-ſhot from the Village. At our coming in, we ſaw about 500 Spaniards and Indians, both Horſe and Foot. We fired eight or ten of our great Guns at them, and they retired into the Woods. Then we landed about 30 of us, and went to the Village and romaged it. In it we found a great many ſmall things, with 16 Packs of very good Flower. We filled here two Boats load of Water; but the Sea running high, over-ſet our Boats. Our Men would have ſet the Village on fire, but the Captain being aſhore would not ſuffer them. So on the 18th we went out with the Land-wind, and ſtood away to the Weſtward.
[Page 80] year 1704 The 22d, we anchored in the Bay of Martaba, under the Mountains of Motines. Here we watered our Ship, and found in a ſmall River a great many large green Turtles, the beſt I ever taſted. On the 26th, at Sun-ſetting, we ſpied a Sail, and immediately got every thing in a readineſs for an Engagement, not knowing but it might be the Manila-Ship, which we now began to expect ſhortly to ſee. VVe were at this time ſixty four of us, Men and Boys; all well in Health; and did daily wiſh to have a ſight of the Manila-Ship. We ſoon came up with the Ship we ſaw, and took her. She was a ſmall Bark, of about ſixty Tuns, from California, laden with Plank; and ſhe had on board ſome parcels of Pearl, which they had fiſh'd in the Gulf of California.
In this Bay of Martaba is a very good anchoring place, defended from the Eaſt and North-Weſt Winds. And there is ten and twelve fathom Water, clear Ground. When you are aſhore, you will ſee a little River of freſh Water. It was at this Rivulet that we water'd our Ship, and in it found ſtore of extraordinary large and very good green Turtle. Near the Rivulet is a Road, which ſtrikes up into the Woods. This Road leads to an Indian Town, called Mavota. It is ſaid to be four Miles and a half from the Sea-ſide.
[Page 81] year 1704 To the N. W. of this Bay of Martaba, five or ſix Leagues, towards the Sea-ſide, you will ſee broken Ground, which looks like an Iſland. It is called Chaſipi. On the S. E. of which, is a little pleaſant Valley of pure white Sand, called the Valley of Maguille; under the Juriſdiction of the City of Colima. Obſerve that at the Point of Chaſipi, the Motines end. The Motines are a long Ridge of Mountains, reaching in length 25 Leagues. They abound in many rich Towns of Spaniards, Mullattoes, Moſteſe, and Indians. To the N. W. of the Point of Chaſipi, you will find a plain even Land towards the Sea-ſide, which is full of Coco-nut Trees planted here for the uſe of thoſe Ships which come from the Gulf of California. Two or three Leagues diſtant from this row of Trees, to the N. W. is ſome broken Ground; and at the end of the broken Ground ſtands a Vulcan, which is ſaid always to ſmoak. It is called the Vulcan of Colima; and the broken Ground is called the Valley of Corelan. It is all planted with Cocoa's, ſuch as we make Chocolate of. This Valley is diſtant from the Town of Colima N. W. 18 Leagues; And not far from the Valley is a Mount very round, called the Mount of St Jago. The Mount of St Jago is in the Port of Quelagna. To know it, you muſt obſerve that there is a Rock cloſe by the ſaid [Page 80] [...] [Page 81] [...] [Page 82] year 1704 Mount, which looks very white, and may be ſeen a great diſtance. There is a Bay at the end of it, where is a plain of green Trees. If you would go to this Port of Quelagna, you muſt ſteer ſtreight to the Bay. For there are two very good Harbours, which have good Anchor-ground, and will hold a great many Ships: They are called the Caletas. On the N. W. ſide of the ſaid Bay is another very good Port, and cloſe by it is the Port of Quelagna; and between the Port of Quelagna and the white Rock, is a very good Port, in which you are Land-lock'd from all Winds; and this is called the Port of St Jago, but is not inhabited. Five or ſix Leagues to the N. VV. of the white Rock, is a little Mount; coming near to which, you will ſee an indifferent high Mount, full of broken Ground, and a Rock joining to it, which is in form of a Sugar-Loaf; and on the N. W. ſide of that Rock, there is a Bay a League wide.
It was on the 4th of December, that we came into this Bay; in which we ſaw a Sail, ſtood in after her, and ſoon took her. All the way we chaſed her, they heaved their things over-board; after which they all took to their Boat, and got aſhore. VVe took poſſeſſion of the Veſſel, which was a new Veſſel of about ſixty Tuns: And in her we found a great deal [Page 83] year 1704 of Powder and Shot ſcattered up and down in all Parts of the Veſſel. We ſuppoſe therefore that this Ship lay here with Ammunition to ſupply the Manila-Ship; But upon our chacing of her, they threw moſt of it over-board. This Bay is called the Bay of Navidad.
From this Bay of Navidad or the Nativity, we ſtill coaſted along to the Weſtward. At the N. W. end of this Port, is another Port which is called Chametla. It is a Port defended from the N. W. and S. E. Winds. Two Leagues to the N. W. of it, is an Iſland; and about it lie four or five Rocks, which come from the main Land; They lie to the N. N. E. and may plainly be ſeen; and at the Eaſt end of them, you may ſee the Vulcan of Colima.
On the 6th in the Morning, being off the Vulcan of Colima, we ſaw a Sail, and ſoon came up with her. She proved to be the Manila-Ship. So we, being all provided, gave her ſeveral broad-ſides, before ſhe could get any of her Guns clear. For they did not ſuſpect us to be an Enemy, and were not at all prepared for us. Capt. Martin, whom I formerly mentioned, was then a Priſoner on board us: He adviſed to lay her aboard immediately, while they were all in a hurry, and that this would be the only way to take her; but [Page 84] year 1704 if we gave them ſo much time as to get out their great Guns, they would certainly beat us in pieces, and we ſhould loſe an opportunity of making our ſelves maſters of the value of ſixteen Millions of Pieces of Eight. And accordingly it happened: For time being delayed in quarrelling, between thoſe of us that would lay her aboard, and thoſe that would not, the Enemy got out a tire of Guns, and then were too hard for us; ſo that we could not lie along her ſide, to do her any conſiderable damage. For our five Pound ſhot, which was the biggeſt we had, ſignified little againſt ſuch a Ship as ſhe was; but any of her ſhot, which were 18 and 24 Pounders, if any of them happened to ſtrike Ʋs, our Ship being very much decayed, it would drive in a piece of Plank of three or four Foot. So being much damaged, and receiving particularly a ſhot from the Enemy between Wind and Water in our Powder Room; by which we had two foot of Plank driven in on each ſide the Stem; the Signal was made to ſtand off from the Enemy.
Thus our Deſign being diſappointed, all our Men grew diſcontented, and were for going Home; knowing we could do no good in theſe Parts, either for our ſelves or Owners; having Proviſion but for three Months, and that very ſhort; and our [Page 85] year 1704 Ship being ready of her ſelf to fall in Pieces. Our Captain deſired our conſent to cruize here ſix Weeks longer, and then he would permit us to go for India, to ſome Friend's Factory, where we might all diſpoſe of our ſelves, as we ſhould think moſt for our advantage. To this we all agreed: And accordingly cruized along ſhore to the Eaſtward in ſight of the Land, and paſſed by ſeveral noted Ports, as Acapulco, Port Angels, Port Guatulco, and ſeveral others: Of which I ſhall ſpeak in my Deſcription of the Coaſts.
Our Deſign now was to go into the Gulf of Amapalla, to new Water our Ship and Bark, for our intended Voyage to India. On the 5th of January, 1704/5, we met with vaſt quantities of Fiſh; ſo that in half an hours time, we caught of Albicores, from ſixty to ninety Pound weight, no fewer than fifty eight. And ſmall Fiſh of about five Inches, were ſo numerous, that with a Bucket we haul'd up fourteen, ſixteen, eighteen and ſometimes twenty at a time.
The Albicore [Note: See Fig. XXI.] is about four or five Foot in length, ſome more ſome leſs; weighing from 50 to 100 and 150 pound weight. He hath eleven Fins on his back, one pretty large, one middling one, and nine ſmall yellow ones near the Tail. He hath one large Fin on each ſide near the Gills; and [Page 86] year 1704 12 Fins under his Belly; one on each ſide underneath near the Gills, one near the middle of the Belly, and nine ſmall yellow Fins extending to his Tail. It is a very fleſhy Fiſh, having little or no Bones, except the Back-bone; and is extraordinary good Victuals. It is a prodigious ſtrong Fiſh, when in the Water. They prey moſtly upon the Flying-fiſh, as do the Dolphins, Bonetoes, &c.
On the 6th, it was concluded between Captain Dampier and 30 of our Men, to continue in the South-Seas; but upon what Terms this Agreement was made, was kept ſecret. We who were reſolved to go for India, uſed our endeavour to get into the Gulf of Amapalla (which was the place we deſign'd to water at) with all the haſte we could. Where we anchor'd on the 26th of January 1704/ [...]. And the ſame day; the Proviſions being equally parted according to the directions of the Owners Agent; and four great Guns, with ſome ſmall Arms, Powder and Shot, &c. being taken out for us; we, (that is, 33 of us who reſolved to go in the Bark for India.) went on ſhore in order to water our Veſſel for the ſaid Voyage.
A particular Deſcription of the Coaſt of Mexico. The Hill of Zaliſco. The Cocoa-Tree. The Iſlands Maria's. The Rocks and Points of Pontique. Cape Corrientes. The Iſlands of Chametly. Port of St Jago, and of Navidad. Bay of Sallagua. The Mountains Motines. The River Sacaticli. The Mountains of Chequetan and Petaplan. Acapulco. Port Marquiſs. Point Gallera. The Iſland Alcatrazes. Point Eſcondedo. The R. Meſſias. The River of Gallera. Port Angels. The Port of Guatulco. Mazattlan. Port of Salina. Tecoantepeque. Cat-Fiſh. The Hill of Bernall. The Vulcans of Soconuſco, Amilpas, Sapotitlan, Sacatepeque, Atitlan, and Guatimala. City of Guatimala. The Port of Sonſonat. Trinidad. The Vulcans of Iſalco, S. Salvadore and [...]atelepa. The River Lempa. St Michael. The [Page 86] [...] [Page 87] [...] [Page 88] year 1704 Gulf of Amapalla. The Shovelnoſed Shark. The Ceawau. Port of Ria-Lexa. The Vulcan Vejo. The Vulcans of Telica, and Leon Mamotombo, Granada and Bombacho. Mountain of Popogajo. Port of Velas. The Mount of Hermozo. The Cape of Gajones. Cape Blanco. The Gulf of Nicoya. Sierras de los Coronadas. The Iſland Caneo. Punta mala. Golfo Dulce. Puebla Nova. The Iſlands Quibo, Quicara and Rancheria. The Point of Mariato. The Moro de Porcos. The Point of Higuera. Punta mala. The Iſland Guanoes. Nata.
BUT before we go any further, I ſhall here give a particular Deſcription of the Coaſt of Mexico, Peru and Chili, from the entrance of the Gulf of California in the Latitude of 23 d. 30 m. N. to the Port of Valdivia in the Latitude of 40 d. S. ſo far as I knew them my ſelf, or could get an account of them from the Spaniards.
[Page 89] year 1704 And firſt, on the main Land you will ſee the Hill called Zaliſco: It is a very high Hill, with a bending on the top; and cloſe to this Hill, is a white Rock called Maxentelbo, which at three or four Leagues diſtance looks like a Ship under Sail. And behind the Hill of Zaliſco, is a great Town of the ſame Name, inhabited by Spaniards, Mullattoes, Moſteſe and Indians. And the Main here all along, is full of Cocoa-walks, with Eſtantions or Farms of Beeves.
The Cocoa-Tree is ſmall, and the Nut or Kernel bigger than an Almond; and ripens in a great Husk, wherein are ſometimes 30, nay 40 Cocoas. Theſe Cocoas are made uſe of to make Chocolate: And as in England we go to the Tavern to drink a Glaſs of Wine, ſo they do here (upon this Coaſt of Mexico) as frequently go to their Markets to drink a Diſh of Chocolate; And the Indians count it a very wholeſom Drink. We were glad, whilſt we were upon this Coaſt, to make three Meals a Day of it for near a Month. We would much rather, if we could, have fed upon Fleſh: But however, living near a Month upon Chocolate, it made us very fat, and we found that it kept us very well in Health. Whether, if we had lived upon it much longer, it would have done us hurt, I know not; but I am apt [Page 90] year 1704 to believe it would have increaſed our Fat too faſt, and ſo have made us unhealthy.
From the white Rock called Maxentelbo, twenty Leagues to the South, are three great Iſlands called Maria's, and a little one called the Low Iſland; and amongſt them are ſeveral ſmall Rocks. Theſe Iſlands are of an indifferent height, and are very full of Wood. The Weſtermoſt is the biggeſt; and between the Iſlands and the Main, is ſaid to be good anchoring in eight, ten, twelve and fourteen fathom Water, good faſt Ground. The Iſlands are not inhabited; and about them is ſaid to be commonly ſtore of Seals and Turtle, and ſeveral ſorts of very good Fiſh. Whether theſe Iſlands have any freſh Water upon them, I know not, but I am apt to think they may.
Fourteen Leagues to the S. S. W. of the Iſlands Maria's, are the Rocks or Iſlands of Pontique; They lie from the Main about a League; You may ſail between them and the Main-land, without any danger. They take up two Leagues in length, and the Weſtermoſt of them looks like a Ship without a Maſt. You may ſail between them; for there is no danger, but what is viſible. The Land here by the Sea-ſide is low; but within the Country it is very high and ragged: And about a League to [Page 91] year 1704 the Eaſtward of theſe Iſlands, is the Point of Pontique. This Point at a diſtance looks like an Iſland. It is a high round Hill, and very barren; being only a ragged Rock. From this Point to the Eaſtward, for fourteen Leagues, runs a deep Bay; and on the North end it is low Land. This Bay is very well inhabited by Spaniards, Mullattoes, Moſteſe and Indians. Here are a great many Gardens of Cocoa; and all this Bay and the Valleys, are under the Juriſdiction of the Governor of the City of Compoſtella.
At the Eaſt end of this Bay, is the Cape Corrientes, which Cape lies in the Latitude of about 20 d. 30 m. North. It is high Land, and full of ſharp ragged Hills. Obſerve, when you ſail near this Cape, if it blow hard from the N. W. as it commonly doth, that four or five Leagues to the S. E. of the Cape, is broken Ground towards the Sea-ſide. Steer exactly to it, and on the S. E. ſide of the ſaid broken Ground you will find a good convenient place where you may anchor, and in it you are defended from moſt Winds. This place is called by the Pilots Salina's, becauſe near it they make Salt. The Cape Corrientes is very high Land. It hath on it a few Trees; and within the Land, near the ſaid Cape, is a high Mountain, which has three ſharp Pikes on the top, ſomewhat [Page 92] year 1704 like a Crown: It is called Coronada or the Crowned-Mountain. The Sea-winds hereabouts are commonly at N. W. and the Land-wind at North.
From Cape Corrientes S. E. by E. runneth a great Bay, in which are three or four Iſlands called the Iſlands of Chametly: they are little low Iſlands, and between them and the Main there is a very good place to anchor in; and near this anchoring place, the Main is inhabited by Indians, who are Fiſhermen, and fiſh for the City of the Purification; Which is a large City, and ſaid to be about fourteen Leagues within Land.
From the Bay of Chametly to the S. E. twenty Leagues, is the Port of St Jago; a very good Port, in which you are defended from all Winds; but near it are no Inhabitants. Not far from this Port, is the Vulcan of Alima, five Leagues within the Land.
From the Port of St Jago to the S. E. ſixteen Leagues, is the Port of Navidad or the Nativity; between which two Ports are ſeveral ſmall Ports, and many Rocks and Shoals, ſo that it is bad going into them; and beſides, for want of Trade, they are ſeldom or never made uſe of by the Spaniards. The Port of Navidad is a very good Port, in which is Water and Wood. Here the Spaniards build Ships, [Page 93] year 1704 the biggeſt they have in theſe Parts of the World; And here they built the firſt, that ever was known to ſail from America to the Eaſt-Indies. At this place on the 4th of December, we took a new Bark of about fifty Tuns; in which we found ſome Bacon, Fowls, Bread and Rice, with ſome Powder and Shot. At our chaſing of her, the Men, after they had heaved moſt of their things over-board, took to their Boat and got aſhore. This Port lies in the Latitude of 19 d. 20 m. N.
From hence to the Bay of Salagua or Salt-water Bay, is eight Leagues. It was at this place, that Captain Dampier, Vol. I. page 245, gives an account that the Manila-Ship ſets aſhore her Paſſengers that are bound for the City of Mexico: But now the Vice-roy finding an inconvenience in their ſo doing, has given a poſitive Command that they ſhould not put any of their Men or Goods aſhore till their arrival at Acapulco; Becauſe it was uſual with them, when they ſet aſhore their Paſſengers, to convey away a great deal of the Goods, and ſo defrauded the King of his Cuſtoms.
From this place to the Port Deſapan, is ſixteen Leagues; and half a League within the Land, is a Town called Jeſu-Chriſto, ſaid to be a large handſome Town. At this place begin the high Hills called Motines, [Page 94] year 1704 which ſtretch twenty five Leagues to the S. E. Theſe Hills abound in many rich Towns of Spaniards and Indians; And here are abundance of Cocoa-walks, and Farms of Cattle. The Land by the Sea-ſide, is mountainous and rocky; and by the Water, it is all along planted with Cocoa-nut Trees, for the uſe of thoſe Ships which come hereabouts and have occaſion for Chocolate. Hereabouts you will ſee the Vulcan of Colima, which is ſaid always to ſmoak, and ſometimes, though ſeldom, to burſt out with Fire. Under theſe Hills, on the 27th of November, we took a Bark of about ſixty Tuns, laden with Plank. She came from the Gulf of California, where they had been fiſhing for Pearls; of which we found a few Parcels. Under the ſame Mountains, in the Bay of Stabata, we water'd our Ship, and found a great many very good green Turtle.
At the Eaſt end of theſe Mountains of Motines, is the River Sacaticli; a League up which River, is a Town of the ſame Name. Near this River are ſome pieces of broken Ground, the leaſt of which is Sandy, and has no Trees on the top of it. From hence S. E. to Eſtapa is ſixteen Leagues; in all which diſtance there is neither Hill nor high Land; but in moſt places 'tis full of Trees, and continues ſo till you come to a thick green ſpot of [Page 95] year 1704 Trees. A little to the Eaſtward of Eſtapa, are ſome great high Mountains, called the Mountains of Chequetan. They lie within Land, and are ten or twelve Leagues in length. To the Eaſtward of this place, twenty Leagues, is the Mount of Petaplan. By this Mount are a great many Cocoa-walks, and near ro the Cocoa-walks is the Town of Petaplan, which ſtands behind the Mountain. This Town is ſaid to be a large Town and very well inhabited. The Land near it is full of ſmall Hills and Valleys: The Hills are barren, but the Valleys are ſaid to be green almoſt all the Year. The Hill of Petaplan, is a high Hill: At a diſtance it looks like an Iſland; and about it are a great many Rocks, but all viſible; ſo that if you pleaſe, you may go between them; where, if occaſion be, you may anchor, and will not find leſs than nine, ten, or eleven fathom Water: This Hill I make to lie in the Latitude of 17 d. 25 m. North. From hence to the Port of Acapulco, is eight Leagues, all along a ſandy Bay, and low even Land.
Acapulco is a Port of great Trade. It is the place where the Spaniards embark from Mexico for China and the Philippine Iſlands: Which is a particular Priviledge it has: For no other Port durſt trade to any part of the Eaſt-Indies, but from hence. It is [Page 96] year 1704 diſtant from the City of Mexico eighty Leagues, and all Goods are carried from hence thither on Mules, though it is a very bad way. This is the chief Port for Mexico on the whole Weſt-ſide of America. It is a very good and large Port, and in it may lie a hundred Sail of Ships, all Landlock'd and ſecure from all Winds and Weather. It lies in the Latitude of 17 d. 06 m. North. The Town conſiſts of about 120 Families, moſt Spaniards; and has for its defence a Caſtle of between forty and fifty Braſs Guns, each ſaid to carry a thirty-ſix pound Ball. The Caſtle ſtands in a Valley between two noted Hills; one of which is almoſt like a Sugar-loaf, and the other is cut in two at the top; this is called the Hill Cauca: Theſe Hills are the higheſt Land hereabouts, and both to the Eaſt and Weſt of them it is all low Land for ſeveral Leagues. The Town ſtands at the N. W. end of the Harbour, in a deep Bay; It is ſaid to be a pretty compacted Town. If you would enter into this Port, bring the Hill Cauca to bear N. ½ E. from you; then go to the S. E. of the Iſland, which is at the Mouth of the Harbour, called the leaſt Iſland; and after that, have a care of coming near a dangerous Shole, called the Grifo. But if the Wind ſhould be Northerly, then you may go to the weſtward of the great Iſland. [Page 97] year 1704 This is the China-Ships entrance; It is the narroweſt Channel, and the Water is very deep; but Ships coming from the Eaſtward come in at the Eaſt Channel, between the Main and a great Shole of Sand; but in their Entrance, keep as near the Main as they can. You may know this Port by the high Land; for it is all low to the Eaſt and Weſt of it; and all along for ſeveral Leagues, ſandy Bays.
A League from this Port of Acapulco, is Port Marquis. It is a very good Port, and in it is good Wood and Water. And here are three or four Indian Houſes, belonging to Fiſhermen, who fiſh for the Town of Acapulco. A little to the Eaſtward of theſe Houſes, are 3 ſmall Iſlands, with ſome Indian Fiſhermens Houſes on them: And here they dry a great deal of Fiſh, with which they ſupply their Town and Ships at Acapulco.
From theſe three ſmall Iſlands, to the River of Naguala, is ſix Leagues. It is a ſmall River, with only five or ſix poor Fiſhermens Houſes; from whence by Land is a good Path leading to Acapulco; and by Sea it is a bold Coaſt, and deep Water.
From the River of Naguala, to the Fiſhing-place of Don Garcia S. E. is five Leagues; all even Land, and a ſandy Bay. Here live 15 or 20 Indian Slaves, who dry [Page 98] year 1704 Fiſh, which they ſell ready dried by wholeſale.
From the Fiſhing-place of Don Garcia, to the Hill of Cecorillo, S. E. is ſix Leagues; and near the Water-ſide, all even Land, and ſandy. This Hill of Cecorillo, is a ſmall round Hill, cloſe to the Water-ſide; and right againſt it, about a League from the Shore, are five or ſix Rocks; and all round them it is ſhole water.
From the River Taclamanca, to Point Gallera, is eight or nine Leagues. The firſt four Leagues the Land is all along Wood; and the other half way, it is broken Ground by the Sea-ſide; there being ſeven Cliffs of a whitiſh Colour; And off of theſe Cliffs, about a league diſtance from the ſhore, are ſeveral Shoals; and for two Leagues off, you have ſcarce two fathom Water.
From Point Gallera to the Morro or Mount of Hermoſo, is ſeven Leagues; the Land mountainous within, and full of little Rocks by the Sea-ſide. This Mount of Hermoſo, is a plain Mount, and at the top very even; and about a Mile from the ſhore, right off the ſaid Mount, is a great Sand, on which ſeveral good Ships have [Page 99] year 1704 been loſt: A little to the S. E. of this Sand, is a hilly Iſland, a league from the Main, called Alcatrazes; and over-againſt it is a freſh Water River, where you may water your Ship if you have occaſion: Here live ſeveral Indian People, with a Spaniſh Friar; And round about the Iſland are ſeveral ſmall Iſlands, or rather Rocks: And from the Main, on the Eaſt-ſide of the Iſland, cometh out a Shoal of Rocks and Sand, which ſtretch off to Sea as far as the Iſland: Therefore it is dangerous going in at the Eaſt-end; but at the Weſtend you may ſafely go in; and on the inſide of the Iſland is a good anchoring place.
Upon this Coaſt of Mexico, for the moſt part the Land-winds are at N. W. and N. N. W. and the Sea-winds, from the W. to the S. W. according as the Land trends away. So that all the way, if you keep within eighty or ninety Leagues of the Land, you muſt make uſe of the Land and Sea-breezes, which commonly blow hereabouts pretty freſh. The Land here, is not very high: It is woody; but within the Country mountainous. Here are ſeven or eight whitiſh Cliffs by the Seaſide, which are very remarkable, becauſe there are none ſo white and thick together on all the Coaſt.
[Page 100] year 1704 From the Iſland Alcatrazes to the Port of Eſcondedo, is eight Leagues; Its Eaſt Point butting into the Sea more by half a League than the Weſt. It is a ſmooth and good Port, and here is good wooding and watering. Near this Port is a little Iſland, which makes the Port; within which Iſland you may ride with great Security from the Weſt and South-weſt Winds, and may venture to go aſhore without any danger: And from this Port is a Road leading to ſeveral great Towns in the Country.
From Eſcondedo to the River Meſſias, is ſix Leagues; and between Eſcondedo and the River Meſſias, is the River of Aqua Dulce or Sweet-water-River; right againſt which are two Rocks, one on each ſide. At the Mouth of the River Meſſias, is freſh Water; and in the times of the Rains, it overflows its Banks, and hinders the Inhabitants in their Affairs, and very often drowns many of their Cattle, which feed near the Banks of it. The Banks of this River are very well peopled with Indians. But hereabouts, the Coaſt is much troubled with Calms. Off from this River Meſſias, at a league diſtance, is a large Iſland, which has ſeveral ſmall Iſlands, or rather Rocks about it.
From theſe Iſlands to the River Galler [...] is eighteen Leagues, all mountainous within [Page 101] year 1704 Land, and a wild Country; full of ſmall Bays, but no Port; having many Mangrove-trees, and ſeveral other Trees fit for Maſts. Right off this River of Gallera, about three quarters of a Mile from the Main, and ſix Leagues to the Weſtward of Port Angels, is a ſmall rocky Iſland; between which and the Main, is very good anchoring in fifteen, ſixteen and ſeventeen fathom Water. The Sea-winds hereabouts, are commonly at W. S. W. and S. W. and the Land-winds at North. Whether there be any Water upon this Iſland I do not know; but never heard of any, neither could any of our Priſoners tell us the name of it. It has ſome ſmall Trees, or rather Buſhes growing on it; but they are fit for no uſe.
From this Iſland, as I ſaid before, to the Port Angels, is ſix Leagues. It is a good Port, and ſeldom without ſhipping. Here is a ſmall Town of about thirty Houſes, inhabited moſtly by Spaniards; The Town is ſituated on the Weſt-ſide of the Port, and in the Town are ſaid to be two pretty little Churches. This Town has great trading to it, for Hides and Tallow; and ſends a great quantity of Goods by Land to Mexico, and ſeveral other In-land Towns and Villages. VVhen you enter this Port, you muſt keep to the Eaſtward of a Rock and Shoal. The Port lies in the [Page 102] year 1704 Latitude of 15 d. 45 m. North. Captain Dampier in Vol. I. page 232, makes the Port of Guatulco to lie in the Latitude of 15 d. 30 m. North. VVe did the ſame: But then, page 239, he makes Port Angels, which is to the Northward of it, to lie in the Latitude of but 15 d. North; which we made to lie in 15 d. 45 m. North; that is, 15 Miles to the Northward of Guatulco: VVhereas he makes it 30 miles to the Southward of it. But I ſuppoſe it is a miſtake in the Printing. The Coaſt runs here, VV. N. VV. and E. S. E. The Tide riſes and falls five foot; the Flood ſetting to the N. E. and the Ebb to the S. W.
From Port Angels to the Caletta, is two Leagues. It is a very good Port, but hath neither VVood nor freſh VVater. Have a great care of four or five Rocks, which lie out from its S. E. Point, ſtretching a Mile and half into the Sea. Between the Caletta and Port Angels, is ſaid to be a very dangerous Shoal, and that it bears from the Point of Port Angels S. S. E. diſtance one League.
The Port Angels is in form like to Guatulco, but not ſo broad nor ſo good; though the Spaniards reckon it to be an extraordinary Port, yet there is a great deal of difference between it and Guatulco. In Port Angels are ſeveral anchoring places; [Page 103] year 1704 On the S. E. ſide you will ride moſt ſecure, becauſe it keeps you from the Winds. There is high Land on each ſide, and on the Weſt-ſide is a Rock, and without the Rock is a Shoal of Sand: Within the Rock are two little Caletta's or Bays, in which is good anchoring for a ſmall Veſſel; and in each of theſe two Bays is a little Brook of freſh Water, which have their beginning from a plain of Sand; and if you go to the end of the Plain, you will ſee their Head. In this Port are very good Trees, that upon occaſion will ſerve to make Maſts for Ships. Here are alſo a great many Farms of Beeves, with good ſtore of Maiz, Hogs, Fowls, &c. And here they make Salt not only to ſerve their own occaſions, but alſo to ſupply ſeveral Towns and Villages hereabouts.
From the River of Capalita to the River Simatlan, is three Leagues. This River is inhabited by Indians; and near to the Sea-ſide are a great many Plantain-walks. The River comes as it were from the Point of Ajuta. By the Sea-ſide are a great many Farms of Cattle.
From the River Simatlan to the Point of Ajuta, is two Leagues. Thence to the Iſlands of Deſtata, is five Leagues; all high mountainous Land. The Country hereabouts is very populous. Four Leagues within Land is ſaid to be a great Town, called El-Obiſpo. It hath, as is ſaid, four Churches, and at leaſt 1300 Houſes. All hereabouts are Plantain-walks; alſo ſeveral Eſtantions or Farms of Cattle. On the Sea-ſide, upon the Banks of the River of Deſtata, (which is right-againſt the two Iſlands of Deſtata) is a large Indian Town, with not above three or four Spaniards in it, who lord it over the poor Indians.
From the Iſlands of Deſtata to the Morro or Mount of Bamba, is four Leagues. [Page 106] year 1704 Right off it is a ſhoal of Sand a mile from the ſhore; which at High-water is ſaid to have but ſix foot Water upon it. This Mount of Bamba, is a pretty high Land, and very rocky.
From this Mount of Bamba to the Mount of Mazatlan, is three Leagues. This Mazatlan has a River of freſh Water, and an anchoring place which is full of Rocks. The top of the Port look [...] white being all covered with Fowls Dung, ſo that there is none like it on all the Coaſt, except it be at Salina: Hereabouts the Coaſt is very windy; and from the N. E. come Hurricanes or Tecoantepequers.
From the Mount of Mazatlan to the Port of Salinas, is four Leagues. By this Salinas the low Land beginneth: And near it are two Rocks. Here is made abundance of Salt; and the Inhabitants of Tecoantepeque bring hither abundance of Meat, Tallow and Hides to ſell. From this Port many Commodities are ſhipp'd for the South Sea, to the great inriching of the Town, which conſiſt of about fifty Houſes of Merchants, who have the advantage of trading in the North and South Seas. They trade from the North Sea up the River of Guaſickwalpo, in ſmall Barks; and then have but 13 Leagues hither, good Road, as is ſaid; ſo that Waggons paſs it
[Page 107] year 1704 Five or ſix Leagues from hence, is the great Town of Tecoantepeque, a Biſhop's See, and a very rich place. All along here the Coaſt is very populous, and great ſtore of Pearl is found near the Shore, in the Bay of Tecoantepeque; which is a good Port, but much ſubject to N. and N. E. Winds, which at certain times blow very hard. VVhen you are off this Port of Tecoantepeque, do not come nearer the Land than two Leagues. For for 8 Leagues it is all along ſhallow VVater. But if you have occaſion, ſend in ſmall Boats or Canoas. It is all along low Land, excepting the Hill Carbon; which is a round Hill, almoſt like a Sugar-loaf. Near it is the River of Tecoantepeque; on the Banks of which, the Town is ſituated. In going into this River, you muſt go over a Bar of Sand; near unto which Bar, are ſome ſmall Hills that lie a little within the low Land in the River, and are Iſlands. VVhen they appear to you like Hills, you may know it to be the Bar; and on the N. E. ſide is the Channel. [Note: See Fig. XXIII.] This Tecoantepeque is a Harbour for ſmall Veſſels, ſuch as trade to Acapulco, Ria Lexa, Guatimala and Panama: And here, upon ſome occaſions, Ships which come from the Coaſt of Peru call in, in their way to Acapulco. This is the chief Port for Guaxaca, as la Trinidad is for Guatimala; Ria Lexa for [Page 108] year 1704 Nicaragua; and Golfo de Salinas for Coſta Rica. Some few Years ſince, a French Pyrate being in this Bay, landed; and after the loſs of ſome of his Men, took this Town of Tecoantepeque, with great ſlaughter of the Inhabitants. The VVomen, to the number of about fifty, they detained as Priſoners; and carried them to the Gulf of Amapalla, where after they had kept them two Months, and had made uſe of them according to their own VVills, they after an inhumane manner cut of their Noſes and Ears, and ſo ſent them back to their Husbands. This Port of Tecoantepeque, lies in the Latitude of 15 d. 36 m. North; and we found variation juſt off it by a good amplitude to be 2 d. 42 m. VVeſterly.
At our paſſing by this place, we caught ſtore of Cat-fiſh. Theſe Fiſh are of various ſizes, being from half a Foot to ſix Foot in length. It hath three Fins, one on his Back and one on each ſide near his Gills; each of which Fins has a ſharp ſtiff Bone; ſo that we are very careful, when we catch them, in taking them off the Hook, leaſt they ſhould ſtrike thoſe ſharp ſtill Bones into our Hands; which if they do, it is ten to one but a Man loſes the uſe of his Hand by it. He hath a great wide Mouth, and near it ſeveral ſmall white griſly Strings, that come out like Cats [Page 109] year 1704 Whiskers; which is the reaſon they are called Cat-fiſh. They are a good ſort of Fiſh; and the young ones eat much like a Whiting.
From the Port of Tecoantepeque to the Bar of Moſquito's, is eight Leagues. It ſeems, to the Eaſtward, to be a great many Hills. And from the Bar of Moſquito's to the Hill of Bernall, is ſeven Leagues. In all which diſtance is very good anchoring, when the Tecoantepequers blow hard. Out of the Port of Moſquito's cometh a River, by which is abundance of Shoals. Towards the Sea-ſide, and to the N. W. hereabouts, it is low Land. From the Hill of Bernal to Elzerro de la Encommendi or the Hill of Recommending, is five Leagues. This Bernal makes the Eaſt Point of Tecoantepeque, as the Point of Salina does the Weſt. The Land hereabouts is very hilly and mountainous; but the Hill of Bernal is the greateſt. The Mountain of Encommendi is not very high. It is plain on the top, and lies half a League from the Sea-ſide; and on the ſide of it is fixt an artificial Croſs; for which Reaſon it is called Elzerro de la Encommendi, or the Croſs of Recommending. You may anchor where you pleaſe near to this Mount; for it is common for thoſe Ships that are bound to the Port of Tecoantepeque (if the Wind blows hard, as it often does) to anchor here, when they cannot fetch the [Page 110] year 1704 Port of Moſquito's. This Hill of Bernal lies in the Latitude of 15 d. North, and we found the variation, by a good amplitude, to be 2 d. 45 m. Weſterly.
From the Croſs of Recommending, to the Vulcan of Soconuſco, is ſeven Leagues. It is all very high Land; And two or three Leagues from the Shore, it looks almoſt like a Sugar-loaf. In the Country the Land is very high; but the great Vulcan of Soconuſco is the higheſt hereabouts. Every Night we ſaw abundance of Fires up and down in the Valleys: Theſe Fires were made to burn down the Timber, the Aſhes of which they reckon does mightily fatten the Land: For after the Trees and Buſhes are burnt down, the Aſhes of them makes the Land look very black; but in a Fortnights time, if they chance to have two or three ſhowers of Rain, the Land will look very green and pleaſant. This is the beſt and only way they have of fattening their Land. Near to this Vulcan of Soconuſco, to the S. E. is the River of Soconuſco; upon the Banks of which, is ſituated a large Indian Town of the ſame Name. For you muſt obſerve, that moſt of theſe Towns and Rivers take their Name from ſome famous Mountain, Hill or Vulcan ſtanding by them. The Coaſt here all along, for many Leagues runs N. W. and S. E.
[Page 111] year 1704 From the Vulcan of Soconuſco, to the Vulcans of Amilpas, is twelve Leagues. This is all very high and remarkable Land. The two higheſt Vulcans have each a River of freſh Water right againſt them. Theſe Vulcans ſend out Smoke ſometimes, but not often.
From the Eaſtermoſt Vulcan of Amilpas, to the Vulcan of Sapotittlan, is ſeven Leagues; here and there a ſandy Bay, full of little Creeks; the Coaſt ſtill ſtretching away S. E. This Vulcan of Sapotittlan, is a great Vulcan; and it is all towards the Sea-ſide very full of Trees. I have heard that before the Spaniards found out Mexico, this Mountain burnt out moſt terribly, and threw out Fire in ſo large a quantity, that it deſtroyed many Towns and Villages, with many Fields of Maiz or Indian Corn; and that the Mexican Prieſts foretold by this unuſual Accident, that their Kingdom ſhould be loſt to ſtrangers, who were contrary to them both in Religion, Colour, Habit and Cuſtoms. But ſince the coming of the Spaniards, I have not heard of its doing any hurt. This Vulcan lies in the Latitude of 13 d. 51 m. N. and we found variation near it, 2 d 51 m. Weſterly.
From this Vulcan of Sapotittlan, to the Vulcan of Sacatepeque, is ſix Leagues. This Vulcan is in form almoſt like to a Beehive. [Page 112] year 1704 It is a very great Mountain, and throws out vaſt quantities of Fire: ſo that this is, and the other formerly has been accounted, the wonder of this part of the World. To the Eaſtward of the Eaſtermoſt of theſe two Vulcans, is a River of good freſh Water, called by the ſame Name, but hard to come at, becauſe there runs ſo great a Sea; and beſides, here is no Port to go in with a Ship.
From the Vulcan of Sacatepeque, to the Vulcan of Attitlan, is ſeven Leagues. The Coaſt runs N. W. and S. E. This is a very large Mountain, commonly caſting out Smoke. It lies in the Latitude of 13 d. 25 m. N. and we found variation off it 3 d. Weſterly. A little to the S. E. of the ſaid Vulcan, is a River of the ſame name; and upon the Banks of the River are ſaid to be ſeveral pretty little Indian Towns; about which are ſeveral Gardens of ſeveral ſorts of Fruits, with ſeveral Plantations of Maiz, and many Walks of Cocoas.
From this River of Attitlan, to the River of Anabaces, is four Leagues: Between which two Rivers the Land is not very high: And by the Sea-ſide are a great many Cocoa-nut-walks; but the Sea falls with ſuch great force upon the Shore, that there is no landing with a Boat to get them.
[Page 113] year 1704 From the River of Anabaces to the fiery Vulcan of Guatimala, is eight Leagues. The Coaſt continues ſtill to ſtretch away N. W. and S. E. This Vulcan of Guatimala commonly throws out Fire, but moſtly in the rainy Seaſon; which is from the latter end of April to the beginning of October. For the Rain then falling on it, makes it burn the fiercer. Behind this Vulcan is ſaid to be the great City of Guatimala, which conſiſts of 8500 Families, beſides the Suburbs called St Domingo; in which may be about 350 Families more, beſides innumerable of Mullattoes, Moſteſe and Indians. It is accounted, next to Lima and Mexico, to be the biggeſt and beſt traded City in all America. It is govern'd by a Preſident; who in his own Territories, is as great as the Vice-Roys, (of Peru and Mexico,) and is not ſubordinate to either of Them, but only to the Council of Spain. The Natives of this place are very expert in Feather-work. They will make either Fiſh, Fowl, or Beaſt; Flowers, Trees, Herbs and Roots to admiration; nay, they will for a whole Day eat nothing, only to place one Feather in its due Perfection; turning and toſſing the Feather to the light of the Sun, and then in the Shade, to ſee in which it looks beſt, and ſo accordingly place it. At this place groweth abundance of Cocoa. [Page 114] year 1704 Beef, Mutton and Veal, is here ſo cheap, that for a Ryal, which is ſeven pence halfpenny, one may buy 25 Pounds. This famous City has been twice deſtroy'd by two dreadful Mountains, which ſtand near it; the one being of Water, which drowned it; and the other of Fire, which formerly burnt it; but now the Spaniards have removed the City three leagues further off; where they now live without fear of the two Vulcans; although, as I ſaid before, that of Fire continually burns all the Winter, but without doing them damage, becauſe the City is ſo far off. Off theſe two Vulcans we took a Bark of about eighty Tuns in her Ballaſt, nam'd the St John.
From the fiery Vulcan to the River of Yſtapa, is eight leagues. In it is a ſmall Village of Indians, who are moſt of them Slaves to the Spaniards of Guatimala. The Coaſt here runs N. W. and S. E. The River Yſtapa bears with the Mountains of Guatimala N. W. and S. E. You may know where the River is, by this following Sign; In the middle, overagainſt the higheſt part of the Trees, is the Bar; and it lies South Eaſt from the Mountains of Guatimala. Take them upon what Point of the Compaſs you pleaſe, they will always appear in a Triangle.
[Page 115] year 1704 From the River of Yſtapa to the River of Monticalco de los eſclavos or the River of Slaves, is thirteen leagues. This River is much peſtered with North Winds. To know the River, you muſt obſerve there are on the Sea-Coaſt ſome little high Mounts; In the Bar there are no Trees, any further than half a league diſtance on each ſide. But all this Part of the Coaſt (except it be near the Bar) is full of Trees. Along the Sea-Coaſt from Guatimala to this place, is all good Anchor-ground, and ſafe anchoring.
From the River Monticalco, to the Point of Remidias, alias Sonſonate, alias Trinidad, is thirteen leagues. The Point of Remidias is low Land; and there is a tract of Shoals that come above a league from it into the Sea; take heed of them. The beſt anchoring is in twelve fathom Water, right off the River, which is the Port of Sonſonate. [Note: See Fig. XXIV.] This Sonſonate is one of the greateſt places of Trade on the Coaſt of Mexico. It lies in the Latitude of 13 d. 20 m. North. This famous place leads to a Country as populous as any in America. At the Sea-ſide are ſaid to be thirty Houſes, moſt Ware-houſes; And it is govern'd by a Teniente under the Governour of Trinidad.
From this Port to the City of Trinidad, is ſix leagues. It is ſaid to have five [Page 114] [...] [Page 115] [...] [Page 116] year 1704 Pariſh Churches, with between four and five hundred Spaniſh Families. In each Pariſh are ſpacious Walks and Gardens of Pleaſure, all very artificially made. Along the Coaſt is very high Land. When you are right off the Port of Sonſonate, you will have the Valley of Salvadore open, where ſtands a Church and a ſmall Town called Guagamoco. The chief Commodity along this Coaſt, is Cocoa: There is ſome trading from Mexico to this place, and from Port Cavalles in the North Sea; but the moſt and greateſt Trade they have, is from the two great Empires of Peru and Chili.
From Point Remidias to the Vulcan of Iſalco, is three leagues. This Vulcan at certain times ſmoaks very much, and about it are great heaps of Aſhes. You may know it by its being ſituated amongſt a great many high Mountains, that are higher than it; and you may ſee them from the end of the Deſerts of Balſamo. From this Vulcan begin the Mountains of Morcois. Although it has abundance of ſmoak iſſuing out of it, yet I never heard that it caſt out any thing elſe.
From this Vulcan of Iſalco to the Vulcan of St Salvadore, is five Leagues. The appearance of it is like unto a Turks Turbant. Between the two ſaid Vulcans, cloſe by the Sea-ſide, is the Barnadillo, [Page 117] year 1704 which is a high ſteep Rock, on one ſide appearing like a Pyramid. And mid-way between the Barnadillo and the Vulcan of St Salvadore, is a freſh Water River, whoſe Banks are very well peopled with Indians.
From the Vulcan of St Salvadore to the great Vulcan of Sacatelepa, is ſix leagues. This Vulcan ſtands near the Sea-ſide. In the Year 1643, it was ſaid to burſt out, throwing out Sulphur and Aſhes, which ſtopt the ways, and ſpoiled ſeveral Fields of Corn.
From hence to the great River of Lempa, is one league. That River has a great many Sands at the Mouth; but they are viſible; ſo that you may ſteer in amongſt them, without any danger. It is one of the biggeſt (if not the biggeſt) on the Weſt-ſide of the Empire of Mexico. It is alſo ſaid by the Spaniards to be a priviledged River; ſo that a Man who hath committed Murther, or any other Crime worthy of Death or Impriſonment, if he can make his eſcape to the other ſide, he is free ſo long as he liveth there; and no Juſtice or any Other on that ſide, can queſtion or any way trouble him for the ſaid Crime. At this River Lempa begins the pleaſant Country of St Michaels.
The Town of St Michaels is a large Town, ſaid to conſiſt of eight hundred Spaniſh Families, and hath ſeven fair and [Page 118] year 1704 very rich Churches in it, with ſeveral ſmall Chapels: And behind a great Vulcan, called the Vulcan of St. Michaels, is a great Lagune, whoſe Borders are very well peopled, with a mixture of Spaniards, Mullattoes, Moſteſe and Indians. In a place here called the Red Creek, are ſaid to be built Ships of 800 Tuns. This Country is very plentiful of all Neceſſaries. The Earth brings forth Corn, Wine and Oil, almoſt without Man's help. At the Mouth of the River of St Michael (on the Banks of which the Town is ſituated) you will at low water have two fathom. In going in, the Spaniards always keep the Vulcan due North: And then there is no danger. It was from this Vulcan that we took our departure, when we quitted theſe parts to proceed on our Voyage for India. Over the River of St Michaels, the Spaniards have built a wooden Bridge. The Coaſt ſtill continues to run North Eaſt and South Weſt.
Near to the Vulcan of St Michaels, is the Gulf of Amapalla. This Gulf is eight or nine leagues deep, and four wide. At its Mouth are two large Iſlands; the one called Amapalla, and the other Mangera; and within is the Iſland Conchagua; at which we wooded and watered our Bark at our going to India. There are a great many other Iſlands in the Gulf; but none of [Page 119] year 1704 them inhabited, except Mangera and Amapalla. Amapalla is the biggeſt, and on it is a ſmall Indian Town or two of the ſame Name. There are two entrances into this Gulf; the one between Point Caſivina and the Iſland Mangera; and the other between the Iſland Mangera, and the Iſland of Amapalla: But that between Point Caſivina and the Iſland Mangera, has the deepeſt Water; yet it is better going in at the other, becauſe with the Sea-wind you can run in at once. The nearer you come to any of theſe Iſlands, you will find the Water the deeper; For the Gulf is moſtly ſhallow Water; And we were forced to keep the Lead going. At our coming out in our Bark, between Amapalla and Mangera we had often not above two fathom Water. The chief Town of Amapalla is mightily increaſed of late. For in it there is now ſaid to be above a hundred Spaniſh Houſes. It hath a great Traffick for its Cochineel, Cocoa, Hides, Indico, and all ſorts of Proviſions. It is govern'd by a Teniente under the Preſident of Guatimala. There is another Village at the bottom of the Gulf, called Chuluteca. In it are about thirty or forty Indian Houſes, with not above two or three Spaniards amongſt them. They live by ſelling Proviſions, which they truck for other Commodities; But theſe [Page 120] year 1704 two or three Spaniards will not ſuffer the poor Indians to trade for themſelves, ſaying, that Strangers will cheat them; and fail not to do it themſelves, of three fourths of what they are entruſted with. Were it not for theſe unlawful ſhifts, the lazy Spaniards would not grow ſo rich as they do. Here are a great many Sands, Rivers and Shoals in this Gulf; and the chief place of anchoring for the Spaniſh Ships, is on the N. E. ſide of the Iſland of Amapalla in nine, ten and eleven fathom: [Note: See Fig. XXV] Although we anchored at the Iſland Conchagua. The Iſland of Amapalla makes the Weſt, as Point Caſivina does the Eaſt point of the Gulf. The Point Caſivina is a high rocky Point, which at a diſtance looks like an Iſland. It lies in the Latitude of 12 d, 45 N. and I reckon Longitude from London Weſt, 97 d. 30 m. We found here 3 d. 26 m. weſterly variation. The water we found to riſe and fall nine Foot; and it is very full of Worms. At this place we caught ſeveral ſorts of Fiſh; but the moſt remarkable was the Shovelnos'd-Shark, and a Fiſh by the Indians called a Ceawau.
The Ceawau [Note: See Fig. XXVI.] was a Fiſh of about four Foot long. He had three Fins on his Back; viz. one ſmall one at the hinderpart of his Head, a great one near the middle of his Back, and another ſmall one towards his Tail. He had alſo two ſmall ones underneath, near the Gills; and two ſmall ones underneath, near the Tail; with two pretty large ones on each ſide, near the Gills. He had a large Mouth, and Teeth. He was an extraordinary good Fiſh; and his Head, when boiled, was nothing but a pure good Jelly. He was full of ſmall Spots and Partings, as is expreſs'd in the Figure. And the tip of his Fins and Tail was Yellow.
From the Point of Caſivina to the Meſſa de Roldon, or the Hill of Roldon, is 5 leagues. It is a plain Hill; and at the top is a Table; near which is the Port of Martin Lopez; a fine Port, but very ſeldom made uſe of, for want of Trade. It is a very noted place, having on the top of it a great many white Clifts.
From the Port of Ria Lexa to the River de Toſta, is three leagues. This River is ſometimes dry; but if it were not, yet the Sea runs ſo high, and falls with ſuch force upon the Shore, that there is no landing near it.
[Page 124] year 1704 From the Mountains of Sutaba to the great Vulcan of Telica, is four leagues. This Vulcan is a great deal higher than all the Mountains near it, and it continually throws out many Stones, and ſmokes very much. It is a very windy and hard Coaſt, and no Port near it.
From the Vulcan of Telica to the Vulcan of Leon Mamotombo, is ſix leagues. This Vulcan formerly burſt out at the top with Fire, and was ſaid to do much hurt to all the Country for nine or ten Miles round; but it has ceaſed ſince, and ſuffers the Inhabitants to live in peace; altho' ſometimes it will ſmoak; all the ſulphurous Matter being not quite exhauſted. The Spaniards tell a Story of a Spaniſh Friar, who thought to have diſcovered ſome Treaſure within this Vulcan, which might enrich himſelf and all the Country; he being poſſeſt in his own Mind that the ſtuff which burned within this Mount, was Gold; whereupon he cauſed a great Iron-Kettle to be made, and hung it to an Iron-Chain, and let it down, thinking to draw up Gold enough to buy him a Biſhoprick; but ſuch was the power and great heat of the Fire within, that he had no ſooner let it down, but both Kettle and Chain melted away, and ſo fruſtrated the poor Friar of his hoped for Biſhoprick. Beyond this Vulcan, more within Land is [Page 125] ſ year 1704 ituated the City of Leon, from which the Vulcan took its Name. The Spaniards ſay there are eleven Churches in it, and about a Thouſand Houſes well built, with many good Gardens and Orchards, in which are many fine Water-works in the ſhapes of Birds, Beaſts and Fowls. The Inhabitants are ſaid to be very rich, driving a great Trade both by the North and South Seas. It is ruled by a Governour, who is not ſubordinate to any but the Vice-roy of Mexico and the Council of Spain.
From this Vulcan of Leon to the Mountain of Martiare, is two leagues. This Mountain is very plain, and has a Table on the top. At the Weſt end of it, is a fine ſmall Cove, and at the bottom of the Cove a River of freſh Water; but here falls ſo great a Sea upon the ſhore, that there is no landing.
From the Mountain of Martiare to the Port of St John, is five leagues. In this Port they commonly build ſmall Veſſels; but here often runs ſo great a Sea, that no Boat can go aſhore, unleſs by chance. This is a pretty good Port, and in it you are defended from the N. W. and other Northerly Winds. At the Eaſt point of this Port lie four ſmall Iſlands, or rather Rocks, which make a good defence for the Port againſt S. E. Winds; and at the bottom of the Port, in the middle, is a River of freſh Water.
[Page 126] year 1704 From hence to the Point of St Catharine, is fifteen leagues. And between them is the Gulf of Popogajo, an ill place to go aſhore in, and worſe to ride in, being very windy, but eſpecially from April to the latter end of September, which is the time for the North Winds. From this Gulf you will ſee within Land the great Vulcan of Granada; and near the Seaſide ſtands the Vulcan of Bombacho; both caſting out much ſmoak. They are two noted Vulcans; That of Granada, up in the Country, is in form of a Bee-Hive; the other of Bombacho, which ſtands near the Sea-ſide, hath three high Peeks on the top of it. In the middle of the Gulf, is a River of freſh Water; but the Sea falls with ſo great force upon the Shore, that there is no landing near it: And in the middle of the Gulf, by the Sea-ſide, the Land is low; till you come to the great Mountain of Popogajo; which is a vaſt high Mountain, and is in form of a Sugarloaf. It is called Popogajo, from the abundance of Parrots that continually reſort about it. This Mountain ſtands upon the Point of St Catharine, which is low Land; and off it lie two Rocks or ſmall Iſlands.
From theſe Rocks or ſmall Iſlands to the Port of Velas, is nine leagues. The Coaſt runs N. N. W. and S. S. E. About [Page 127] year 1704 three leagues to the S. E. of the Point of St Catharine, are two Rocks more, which are of a whitiſh Colour: And from thence to the S. E. diſtance two leagues, is a River of freſh Water, called the River of Velas; but at the Mouth of it, are ſeveral Sands and Shoals. At this River to the South Eaſtward the Land begins to be mountainous. In the Port of Velas is the Vulcan of Zapanzas; and in the Eaſt part of the Port, near the Port, are many Sands ſtretching from the ſhore for a mile. At the bottom of the Port, which is at the S. E. end, is a good freſh Water River; at which you may water your Ship if occaſion be: And right off the ſaid River, is the anchoring place. To the Weſt of the anchoring place, is a bluff Point ſtretching out into the Sea; and about this Point are a great many Shoals and Rocks, with foul Ground, which ſtretch near three leagues into the Sea. Come not near them, for they are very dangerous. Theſe Rocks are called Velas, becauſe at a diſtance they look like a Ship under Sail.
From theſe Rocks to the Mount of Hermozo, is ſeven leagues, S. S. E. This Hermozo is a high Hill, but higher at the Weſt than Eaſt end. It runs out butting into the Sea, and from thence grows higher and higher within Land. At this [Page 128] year 1704 Mount of Hermozo, you may ſee the Port of Velas: And between theſe two places is a little high Iſland, which is two leagues from the ſhoar. Whether there be any ſailing for a Ship between it and the Main, I know not.
From the Mount of Hermozo to the Cape of Gajones, is eight Leagues. The Coaſt runs S. E. by E. and N. W. by W. all along mountainous and very bad and rocky, and no port for any Ship to anchor in. The Cape of Gajones, is a very noted Cape: It is not altogether ſo high as the Mount of Hermozo; but on the top it is very even and plain. It goes down on the Weſt with a bending like a Saddle, which joins it to the Mount of Hermoſo; and alſo on the Eaſt it bends down in like manner, and is joined to another Mountain, which Mountain is plain and even on the top, and in all reſpects looks like the Cape of Gajones; only the Cape of Gajones is ſomething fuller of Trees; and to know them from each other, you muſt note that the Weſtermoſt of the ſaid two even Mountains, is the Cape.
From the Cape of Gajones, to Cape Blanco is twelve leagues. In the way are two dangerous Shoals; they lie diſtant from the Main about one league, and at low Water may be ſeen almoſt dry. Between the two aforeſaid Capes is a ſmall [Page 129] year 1704 Bay, called the Bay of Caldera. Your beſt anchoring is at the North-part of it, at which place you may ſee the River of Sparca, diſtant about half a league; at which is ſaid to be excellent good wooding and watering; and upon the Banks of the River are ſituated ſeveral ſmall Indian Towns and Villages. Cape Blanco or White Cape, is the Weſtermoſt Point of the Gulf of Nicoya; as the Herradura is the Eaſt. The Cape lies in the Latitude of 10 d. 20 m. North. To the N. W. of it, lie three ſmall low Iſlands, diſtant from it about a league. The Cape is high Land, but higher within Land than near the Water-ſide. It is very full of tall Trees of ſeveral ſorts; and at the pitch of the Cape is a ſmall Iſland very full of Trees. The Land is of a whitiſh Colour, perhaps occaſioned by the Dung of Fowls; of which there are a great many that reſort thither, as they do to all the Iſlands in the Gulf. This Iſland at a diſtance looks as if it joined to the Cape; and it being of a whitiſh Colour, as I ſaid before, gives name to the Cape. From this Cape Blanco Northward along the Coaſt of Mexico, until you come to the Gulf of Amapalla, many times for two or three days together, you will meet with hard Gales of Wind from the Land, which are called Popagajos: Theſe Winds are very frequent in the [Page 130] year 1704 Months of May, June, July, and Auguſt; which is the worſt of the bad Weather Monſoon, or Winter time here.
From the Herradura which makes the Eaſt-point of this Gulf of Nicoya, to the River Eſtrella or Star-River, is eleven Leagues. The Coaſt runs N. W. by W. and S. E. by E; the Land ſomething mountainous and ſteep. Near this River are the Sierras de los Coronados, or the Crowned Mountains. Theſe are very noted Mountains, ſo that there is none like them on all the Coaſt. They are five or ſix Ridges of Mountains, each gradually ſurmounting the other; and thoſe within the Land are higheſt. At the Weſt end of theſe Mountains are four Rocks, called by the Spaniards Farallones de Queipo. You may ſail between them and the Main, and there is deep Water enough. Theſe Rocks are bare, having no Trees or Buſhes on them.
From hence to the Iſland Caneo, is four Leagues. This Iſland is a League round, and indifferent high Land, well clothed with ſtreight and tall Trees. It lies in the Latitude of 10 d. N. The anchoring place is on the N. E. ſide, in fourteen fathom Water, a quarter of a Mile off the ſhore; where you may wood and water. Upon this Iſland are ſaid to be ſome few wild Hogs; but for what purpoſe they were firſt ſet aſhore here, I know not: [Page 134] year 1704 For the Iſland is uninhabited. There ar [...] ſeveral ſmall Iſlands and ſhoals, which ly [...] about it towards the North and Weſt and to the N. E. by E. is Punta mala o [...] bad Point; and within this Punta mala i [...] a deep and fine Bay, wherein Sir Thoma [...] Cavendiſh formerly cleaned his Ship. The ſhore is full of Shoals; therefore keep a good League off it. Punta mala is low, and from it there ſtretch out ſeveral Sands and Shoals; and in the middle of the Sands is a ſmall Iſland, which at a diſtance ſhows like a Ship under ſail. It is an even Country, but very woody; and in the Woods are ſaid to be ſtore of Deer. The Coaſt runs N. W. by W. and S. E. by E.
From Punta mala to the Golfo Dulce or ſweet Gulf, is nine Leagues; the Land pretty even and woody. Within this Gulf is a very good Harbour, and the Water is very ſmooth. This is accounted as good a Gulf to ride in, as the Gulf of Nicoya; and in it you are ſecure from all Winds; nay even from the Spaniards themſelves; for the Sea-Coaſt is clear of them; but here are Indians, who are very friendly to the Engliſh. They are but few, and live here to ſhun the Spaniards. Yet they are obliged to pay half the Fiſh they catch, to the Fryar of a Town which is four Leagues up in the [Page 135] year 1704 Country. They have here ſtore of Honey, Plantains, and Caſſavy-root. Here are two Rivers at the bottom of this Gulf, where there is good wooding and watering; and here is good laying a Ship a ground to clean; for the Water riſes and and falls nine or ten Foot at Spring-tides. The Country is mountainous and very woody; and here are a great many Walks of Plantains and Coco-nuts; and in the Woods are ſtore of wild Deer. At the Weſt-entrance of this Gulf are two Rocks, from which to the Point of Burica is five Leagues. This is a low Point, running into the Sea. From the Southward it ſhows like two Iſlands. It is ſhoal a good way off; therefore with a great Ship keep a good League and half off ſhore. This Point is full of Coco-nut-trees. Right off it, diſtance about a League and half, is a Rock; and there is no going between it and the ſaid Point. To the Eaſtward of the Point of Burica, (which lyes in the Latitude of 09 d. 00 m. N.) the Land makes a long and deep Bay, in which are a great many Iſlands Rivers, Rocks, Shoals and Sands; but the moſt noted is the River of Chirique, which lyes in the middle and bottom of the Bay, and on the Banks of which is ſituated a Spaniſh Town of the ſame Name with the River. In it are about fifty Houſes, built of Brick, [Page 136] year 1704 and covered with Palmeto-leaves. You may ſee hence within the Land a Hill called Barn, at whoſe Foot is another ſmall Town of about forty or fifty Houſes. The Trade here is moſtly for Muntego, (Butter,) Indigo, Pitch, Tarr, and Proviſions of all ſorts; which is the common Trade of all this Coaſt. The River of Chirique is ſeldom without Shipping, which bring Trade to it from the City of Panama and other places in the Country. It is ſaid to be very well people with Spaniards, Mullattoes, Moſteſe and Indians. And in the Woods is ſaid to be plenty of Beeves, Deer, and wild Hogs. The moſt noted Iſland in this Bay, is the Island of Montuoſa. This Island is round and high, and near it are two Rocks, called the Ladrones. They are diſtant from each other three quarters of a Mile. And at the South end of the Island is a Shoal of Sand, which runs a Mile into the Sea. Further in the Bay are ſeveral other Towns, Villages, Rivers and Islands: Particularly the Town of Puebla Nova or the New-town; (although now it is of an old ſtanding;) which is three Leagues from the Sea-ſide up a River of the ſame Name; in which Ships are ſaid to ride in four fathom VVater, not above half a Mile from the Town. VVithin the Mouth of this River, on the Lar-board ſide going in, is a Rock called [Page 137] year 1704 Silva, from the continual Noiſe it makes in the Night like Muſick. But here Captain Sawkins, formerly paid the Piper. For going aſhore to take the Town of Puebla Nova, he was killed by an Ambuſcade of the Spaniards; at which they are very dextrous, and had rather fight ſo lurking amongſt Trees and Buſhes, than face their Enemy in open Field; unleſs they happen to be fifteen or twenty to one; and then they will face you bravely in the open Field. This Coaſt is famous for Pearl-fiſhing. For at moſt of theſe Islands are built Huts, on purpoſe for the Fiſhers, who are Indians, and are Servants to the Spaniards that live upon the Main. Not far from them the Main is woody and full of wild Deer, who are not eaſily ſcared. Alſo here are a great many Turtle, who are very large, fat and ſweet. Here are alſo abundance of Fiſh, which are extraordinary good.
Not far from hence is the Iſland of Quibo. This Iſland lies in the Latitude of 7 d. 10 m. North. At it are a great many Turtle: The Iſland is pretty low, but ſtored with ſeveral ſorts of Medicinal Herbs, called by the Spaniards, Herba Maria. The Iſland is all round full of large and tall Trees; and upon it in ſeveral places is to be found very good Water. There is good anchoring at this Iſland in ten and twelve fathom [Page 138] year 1704 Water, not above half a mile from the Shore. At this Iſland they fell a great deal of Timber, with which they build ſmall Veſſels, accounted the beſt in theſe Parts.
Off the South-point of this Iſland, lyeth another Iſland called Quicara. It bears S. S. W. from Quibo, diſtance one league. Between theſe two Iſlands is a very good Channel, through which you may paſs ſecurely without any danger, and come to an anchor in Quicara Road, which lyeth in a Bay. On the N. E. part of thi [...] Bay is pretty deep Water; and in the middle of it cometh a River over-againſt a Rock, near to which Rock is twenty fathom Water. If you pleaſe to go aſhore with your Boat to get Wood, Water and Coco-nuts, you muſt go between the Rock and the Point, which will defend you from the S. S. W. Winds.
On the North-part of the Iſland o [...] Quibo, is the Iſland Rancheria, which is a ſmall but very woody Iſland; and th [...] Trees which grow on it, are ſaid to b [...] very good for Maſts, which uſe the Spaniards often put them to. There are a grea [...] many Iſlands more hereabouts, with ſeveral good Ports and Rivers, that you ma [...] enter with a Ship of ſix hundred Tun [...] The Bay is full of Iſlands, and no dange [...] in any of them but what is viſible. Th [...] [Page 139] year 1704 Coaſt is all ſecure; only you will find great and uncertain Currents, occaſioned by the many Bays, Iſlands and Rivers in it. And moſt of theſe Iſlands are very well clothed with tall Trees, and afford very good Water.
From Point Canales to Point Mariato, the Land makes another Bay; in which are alſo a great many Iſlands and Rivers, which have ſeveral of them large Sholes ſtretching from them into the Sea. Between theſe two Points is an Iſland, called the Govanadore. On it is ſaid to be good Wood and Water; and here are ſome Negroes, who are Slaves to the Spaniards that come hither to cut Timber, of which here is good ſtore. This is a ſmall round Iſland, and hath at its Weſt Point a Shole of Sand, which runneth into the Sea about a Mile.
A little to the Northward of this Iſland of Govanadore, and further into the Bay is another Iſland, called the Leones; in which is good Wood and Water. It is a much larger Iſland than the Iſland of Govanadore, and has a Shole of Sand quite round the Eaſt-ſide of it. There is a Channel between theſe two Iſlands; but when you go through, take care that you keep the Lead going, and have a care of the Eaſt Point of Leones and the Weſt Point of Govanadore. Here are a great many other Iſlands, [Page 140] year 1704 Rivers and Rocks; but none of any note, till you come to the Point of Mariato; neither is there any, or but very little, Trade here by ſhipping.
The Point of Mariato is high Land; and near it are the Mountains of Guarco, which are very high Mountains, and very woody; and amongſt theſe Mountains is the Moro de Porcos, or the Mountain of Hogs. It is a high round Hill, as high as any of the Mountains of Guarco. There are great ſtore of Hogs which run wild up and down theſe Mountains; from whence, I ſuppoſe, this Mount of Porcos took its Name.
From the Point of Mariato to the Point of Higuera, is eighteen leagues; the Coaſt running Eaſt and Weſt; In all which diſtance it is clear and good Anchor-ground. Two leagues to the Weſtward of Point Higuera, is the Mount of Porcos; and right againſt it is a fine Bay; at the entrance of which, on the Eaſt-ſide, is a ſhole of Sand, and in the midſt of the ſhole is a little Rock: Take heed how you come near it. On the other ſide, at the Weſt Point of the ſaid Bay, is a ſmall Iſland; near which is the beſt Anchor-ground; And at the bottom of the Bay, is a River of freſh Water.
From the Point of Higuera to Puntamala, is fourteen leagues. The Coaſt runs [Page 141] year 1704 W. S. W. and E. N. E. Between theſe Points are two Rocks called, the Two Friars: You may ſail ſafely between them and the Main Land, or in the Channel between them both, or without them both, according as you think fit. Here are ſeveral ſmall Rivers of no great note or uſe; as the River Caſcajales, the River Oria, and ſeveral others. Upon Punta-mala is a ſmall Village of Indians and Spaniards, called the Village of Captain Luis del Gado. This Punta-mala is certainly very juſtly ſo named. Do not by any means come near it with your Ship; for it hath an innumerable company of Rocks and Sholes, that ſtretch out above a league into the Sea. Near this Point are kept a great many Farms of Beeves.
A little to the Northward of this bad Point, is the Iſland Guanoes; which has a very good anchoring-place on the North-Eaſt ſide, next the Main Land, in eighteen fathom water, in a ſandy Bay, where you are defended from moſt VVinds. The Iſland is not very high, and it is well clothed with many tall Trees; and on it is very good water. Right over againſt it, on the Main, are ſeveral ſorts of Proviſions to be had; as Beef, Pork, Bread, Flower, &c. if you are ſtrong enough to take it. And if you have a mind to lay your Ship aſhore to clean, the Island Guanoes is a good place.
[Page 142] year 1704 From this Island to the Town of Nata, is fourteen Leagues; the Land pretty low by the Sea-ſide, with ſeveral Rivers; but the chief, next to that of Nata, is the River of Saints; on the Banks of which is ſituated a Village of the ſame name, called by the Spaniards, Villa de los Santos. It is a ſmall Village of not above eighteen or twenty Houſes, moſtly Indians. Why it is called the Village of Saints, I know not. About ſeven leagues from this Village of Saints, is the Town of Nata; between which two places are four or five ſmall Rivers, and abundance of Sholes near the main Land. The Town of Nata is a large and well-compacted Town, ſituated upon the Banks of a River of the ſame Name. It has great trade with Panama, ſelling them Proviſions, as Cows, Hogs, Fowls, Maiz, &c. Here are ſeveral other Towns of note: But though they are as great and populous as Nata, yet they have not any of them ſo many white Men; for the mixt Blood is ſo ſpread, that for one White, here are a hundred Blacks and Mullattoes, who are of a yellow colour, between black and white.
From Nata the Coaſt ſtretches in Mountains and Hills; and the water is ſo ſhole, that there is ſcarce any coming in for a Ship; but if there were, here is never a Port. Although it is high and mountainous [Page 143] year 1704 in the Country, yet by the water-ſide the Land is not very high. Between the Town of Nata and the Point de Chaine, are ſeveral Rivers; and behind the Hills is a Valley, called Sapo; from whence they fetch Hogs and Fowls for the City of Panama, as they do from moſt places hereabouts. Along this Coaſt Ships ought to keep two or three Leagues off Shore, or elſe they will meet with broken Ground and ſunk Rocks: But the Coaſt has many freſh-water Rivers full of ſeveral ſorts of very good Fiſh, which the Indians catch and ſend ſeveral Leagues round; Fiſhing being an Employ peculiar to theſe Indians, though it rewards them but very ſlenderly, becauſe they pay ſuch great Cuſtoms out of it to the Spaniards.
A Particular Deſcription of the Coaſt of Peru. The Bay of Panama. The City of Panama. Iſland of Perica. The Iſland Tabago. The Kings Iſlands. The Iſland Chepelio. Cheapo River and Town. The Iſland Planta. Cape St Lorenzo. The Gulf of St Michaels. Point Garachina. Port Pinas. Ports of Quemado and Santa Clara. Bay of St Antonio. The River of Sande. Cape Corrientes. Bay and River of Bonaventura. The Iſland Palmas. Gorgonia. Gallo. Tomaco River and Town. The Ancon of Sardinas. The River of St Jago. Bay of St Mattheo. The Bay of Tacames. The Point of Gallera. Cape St Franciſco. The Rainy Seaſon from California to Cape St Franciſco; beyond which, the Rains ſeldom extend to the Southward: And th [...] [Page 145] year 1704 ſame obſerved concerning the Worms. Apottete. The Rivers of Cogimes. Mountains and Village of Coaque. Cape Paſſao. The Bay of Caracas. Manta. A remarkable Obſervation of the Wind between Cape Paſſao and Cape Blanco. Cape St Lorenzo. The Iſland Plata. Salongo. The Rocks Ahoreados. The River and Iſland Colanche. Town and Point of St Hellena. Bay of Guiaquil. Point Chandy. The Iſlands St Clara and Puna. Guiaquil. Point Arena. The River Tumbes. Cape Blanco. Point Parina. An Obſervation of the Winds upon the Coaſts of Peru and Chili. Port of Payta and the River Colan. Mountains of Motapa. The Iſlands, Lobos de Terra and Lobos de la Mar. The Ports of Chiripi and Pacaſmayo. Malabrigo. Chicama. Truxillo. The Iſland of Saints. Port of Coſma. Of Vermejo. Mount of Mongon. Port of Guarmey. [Page 146] year 1704 The Port of Guara. Of Chancay. The Rocks Piſcadores. The Iſlands Ormigas. Callau. Lima. Port of Chilca. Guarco. Chinca. Piſco. High Land, without Rain or Rivers. Several ſmall Ports. Mount of Atico. Vulcan of Ariquipa. Port and River of Ylo. Arica. Bay of Majalones. Mount of Moreno.
AT the Point de Chaine begins the great Bay of Panama; which is the greateſt Sea-port, next Lima, of any on the Weſt-ſide of this great Continent of America. It is ſaid to have eight Pariſh Churches, thirty ſmall Chappels, and to contain ſix Thouſand and five Hundred Houſes, moſt of them well built of Brick and Stone. It is very well fortified, and walled all round with Stone: The City is governed by a Preſident under the Viceroy of Peru; it being part of his Territories. On the back-ſide of the City, is a very pleaſant and fruitful Country. The Land is not very high, but full of ſmall Hills, and fine pleaſant Valleys, in which there are ſeveral fine Gardens of ſeveral ſorts of Fruit. This is a place of the greateſt Trade of any in the South [Page 147] year 1704 Seas, not excepting even Lima the Metropolis. For this City has the conveniency of Trade both from the North and South Sea: From the North Sea, it receives all or moſt of the European Goods which are brought by the Spaniards to Portobel or Carthagena, or by any other Nation trading on the North-ſide: And theſe European Goods are from hence by ſhipping in the South Sea ſent to Guiaquill, Truxillo, Lima, Arica, Coquimbo, Govanadore, Valpirizo and Valdivia, with ſeveral other noted places; from whence they return back richly laden with the Commodities of theſe Parts. But now the French having a trade amongſt them, and ſupplying them with all European Neceſſaries, it hinders this City mightily; and the Spaniards, as far as we could hear, whilſt we were in theſe Parts, had rather have their room than their Company. However the French at preſent make very great and profitable Voyages; and now that they find the ſweet of it, they will be ſure, if they can, to ſettle a firm and laſting Trade here. For, as we have been aſſured by ſeveral Spaniſh Captains whom we took, they have made better than 5000 per Cent. of their Goods, one with another. This City ſtood formerly four Miles to the Eaſtward of the place where it now ſtands; But it being taken and kept a Month by [Page 148] year 1704 Sir Henry Morgan, and by misfortune burnt three times ſince; they thought the place unlucky, and ſo built it by the Seaſide where it now ſtands. It is now much larger, ſtronger and better built, than it was before. The Port of Perica is the Harbour for Panama; but diſtant from it three Miles. For the great ebbing and ſhoalneſs of the Water, will not ſuffer any great Ship to come any nearer than the ſaid Iſland of Perica, which is far out of Command of their Guns at Panama: Therefore ſhipping may eaſily be taken out. But although great Ships are forced to lie here, yet ſmall Veſſels run through a little Creek cloſe up to the City.
From Panama to the Iſland Tabago, is between five and ſix Leagues, and they bear nearly North and South from each other. This Iſland of Tabago, is in length one league, in breadth about half a league. The Iſland is high and mountainous, but higheſt at the South end. It is very well clothed with Trees of ſeveral ſorts; and on it are ſeveral Walks of Plantains, Bonanoes, Coco-nuts, &c. which they ſend to ſell at Panama. Upon this Iſland, on the North-ſide, is a ſmall Village of thatcht Houſes, inhabited by Negroes, who are Slaves to the Gentlemen at Panama, and are kept here on purpoſe to look after their [Page 149] year 1704 Walks of Fruit. Right againſt the ſaid ſmall Village is the common anchoring place, in which there is tolerable good anchoring in ſeventeen or eighteen fathom Water. There are two other ſmall Iſlands juſt by it; They are both very well clothed wth Woods; aad on them are ſome few Negroes, as there is upon moſt or all of theſe Iſlands in the Bay of Panama.
To the South Eaſt of theſe Iſlands is a great range of Iſlands, called the Kings Iſlands; they are moſt of them pretty low and pleaſant Iſlands, and very well clothed with tall ſtreight Trees of ſeveral ſorts. About them are a great many very good anchoring places; and upon moſt of them is good Wood, Water and Fruit. They are in all about forty in number. On the great Iſland called the Kings Iſland (which gives name to all the reſt) the Spaniards build good Veſſels, which are commonly counted pretty good Sailers. You muſt obſerve, that amongſt theſe Iſlands you will hardly find much more or leſs than ſixty fathom Water, unleſs you are very near them. Amongſt theſe Iſlands the Water riſes and falls ten foot perpendicular.
From Panama to the Iſland Chepelio, is eight Leagues. Upon this Iſland are ſome Mullattoes and Negroes, belonging to the [Page 150] year 1704 Gentlemen of Panama. The Iſland is moſtly planted with Rice, as are a great many of the Kings Iſlands, which are about ten Leagues diſtance from hence. Right againſt this Iſland, on the Main, is a large River called Cheapo; and ſeven Leagues up the ſaid River, is a Town of the ſame Name, which is very plentiful of Proviſions.
From Chepelio to the Iſland of Planta, is ſeven leagues. It lies a league from the Main, and the water about it is indifferently deep; but near the Main it is all along ſhole water, not above four Foot, though you be a league from the ſhore.
From hence to Cape Saint Lorenzo, is ten leagues. This Cape is low Land, full of Creeks; and near it, is ſhole water. At this Cape begins the Gulf of St Michael, in which are a great many Iſlands, Rivers and Sholes; although in ſome places the Water is deep and ſmooth, and good anchoring. It was up one of theſe Rivers that we went, deſigning to take the Town of Santa Maria; but were fruſtrated of our intent: Yet we took an Indian Town, which we called Scuchadero. It was about three leagues within the Mouth of the River, and ſituated on the South-ſide of it. In it we found ſtore of Dunghil-Fowls, Parrots, white and black Beans, Yams, Potatoes, Maiz, &c. It conſiſted of about [Page 151] year 1704 two hundred and fifty Houſes; and round about the Town were great Walks of Fruit, as Plantains, Bonanoes, &c. There is another Town on the North-ſide of the River, called Scuchadero, which Captain Dampier mentions in his Firſt Vol. p. 195; But this we could not find, and ſo gave the other Town its name; and from thence returned on board our Ships again, which we left lying at Point Garachina, which Point I make to lie in the Latitude of 7 d. 20 m. North. The Tide runs here five Knots and a half per hour. It riſes and falls three Fathom; and ebbs and flows N. E. and S. W.
From Point Garachina to Port Pinas, is ſeven leagues, North and South. The Port of Pinas has two ſmall Iſlands at the Mouth of it; But, if you pleaſe, you may ſail cloſe by them; for there is no danger; neither is there leſs than twelve or fourteen Fathom water. At this place is good wooding and watering. The Land is high and very woody, and goes up hollow in the middle. It is very full of Pine-Trees, and thence called Port Pinas. In ſome part of this Port, is good anchoring; and in the Port are three Rivers of freſh water; and the Banks of the Rivers are full of tall ſtreight Trees. The Port lies in the Latitude of 7 d. North. Longitude from London Weſt, 82 d. 00 m. And a [Page 152] year 1704 little to the Southward of this Port are five or ſix ſmall Rocks.
From Port Pinas to Port Quemado, is twenty-five Leagues. At its Mouth are ſeveral Rocks and Iſlands; and along this Coaſt, are ſeveral good Harbours. The Land here, is not ſo high as at Port Pinas; but in many places here are very pleaſant Walks of Coco-nuts. The Coaſt is very deep and dangerous in Winter-time. At the bottom of Port Quemado, are two Rivers of freſh water; and at the entrance of the Port, both on the North and South ſide, are ſeveral ſmall Iſlands, or rather Rocks: Keep mid-way between both Points, and you may go in very ſecurely. But this is no very ſecure Port, and ſeldom or ever made uſe of.
A little to the Southward of this Port of Quemado, is the Port of Santa Clara. Off this Port lie four Rocks; and in the middle of it is a ſmall River. It is but a bad Port, lying open to the South Weſt and other Southerly Winds, which in the Winter time blow very hard here. This Port lies in the Latitude of ſix Degrees North.
From Port St Clara to the Bay of Saint Antonio, is five leagues, all very low Land, which in the rainy time is covered with water; only the tops of the Trees to be ſeen. Along the ſhore are a great many ſmall Iſlands, Rocks and Sholes; Therefore, [Page 153] year 1704 be ſure, keep without them; for they are very dangerous. In the little Bay of St Antonio, is a ſmall Village, now poſſeſt by Indians, but formerly built by ſome Franciſcan Fryars who were put aſhore here by the Spaniards to convert the Indians; but it being a bad place, often overflown with water, and the Indians being very poor, the Friars quitted the Village; of which the Indians have now poſſeſſion. It is but bad going into this Bay, by reaſon of a great ſhole of Sand, which runs a great way into the Sea from its North-Point; And when you are in, you lie open to the South, the South Weſt, and other weſterly Winds.
From this Bay to the River Sande, is ſix leagues; Between which the Land riſes in ſix Mounts, not very high, but at a diſtance they look like ſix Islands. They are called the Anegadas, and ſtretch from the Bay of St Antonio to the River of Sande. This River of Sande is a great River; and upon the Banks it is well inhabited by Indians, who are not under the Spaniſh Government. They are very poor; and their Poverty protects them from the Spaniards; who, if there was any thing to be got, would be ſure to croud in amongſt them. The Coaſt all along here is deep, and you may ſail cloſe to the ſhore in 10 and 12 fathom water, clean owſie Ground.
[Page 154] year 1704 From the River Sande to Cape Corrientes, is twelve leagues. Cape Corrientes is very high Land; and when you are at Sea, it looks like an Island. On the top it hath three Hillocks. It is in the Latitude of 5 d. North. And at the Point of it, lies a ſmall Rock. It is a clear and good Coaſt, but often ſubject to Rains.
From hence the Land runs into a great Bay, called the Bay of Bonaventura; in which are a great many Rivers, Iſlands and Sholes. From Cape Corrientes to the great River of Bonaventura, is twentythree leagues. In the mid-way is the Iſland Palmas, which is a ſmall woody Iſland, and hath a Sand on the South Eaſt ſide, ſtretching from one end of the Iſland to the other. Whether there be any Springs of freſh water on it, I know not; but very probably, if any one ſtood in great need of water, he might find ſome here; For the Rains fall very plentifully here; So that in the Valleys and Holes there can hardly be any want of Water. This Island lies in the Latitude of 4 d. 15 m. N. and we reckoned Longitude from London W. to be 77 d. 10 m.
From the River of Bonaventura to the Island Gorgonia, is twenty-five leagues, S. W. Between which are a great many ſmall Rivers, at whoſe Heads the Spaniards wait for Gold, which waſhes down from [Page 155] year 1704 the great high Mountains near them. The Island Gorgonia, is in the Latitude of 3 d. North. The Island is pretty high, and very remarkable for its two Saddles, or riſings and fallings on its top. It is a very woody Island, producing tall and large Trees; and on it are ſeveral Springs of very good water. The anchoring-place is at the Weſt-end of the Island in a ſandy Bay, but the water is pretty deep. It is about 6 Miles in length, and 4 in breadth: And at both the Eaſt and Weſt ends, is a ſmall Island, which looks white, occaſioned by the Dung of ſeveral ſorts of Sea-Fowls, which reſort about them. That at the Eaſt end, is called Flaminio; and the other at the Weſt end, near the anchoring-place, is called the Iſletta. The Coaſt near the Water-ſide, on the Main, is low Land, (although very high within the Country:) and here are ſome Rivers, that are ſhole for two leagues into the Sea. Therefore keep off Shore; For if it be flowing water, the Currents will heave you aſhore.
From the Island Gorgonia to the Island Gallo, is twenty-five Leagues. This Island lies in a deep Enſenada, or Bay. Off the Island you will find not above four or five Fathom water; but at Segnetta, which is on the N. E. ſide, you may ride ſafe in deep Water, and free from any danger. [Page 156] year 1704 This Island is pretty high, and well provided with good Wood, and ſeveral Springs of very good freſh water. Here are alſo ſeveral brave ſandy Bays, at which one may clean a Ship; as we did ours. The water is pretty ſhole almoſt all round the Island; and at both the North and South Point are ſeveral Rocks, ſome of which look like a Barn, others like Ships under ſail. It lies in the Latitude of 2 d. 45 m. N. and Longitude Weſt from London 76 d. 38 m. and we found variation 4 d. VVeſterly.
To the North Eaſt, on the main Land, diſtant three leagues, is a large River, called the River of Tomaco; and about a league and a half within the River, is a Town of the ſame Name. This is a ſmall Indian Town, the Inhabitants of which commonly ſupply ſmall Veſſels with Proviſions, when they happen to come in here, as they often do, for refreſhment. At this River begins a great Wood of Trees, which extends ten or twelve Leagues to the Southward. If you ſtand in need, this VVood may be very uſeful to you in making Maſts or otherways. All along this Coaſt are many Rivers, at whoſe Heads both the Spaniards and Indians wait for Gold, which waſhes down from the Mountains. This is a very rainy place, but eſpecially from April to October, which is the VVinter-time here: [Page 157] year 1704 At which time, from hence all Northward along the Coaſt of Mexico, you have continual Thunder, Lightning and Rain, with many hard Tornadoes. Your Land-marks here are, that the Land is higher than the Coaſt of Gorgonia, and is very full of Hills and Trees; And particularly it has One very high Mount.
From the Iſland Gallo to Point Manglares, is twelve Leagues. The Coaſt runs N. N. E. and S. S. W. And between them is a little Iſland, or rather Rock, called Gorgonilla. From the Point of Manglares are ſeveral Rocks and Shoals, which ſtretch out two Leagues into the Sea: Otherwiſe all the Coaſt is clear and deep, and good Anchor-ground. Whilſt we were here, we found a ſtrong Current ſetting to the North, but whether it be always ſo, I know not. From this Point begins a deep Bay called the Ancon of Sardinas. It is about ten Leagues over; and in the Bay are a great many Sands; and it is ſhoal a great way off; ſo that it is ill venturing in with your Ship. Cloſe by the Sea-ſide it is all low Land, full of ſmall Rivers, whoſe Banks are very wellpeopled with Indians. The Water of theſe Rivers is very white, and both ſmells and taſtes very ſtrong of Musk, occaſioned by the many Alligators which are in them. At the South end of this Bay begins [Page 158] year 1704 the high Land; and the Coaſt ſtretches away to the W. S. W. till you come to the Cape of St. Franciſco.
From the Ancon of Sardinas to the River of St Jago, is ſix Leagues. All along the ſhore is full of white Clifts; and near the Land the Water is ſhole. This River of St Jago, is a very great River; yet Ships enter but very ſeldom, though the Spaniards have a ſmall Village 3 Leagues up, and the Banks of it are all along well inhabited by Indians, who have ſeveral Plantations of Maiz, with Walks of Fruits, and Pens for Cattle, to wit, Beeves and Hogs; of which here is good ſtore. At the Mouth of the River they ſay is four fathom Water: If you would enter, keep neareſt to the South Eaſt ſide; and when you are over the Bar, there is very deep Water; It is a Mile broad, and the higheſt Land on all the Coaſt, except St Matheo, which is ſeven Leages from it. This River lies in the Latit. of 1 d. 15 m. North; Longitude from London Weſt 76 d. 20 m.
From this River to the Bay of St Matheo, is ſeven Leagues. This Bay is very high Land, and has a great many ſhoals running from it two Leagues into the Sea; and for three or four Leagues the Water is ſhole, not above four, five, or ſix fathom. Both to the Northward and Southward [Page 159] year 1704 by the Sea-ſide, the Land is all white Cliffs. The Bay lies juſt in the middle of them. In the bottom of the Bay are two Rivers of freſh, but Alligator-water, that is to ſay, white musky Water. On each ſide of the Mouth of theſe Rivers, are ſhoals of Sand; and near the Rivers Mouths are very pleaſant Rows of fine green Trees; which is the mark to know the Rivers by: For the Mouths of them are ſo narrow, that at a diſtance you cannot perceive them.
From this Bay of St Matheo to the Bay of Tacames, is ſeven Leagues. This Tacames is lower Land than the Bay of St Matheo; and at its entrance, between two Sholes, is a ſmall Iſland. You may anchor in any part of the Port, to windward; and the nearer ſhore, the better anchorage and the deeper Water. Here you may wood and water. In this Port were taken by Don Beltram a Spaniard, a few ſtragling Engliſh Men: He came hither unawares, and took them as they were wooding and watering a ſmall Veſſel. Off the two Points of this Bay, run two dangerous ſholes right off from the ſhore, for near a League and half; but between them both is pretty deep Water; and the Southermoſt of the ſaid two ſholes ſtretches away along ſhore for 3 Leagues, to the Point of Gallera. The Coaſt here [Page 160] year 1704 runs E. N. E. and W. S. W. to Cape St Franciſco.
From Point Gallera to Cape St Franciſco, is two Leagues. It is a high Cape, but far higher within Land than near the Water-ſide. VVhen you are North or South from it, it looks like three Capes. It is a woody mountainous Land, and has ſeveral white Cliffs. This Cape is famous for the rich Prize, named the Cacafogo, taken juſt off it by Sir Francis Drake: in which was ſaid to be eighty Pound-weight of refined Gold, twenty-ſix Tuns of Silver, with a conſiderable quantity of Jewels. VVe took off this Cape two Spaniſh Ships; one of 120 Tuns, laden with VVine, Brandy, Sugar, Marmalett, Flower, &c. the other about ſixty Tuns, laden with Pitch, Tar and Cordage. This Cape St Franciſco, lies in the Latitude of 1 d. North, and Longitude from London Weſt, 81 d. 50 m. and we found here 3 d. 57 m. weſterly variation.
Note, That from this Cape of St Franciſco, to the South-part of the Great Island of California in the Latitude of 23 d. 30 m. from April to November, is the dirty [Page 161] year 1704 fainy Seaſon, with hard ſtorms of Wind, and prodigious Flaſhes of Lightning, and terrible Claps of Thunder; which are at the worſt in June, July and Auguſt. Alſo between the aforeſaid places, all the Coaſt is full of Worms; and therefore very inconvenient for a ſingle Ship, as we were. But to the Southward of this Cape, the Spaniards conſtantly affirm there are no Worms: For thoſe Ships which trade only on the Coaſt of Peru and Chili, and never go to Northward of this Cape, are never Worm-eaten. This Cape is, as I may ſay, the bounds of the rainy and bad Weather; it ſeldom reaching to the Southward of it, unleſs by chance, perhaps not one Year in twenty. I have once heard that the Rains came up as high as Paita, which lies in the Latitude of 5 d. 15 m. S. and is 6 d. 15 m. to the Southward of this Cape of St Franciſco: But this was but by chance; and I never heard from the Spaniards, that ever it went ſo high up, excepting that one time, in any of their Memories.
This Cape of St Franciſco hath, at the pitch of it, a ſmall Rock. The Coaſt here, runs away more to the South Eaſtward. About three Leagues diſtance from the Cape is a ſmall Port, called Apottete; near which, is a round Hill, behind which is good Wood and Water; and near it, is [Page 162] year 1704 very ſmooth landing. It hath two white Clifts; and at the Head of it, is good Anchor-ground. Sometimes, though ſeldom, here ſprings a freſh Gale of Wind from the ſhore, which may drive you from your Anchors if you be not careful.
From Appottete to the firſt River of Cogimes, is three Leagues. There are three Rivers of this Name, and they lie cloſe one by the other. They are all full of ſholes in moſt places, ſtretching a League and more from the ſhore into the Sea: Wherefore if you be two Leagues from the ſhore, you will do well to keep ſounding. But to windward of the ſaid three Rivers, you may come nearer the Land: Yet it is all along not very deep to Coaque.
A little to the Southward of the Southermoſt of theſe three Rivers, is a ſmall and barren Iſland, right againſt which are the Mountains of Coaque: Theſe are very high Mountains, covered with large and tall Trees; at the foot of which is a ſmall Village of Spaniards and Indians, called by the Name of St John's Village; and near the Village is the River of Coaque, which runs a great way up into the Country.
From the River of Coaque to Cape Paſſao, is twelve Leagues. Between which two places is the River of Sama, and the [Page 163] year 1704 Bay of Baciabo. The River of Sama has a Rock and Shoal of Sand juſt at its entrance; and when you are about a Mile further, it divides into two Branches; the one running to the N. E. and the other to the S. E. but how far either of them runs up, I know not. The Bay of Baciabo (which is about a Mile to the Southward of the River of Sama,) is a pretty deep Bay: At the bottom of it are a great many white Clifts, which are ſuppoſed to lie directly under the Equator. The Bay is rocky all round; and at each of its Points are ſome very dangerous Sands, which ſtretch four or five Miles off to the Sea. From hence to the Cape Paſſao, is about five Leagues: In all which way are many ſmall Points and Bays; moſt of which are very well clothed with ſeveral ſorts of Trees, tall and ſtreight, and of various Shapes and Colours. And the Land is of an indifferent height. This Cape Paſſao is a high round Cape, with but few Trees on it. It lies in the Latit. of 00d. 08 m. South, Longitude from London Weſt 82 d. 40 m. and we found variation here 3 d. 33 m. Weſterly. At the Pitch of the Cape are two Rocks, both of them viſible above Water; and within the Cape the Land is pretty high and mountainous, and very woody. If you want to anchor near the Cape, you muſt [Page 164] year 1704 go to the S. W. over againſt a ſmall Town, where you may ride ſecurely from the South Winds, in eight fathom Water. Obſerve that you come not too near the Cape; for it has ſome rocky Ground that lies near it. The Cape, as I ſaid before, is full of round Hills; and in the Northpart of it, is a ſort of Water, which we call half-wholeſome, becauſe it is brackiſh and taſtes as if freſh Water and Salt were mixed together. This Water iſſues from a Rock, which lies a Stones-caſt from the VVater-ſide, to the left Hand of the landing place.
A little to the Southward of the ſaid Cape, is a ſmall River; from which to the Bay of Caracas, is three Leagues. This is a pretty deep Bay, and at the bottom of the Bay is a River, called the River of Charapoto, which is ſaid to run a great way up in the Country. In the middle of the Bay, is the common anchoring place; and on the South-ſide, right-againſt the ſaid anchoring place, is a ſmall Village called the Village of Charapoto. In it are not above eight or nine Houſes, moſtly built of Palmeto-leaves, and inhabited by Indian Fiſhermen, who have little or no other Food but Fiſh. Theſe People are very poor, and the Spaniards have little or no converſe with them for that reaſon. In the middle, at the entrance [Page 165] year 1704 of the Bay, is a ſmall Iſland of an indifferent height, very well clothed with Trees; and from the North-point of this Iſland to the North point of the Bay, runneth a ſhole clear over, ſo that there is no going over with a Ship: But on the Southſide of the Iſland, between it and the Main, you may ſafely venture; for there is no danger. The Coaſt here runs N. E. and S. VV.
From the Bay of Caracas to the Port of Manta, is ſeven Leagues; and they bear from each other N. E. and S. VV. Between them are ſeveral Points, ſtretching out into the Sea; and between theſe Points are ſeveral ſandy Bays. The Land is of an indifferent height, and very full of Trees. Right off the Port of Manta, almoſt in the middle, juſt at the entrance, is a Rock or ſmall Iſland, which but juſt appears above VVater. This Port of Manta is a ſmall Port; but in it you are defended from the South VVeſt and other Southerly VVinds, which are the common VVinds upon this Coaſt. For from Cape Paſſao in the Latitude of 00d. 08 m. South, to and beyond Cape Blanco in the Latitude of 3 d. 45 m. South, there is ſeldom or never any Land-wind. VVhich is very obſervable; becauſe it is ſo contrary to all the reſt of the Coaſt. For upon all the reſt of the Coaſt, you have common [Page 166] year 1704 Land and Sea-winds, each as duly ſucceeding the other, as the Night the Day; the Land-winds being commonly right off the ſhore, and the Sea-winds from the South, blowing within a Point or two along the ſhore. In the Port of Manta is a ſmall Indian Village, ſaid to be formerly a Habitation of the Spaniards; in which they built a Church, that is ſtill ſtanding. The beſt anchoring is over-againſt it; where you may anchor in ſeven or eight fathom Water, good faſt Ground. The Land hereabouts is very barren, producing only a few ſhrubby Trees, and ſome ſmall Buſhes. The Spaniards, who had formerly poſſeſſion of this place, live now ſeven Leagues within Land; where they have built them a large Town, called by the ſame Name. The other Land-marks of this place are, that on the North-part the Land is of an indifferent height, and Monte Chriſto looks like a Sugar-loaf; from whence you will ſee the Land run plain to the top of the Cape of St Lorenzo, and is of an indifferent height: Alſo a little to the Weſtward of the ſaid Port, is a ſhole of Quick-ſand, which lies under Water, and the Sea never breaks upon it. Many a good Ship has been caſt away upon it.
Two leagues to the Southward of this Port, is a little Rock, pretty high above [Page 167] year 1704 the Water; from which Rock to the Cape of St Lorenzo, is three leagues. Half a league before you come to the Cape, is a good anchoring place; where, if you want freſh water, you may ſupply your ſelf. All the Coaſt is deep and clear; and you may ride in any part of the Cape of Saint Lorenzo. The Cape is higheſt near the water ſide. On it are only a few Trees and Buſhes. Right againſt it are two Rocks, which look like two Friars, and are ſo called. The one is high and ſlender, and the other looks very bluff. When you are off at Sea, the Cape, bearing North, and diſtant about four or five leagues, ſhows plain above; and you may ſee the top of a Steeple of a Church or Chapel. This Cape I make to lie in the Latitude of 01 d. South. Longitude from London Weſt 82 d. 15 m. and we found variation 3 d. 09 m. Weſterly. A little Southward of the Cape, lies a ſhole of Sand, which ſtretches out to Sea from the Main about a league, and is in breadth about half a league.
From Cape St Lorenzo to the Iſland Plata, is five leagues; and they bear from each other E. N. E. and W. S. VV. This Iſland is ſo called from the great quantity of Plate which was ſhared here by Sir Francis Drake and his Company. It lies in the Latitude of 01 d. 10 m. South. It is in length about a league, and in breadth [Page 168] year 1704 about half a league. It is of an indifferent height, but higheſt at the Eaſt end. There are upon it ſome few ſmall Trees, but not fit for any uſe. There are ſeveral Rocks and Sholes at both Points of the Iſland, which ſtretch out into the Sea near a mile; and the Sea often breaks upon them: And at the South Eaſt end are three ſmall and ſteep Rocks. It is deep water all round, except at the two aforeſaid Points; and the anchoring place is on the Eaſt ſide, in a ſandy Bay, where is good anchor ground and ſmooth water; For in it you are defended from the Southerly VVinds, which are common VVinds off this Coaſt. VVhether there be any water upon the Iſland, I know not; but at ſome certain times of the Year, here are ſaid to be plenty of Sea-Turtle.
From the Iſland Plata to the Iſland Salongo, is ſix leagues. This Iſland is higher Land than the Island Plata. It hath two ſmall Rocks, which are pretty high; the one at the South, the other at the North end of it. At this Island is a pretry good place to ride in, on the Eaſt ſide, next to the Main Land; and there is a parcel of white broken Ground a little to the Southward of the anchoring place.
Right againſt this Island, on the main Land, is the Bay of Picoya; at the North ſide of which is a ſmall anchoring-place; [Page 169] year 1704 and on both ſides of the Bay are ſholes of Sand; but in the middle the water is deep enough: Therefore it is beſt keeping an equal diſtance between both Shores; and with that precaution, One may venture in with ſafety. In going in, you will paſs by three ſmall Rocks. Come not too near them, for they are ſhole half a mile round. At the bottom of the Bay is the River Picoya, about three leagues up which, live Indian People, who ſupply the Spaniards with many Neceſſaries.
To the South-Eaſtward of this River and Bay of Picoya, diſtant about two leagues, are two ſmall Rocks, called Ahoreados or the Hang'd-men. Becauſe Machiaco the Tyrant, an Indian King, in a Battle he had with the Spaniards, took two of them Priſoners, which he cauſed to be hanged, one upon each of theſe Rocks.
From theſe 2 Rocks, a little to the Southward, is the River of Colanche. It is a freſh-water River; and in it is ſaid to be four or five fathom water, good Anchorground. The Inhabitants, who are Indians, carry water to the Town of St Hellena, wherewith they ſupply that Town. Right againſt the River, but a good diſtance from it, is the Island Colanche. This Island is ſaid to be extraordinarily healthy; and on it are ſome few Indian Inhabitants, [Page 170] year 1704 who ſpend moſt of their time in fiſhing; here being pretty good ſtore of Fiſh, with which they partly ſupply the Town of St Hellena juſt by. All round the Island is ten fathom water, cloſe to the ſhore; ſo that you may go from one part to another, very ſecurely.
From the River Colanche to the Town of St Hellena, is four leagues. This is a ſmall Town, conſiſting of Spaniards and Indians: They have commonly in it ſome ſtore of Proviſions, as Biſcuit, Peaſe, Flower, Corn, dryed Fiſh, ſalted Beef, Pork, and other Neceſſaries, with which they ſupply ſuch Ships as arrive here. The beſt anchoring is in about ſeven or eight fathom water, a little to the South Weſt of the Town. The Land is here very low and barren, having no Trees; and ſo ſtretches away to the Point of St Hellena. This Point is high Land, and very even at the top. It lies in the Latitude of about 2 d. 20 m. South. At a diſtance it appears like an Iſland, becauſe the Land about it is low; and it bulges out into the Sea, directly to the Weſt. Over-againſt the Point, on the North-ſide, there is a Bay, and if you fall in there in the Night, keep your Lead going, and mind your Depth, till you can either get out, or with conveniency come to an anchor.
[Page 171] year 1704 The Point St Hellena makes the North point of the Bay of Guiaquill, as Cape Blanco does the South. It is a great Bay, in which are ſome Iſlands, many Rivers, and abundance of Sholes.
From the Point of Chandy to the Iſland St Clara, is ſeven Leagues, North and South. Between which two places are a great many dangerous Sholes; and there is no going between the Iſland St Clara and the Iſland of Puna. For all along on the Eaſt-ſide of the Iſland St Clara, and on the Weſt ſide of the Iſland Puna, are a great many Sholes, which ſtretch from one Iſland to the other. The Iſland St Clara, which is the firſt Iſland at going into this Bay, is an indifferent high Iſland, pretty well clothed with ſmall Trees. It reſembles a Corps in a Shroud; the Eaſt end repreſenting the Head, and the Weſt the Feet.
Between this Iſland and Cape Blanco, which is about twenty four or twenty five Leagues diſtant, is the Channel for Ships; who keep to the Southward of the Iſland, and a good diſtance from the Point of Puna, and ſteer away Eaſt, till they have [Page 170] year 1704 paſt the Iſland Puna. They have in the Channel, going in, from thirty to twenty fathom Water; and when they are come up with the S. E. Point of the Iſland Puna, then the River turns away to the North, and grows narrower and narrower, to the Town of Guiaquill; and the Land all along by the ſides of it, is low ſwampy Land, over grown with ſmall Mangrove-Trees.
The Town of Guiaquil is a large Town, ſaid to contain near five thouſand Inhabitants. In it are ſeveral fine Churches and other good Buildings. It is ſituated on the lower part of a declining Hill, ſo that the Houſes near the Water ſide are often overflown. It is pretty well fortified, having two Forts, one ſtanding upon the Hill, and the other in a Vally near the South end of the Town. It is the third greateſt place of Trade on the Coaſt of Peru.
From the Town of Guiaquil to the Iſland Puna, is ſeven Leagues. This is a low Iſland, in many places overflown. It is about thirteen Leagues long, and five broad. At the Point of Arena is the common anchoring place for Ships, till they get a Pilot to carry them cloſe up to the Town of Guiaquil. This Point Arena is a very low Point, from whence to Cape Blanco is twenty eight Leagues. All along [Page 171] year 1704 upon the main Land, it is very full of Sholes, which ſtretch from the Main into the Sea above two Leagues; and the great Rivers that run out from the Land, augment them. Here is all along a great row or Wood of Trees, and amongſt the Trees is the River of Tumbes; upon the Banks of which are fed ſtore of Cattle. It is a paſſage for Travellers, there being a great Road from it, to ſeveral In-land Towns and Villages.
From the River Tumbes to Mancora, is fourteen leagues, a clear Coaſt; and from thence to Cape Blanco, four leagues. This Cape is high Land; and from it blow ſuch boiſterous Winds, that it is a common Proverb with the Spaniards, that the Stouteſt Man of War muſt ſtrike to Cape Blanco. Yet here is never any great Sea. This Cape I make to lye in the Latitude of 3 d. 45 m. S. Longitude from London Weſt, 81 d. 50 m; and we found Variation 2 d. 52 m. Weſterly.
From Cape Blanco to Point Parina, is ſeven Leagues. In the Mid-way is a ſmall Bay and Port, called Malaca. It is very ſeldom made uſe of; and at its South Point is a great Shole, which runs out to the N. W. into the Sea above a Mile: Therefore in going in, it is beſt to keep neareſt the North ſhore, to avoid this Shole. Between this Shole and the Point of Parina, [Page 174] year 1704 are ſeveral little Bays, but of no uſe. And excepting the Shole near the Point of Malaca, all is deep and clear; ſo that you may ride where you pleaſe; only you muſt mind that your Ground-tackling be good, becauſe of the hard Guſts of Wind which often blow here. The Point of Parina is low Land towards the Sea ſide, and at a diſtance it appears like two Iſlands, one of which looks round, and the other cragged, as if it was cut in Pieces; and to Leeward of the Point, is a fine little Bay.
Upon the Coaſt of Chili and Peru, from the Iſland La Moucha in the Latitude of 38 d. 30 m. S. to the Point of Garachina in the Latitude of 7 d. 20. N. the Wind is always Southerly, two Points upon the ſhore. Thus when the Coaſt runs North and South, the Wind will be at S. S. W. When the Coaſt runs S. S. E. the Wind will be at South, &c. Except it be in the Night; and then the Sea-wind commonly ceaſes, and there comes a fine and moderate Gale from the Land.
From the Point of Parina to the Port of Paita, is ſeven leagues: Between which two places is the River of Colan. At the Mouth of this River are two Sands, one on each ſide, ſtretching about a Mile towards the Sea; and in the middle of theſe two Sholes is the Channel, which is pretty [Page 175] year 1704 deep. Up this River are many Indian Towns and Villages. The Country hereabout is very mountainous and barren; but the Valleys are ſaid to be very Fruitful, as they are all along to the Southward upon this Coaſt. The higheſt Mountains here, are the Mountains of Motapa, which are alſo barren, and have many Pieces of broken ground on them; but at the top in two or three places the Land is pretty even, and looks like Tables. In this Bay you have the Land and Sea-winds conſtant. The Sea-wind is commonly at South and S. by W. which begins about nine in the morning, and holds commonly till nine or ten at Night; then this Wind dyes away, and about half an hour, or an hour after, the Land-wind ſprings up, which is commonly at Eaſt right off the Land, and continues a fine freſh Gale till about eight in the morning; Then it falls calm, and ſoon after ſprings up the Sea-wind, as before. Up the River of Colan, is a Town of the ſame Name. The Indians of this Town come down commonly with the Landwind to Paita in Boats, and bring freſh water to ſupply the Town of Paita and the Shipping that be there: For they have no freſh water at Paita. They alſo bring them Wood and other Neceſſaries; And when the Sea-wind blows, the Indians [Page 174] year 1704 with their Boats return again to Colan. In Paita Bay is very good Anchor-Ground from twenty-five to ſix fathom Water. As you draw nearer the Town, the water grows ſhole gradually. It is a fine large Bay, capable to contain near a hundred Sail of Ships. It is all over ſandy Ground; and in it you are defended from the South Weſt, and other Southerly winds, by a Point of Land which runs out between the Bay and the Sea; ſo that Ships riding within this Point, lie always in as ſmooth water, and as ſafe as if they were in a Pond. It is in the Latitude of 5 d. 15 m. South: And we found variation here 2 d. 37 m. Weſterly. Within this Point is the Town of Paita; which is a pretty little Town, conſiſting of about eighty Houſes, moſt of them Spaniards. Although it is a place of no great Trade, yet it is ſeldom without ſhipping, becauſe it lies ſo very convenient for all Ships going up or down; And it is very ſeldom that any Ship paſſes by, without putting in here for Refreſhments, of which this Town is well ſupplied by thoſe of Colan.
From Paita upwards, the Coaſt runs W. S. W. two leagues, to Pena Oradada, or Golden Rock; from whence to the Northermoſt Iſland of Lobos, called Lobos de Terra, is two leagues more; and they bear from each other North Eaſt and South [Page 177] year 1704 Weſt. This Iſland Lobos, has a Shole and a great hollow Rock at the North end of it, which ſtretches out near half a Mile into the Sea. The Anchoring-place is at the North Eaſt end in four and five fathom water. The Iſland is of an indifferent height, and is ſo like to Lobos de la Mar, that though the Spaniards are very well acquainted here, yet they often miſtake the one for the other. It is a very rocky Iſland, not producing any thing; and on it is no freſh water. Of Sea-Fowl, here are Boobies, Noddies, Penguins, &c. And of Fiſhes, here are Sea-Lions and Seals in abundance.
From this Iſland to the Point of Paita, is fifteen leagues North and South. And between this Iſland and the foreſaid Point, is the Bay of Sechura, a league from Lobos de Terra. Upon the main Land is the Chair of Paita: It is high Land towards the Sea-ſide; ſo that there is none like it between it and Cape Blanco. The Coaſt here runs Eaſt North Eaſt, and South South Weſt.
A little to the South Eaſt, is the Port of Monura, which is ſaid to be almoſt as good a Port as that of Paita. There is very good freſh water to be had, with abundance of ſeveral ſorts of very good fiſh. It is ſaid to lie in the Latitude of [Page 178] year 1704 6 d. South. The land hereabouts is all mountainous and barren.
From the Windward Point of this Port of Monura to the Iſland of Lobos de la Mar, is ſeven leagues. This Iſland lyes in the Latitude of 6 d. 20 m. South. Here is commonly a great Sea the whole Year through, and the currents ſet along ſhore to Leeward. Here Paulo Andrea and James Querba, two Spaniſh Captains, were caſt away. It is dangerous coming near this Iſland, by reaſon of the many Currents which always run here. The Iſland is not above two leagues round. The Harbour is towards the N. E. part; whoſe paſſage is very narrow; but it is indifferent ſafe going in, to thoſe that are any thing acquainted with it; and within the entrance is a good Port, to lye and refit or clean a Ship in: But here is no freſh Water; and it is ſo barren, that it does not produce any Trees or Buſhes. Here are abundance of Seals and Sea-Lions, and ſeveral ſort [...] of very good Fiſh.
From the Iſland Lobos de la Mar, to the Mount of Etem, is five leagues. It i [...] a high Hill, and appears round. From which place the Coaſt falleth away lo [...] by the Sea-ſide, to the Port of Chiri [...] Yet up in the Country the Land is ver [...] high and mountainous. At this Po [...] Ships often lade with Flower.
[Page 179] year 1704 A little to the Southward is the Port of Pacaſmayo. In this Port is a Rock, which is hollow, and which commonly has abundance of white Birds about it. Here is freſh Water, but the Spring is ſaid to be three quarters of a Mile from the Sea; whence they carry Water to Chiripi. This Port of Pacaſmayo is a brave Port. It lies in the Latitude of 7 d. 20 m. South; and the anchoring place is on the Weather-ſide of the Port, near the Mount of Malabrigo. Here are ſaid to be abundance of Water-Rats, which often do great damage to Ships Cables.
Not far off, is the Port of Malabrigo; and near the Port is a Mountain called by the ſame Name. It is a high Mountain, and at the top of it is ſome broken Ground. Near it you may perceive the Breaſts of Chicama, which ſtand above the Town of Piſan: Theſe are the Marks for the Port of Malabrgo. There is alſo, to know the Port by, not above two leagues from the Main, a ſmall Rock, called the Rock of Malabrigio. This Rock at a diſtance looks as if it was cut in two in the middle, and it lies in the Latitude of 8 d. South. The beſt place to anchor in, is to Leeward of the Mountain of Malabrigo, bringing it to bear due South; and there is no leſs than fifty fathom Water good faſt Anchor-ground.
[Page 180] year 1704 The Rock of Malabrigo bears with the Port of Guanchaco, alias Truxillo, South Eaſt. And between theſe two places is the Bay of Chicama: At the bottom of which Bay is the River of Chicama; the Banks of which are well inhabited by Indians. Hereabouts is commonly a ſtrong Current, ſetting into the Bay of Chicama, and to the Northward withall. On the North-ſide of the River of Chicama, is a ſmall Village of Spaniards, called the Village de Chao.
Hence a little to the Southward is the Port of Guanchaco, which is the Harbour for Truxillo. In this Port are two ſholes of Sand pretty near the ſhore, but the anchoring place is without them. It is but a bad Port, and without defence, being expoſed to all Winds. In it there runs ſo great a Sea upon the ſhore, that very often for three or four Days neither can any Boats go aſhore nor come from the ſhore; yet this is a place of great Trade. Near the Water-ſide is the Town of Guanchaquo, which is a ſmall fiſhing Town; and about ſix Miles within Land, is the City of Truxillo, which is a large City, and moſtly inhabited by Spaniards. It hath a great Trade for Flower, Brandy, Sugar, Wine and Marmalett; of which they export three or four Ship-loads every Year, with which [Page 181] year 1704 they ſupply the City of Panama. Guanchaquo is the Port by which they export all theſe Goods. And it lies in the Latitude of 8 d. 15 m. South.
From hence not far to the S. E. is the Mountain of Guanapi, a high Mountain, and which the Sea falls very heavy upon. To Leeward of this Mountain about a Mile, is a little Iſland which runs out about a league; and near to that Iſland is a Rock, which is high and round, and when you are at a diſtance from it, it looks whitiſh. This Rock of Guanapi and the Iſland of Saints, are diſtant from each other nine leagues, bearing N. W. and S. E. Between them are two more Iſlands, one of which is called the Iſland of Clao. Four leagues before you come to this Iſland, it is ſomewhat dangerous; and by that time you begin to draw pretty near the ſholes, you will ſee two little Rocks, one bigger than the other; which Rocks are right-againſt a ſmall Bay, in which is a good Port, defended from the South-winds; but here is no freſh Water, but what is fetched from a Town three Miles off. From this Bay towards the S. E. is another Rock, near unto the Main-land: Off which Rock is a ſhole, about three Cables length from it; And more to the Southward is the Rock of Santa, diſtant about a league and a half. Near this Rock is a [Page 182] year 1704 Port called Santa; and in entering into this Port, the Spaniards commonly look out for a ſpot of Land, which is very plain; and looks like a Path-way; When they ſee that Spot or Path-way, they run in boldly; and in the Road they have not above 4 or 5 fathom Water. At this place at a ſmall Village a little within Land, called the Village of Orſa, and inhabited by Spaniards, is commonly ſtore of Biſcuit, Wood, VVater and other Neceſſaries to be had. In the Channel between the Iſland and the Main, any Ship may go, keeping nearer to the Iſland than the Main: And it is good to keep a pretty diſtance from the little Iſland, which lies near the Land; for there is foul rocky Ground. The Iſland of Saints, is a league in length: It is white Ground, and has three broken Places, one of which looks as if it were cut in two in the middle. On the South-part of it, is a little Iſland, at which there is good anchoring; and it lies in the Latitude of 9 d. South.
From this Iſland to the Port of Coſma, is ten leagues. The Coaſt runs N. N. VV. and S. S. E. At the South point of this Port is a little Rock, and a ſmall ſhole of Sand all round it; and within on the ſame ſide, is a River of freſh Water; at the Mouth of which, is the common anchoring place; and at the North point [Page 183] year 1704 coming in, is a ſmall low Iſland, but higher at both ends than in the middle. This Coſma is a very good Port, and in it you are defended from moſt Winds. It lies in the Latitude of 9 d. 50 m. South, and Longitude from London Weſt 78 d. 35 m. In the Mouth or Entry of this Port there is no danger; for all is clear and good Ground. On the South-part of the Port, is a great Mountain, called the Mountain of Mongon. A little to the Southward of the South Point of the Port, and about a league from the Mountain of Mongon, is a ſmall low and even Iſland, called the Iſletta; within which, cloſe in under the Main, are two ſmall Rocks.
From the Port of Coſma to Mongon, is three leagues; and from Mongon to Mongonilla, four leagues. This is a ſmall Port, and ſeldom made uſe of; yet in it you are defended from the Southerly Winds. From Mongonilla to the Caleta's, is two leagues. Theſe are two ſmall deep Bays; in both of which is good anchoring. About a league to the Southward of the Southermoſt of theſe, is the Port of Vermejo: Right before the Mouth of which, is a ſmall and indifferent high Iſland, called the Iſletta. This Iſland has a Bay on the Eaſt ſide, called the Bay of Callibria; and between the Iſland and the Port, are ſome bad ſholes. This Port of Vermejo, [Page 184] year 1704 is a very good Port, but not inhabited. There is no freſh Water nearer the Sea ſide than a Mile.
The Mountain of Mongon, which lyes about ſeven Leagues to the Northward of this Port, is the higheſt Mountain that is known on all this Coaſt. It may be ſeen at a great diſtance off at Sea; and many times Ships ſtay a Month or more by it, by reaſon of the Currents that ſet to the Northward along the Coaſt. The beſt way is to keep off at Sea as much as you can, until you come into the Latitude of Callau.
From the Port of Vermejo to Guarmey, is three leagues. Guarmey hath a plain ſpot of Sand; and the Land within is double, and hath ſome ſpots of Sand on the top of it; and within the Port is a round white Rock, where there is good riding on the Weather ſide in eight fathom Water, good clear faſt Ground. In this Port is a River of freſh Water, which runs into the Sea near a parcel of Rocks, where the Ships commonly unlade. It is furniſhed with Wood, Water and other Neceſſaries. It lyes in the Latitude of 10 d. 30 m. South: And here the Coaſt runs away S. S. W. to the Iſland of Don Martin.
From the Port of Guarmey to Jaquey of Sarra, is four leagues. This Peice of the Coaſt, runs away South: Between theſe [Page 185] year 1704 two places is a high Mountain, and over againg it a ſmall Port. From Jaquey of Sarra to Monjala, is ſix leagues. This is a little Mountain, which is nothing but a barren Rock; and at a diſtance to thoſe off at Sea, it appears white, and looks like a Ship under Sail. From Jaquey of Sarra to the River Barancis, is nine leagues. This is a freſh Water River, and runs a great way up in the Country; the banks of it are very well inhabited with Indians; and hereabouts are a great many fields planted with Wheat. From the River Barancis to the Port of Supe, is two leagues. This is a ſmall Port, and ſeldom made uſe of for want of Trade, although in it you are defended from the Southerly Winds. The Land hereabouts is high and mountainous, and the Mountains moſt of them very barren; but the Valleys are ſaid to be very fruitful. From this ſmall Port of Supe to the Iſland of Don Martin, is three Leagues. This is a whitiſh Iſland, plain and even, and lyes about three quarters of a Mile off the ſhore.
From hence to the Port of Guara, is one league. This Port lies in the Latitude of 11 d. 02 m. South: And we reckon Longitude from London Weſt, 77 d. 10 m. On the windward part of this Port, is a Mountain; on the top of which are ſome Pyramids. A little to the Northward of [Page 186] year 1704 this Port, is a ſmall Port, called the Port of Salinas. It is the beſt Port of the two; but they are both ſomething dangerous. At this place is abundance of Beef readyſalted; of which they ſend great ſtore both to Lima and Panama.
From the Port of Guara to Tambo, is four leagues. The Coaſts runs N. N. W. and S. S. E. and in the mid-way is a ſmall anchoring-place, called the Port of Chancay. It is all clear and good Ground; and this Port of Chancay is a very good Port, from whence is tranſported to Lima Wheat and ſtore of other Proviſions. In it you ride ſecure from the South winds. From this Port to the Rocks Piſcadores, is two leagues. There are ſeveral of theſe Rocks, but the middlemoſt is the biggeſt. About theſe Rocks are abundance of ſeveral ſorts of very good Fiſh; and upon theſe ſmall Iſlands, or rather Rocks, are ſeveral Indian Huts, inhabited by Indians, who are Fiſhermen; for which reaſon theſe Rocks are called the Piſcadores. Within theſe Rocks is a fine Port, called the Port of Anton. de Rodas; in which is ſecure riding from moſt Winds. The Land is pretty high, and the Hills moſtly barren.
The Rocks Piſcadores, lie due North and South with Callau, and Eaſt North Eaſt from the Iſlands of Ormigas, which lie [Page 187] year 1704 eight leagues from Callau right off the ſhore. The Iſlands of Ormigas are ſmall: On them are ſeveral pieces of broken Ground, with ſeveral ſmall Bays. About them are abundance of ſeveral ſorts of very good Fiſh. The Fiſhermen come from Lima to this place a fiſhing; and here the Indians make abundance of Sea-fiſh Oyl.
The Iſland Callau is very high and barren, having neither wood nor freſh water, nor ſo much as any green thing upon it. It is two leagues long. Upon this Iſland is the great City of Lima; which is the City-Royal for the Empire of Peru. It is the Seat of a Vice-Roy and an Archbiſhop. It is a large City, ſaid to contain 17000 Spaniards, beſides a far greater number of Mullattoes, Moſteſe, and Indians. In it are ſaid to be twenty-five Pariſh Churches, all well built, and very rich in Gold and Silver and precious Stones; The Images of many of their Saints being of maſſy Gold. It is well fortified, having a Caſtle of ſeventy Braſs Guns, forty-eight Pounders; cloſe under which is the common place of anchoring; and they commonly ride in ſix fathom water, good faſt Ground. The Iſland is joined to the main Land by a Bridge of Stone; and almoſt one half of the City is on the other ſide upon the main Land. It is a place of the greateſt Trade of any on the Weſt ſide of America; and [Page 188] year 1704 the Harbour is never without Shipping. In all this Coaſt towards the South-ſeas, it is obſervable that it ſeldom rains; yet with the Evening and Morning Dews, the Valleys are ſaid to be as fruitful as any in the whole World: But the Hills are as barren; for few of them produce any thing; nay many not ſo much as Graſs. At this place groweth a famous Occidental Bezoar, which is found in the Maw of the Peruvian Sheep; which Sheep they make uſe of to carry Burthens. For it is ſaid one of theſe Sheep will carry 500 pound weight with eaſe; and that, like a Camel, they will go two or three days without eating or drinking. A little to the Southward of the anchoring-place, and off the Point of Callau, is a ſhole of Sand, which runs a great way into the Sea; and right off the ſhole is a rocky Iſland, called the Iſland of Lima. This Iſland has ſeveral ſmall Rocks about it; but the biggeſt of them lies at the South end: This Rock is called Pena Oradada, or the Golden Rock; becauſe a Galeon was loſt near it, in which was ſaid to be a very great quantity of Gold. This Pena Oradada is very high, and no Ship can paſs between theſe Rocks, or between the Rocks and the Iſland of Lima: But Ships that come from the Southward, ſteer in between Pena Oradada and the Point of [Page 189] year 1704 Callau, till they come to the Iſland of Lima; to avoid the great ſhole which runs off the Point of Callau. And when they have paſt the Point of Callau, they ſteer directly to the Anchoring-place, and in their way there is no danger. In all this Bay or Port of Callau, is ſecure riding; it being clear and good faſt Ground, growing ſhallow gradually from twelve to four fathom water; and in it you are defended from the Southerly wind, which is the common Trade-wind off this Coaſt. About this Iſland and among the Rocks, are ſtore of very good Fiſh; and upon moſt of them are ſome Huts, in which are Indians who make it their conſtant employ to fiſh; which Fiſh they carry to Lima to ſell, and then return to catch more. This Port lies in the Latitude of 12 d. 20 m. South.
Four leagues to the Southward of theſe Rocks, is Pachacama; near to which are two round Rocks, one bigger than the other; and near Them is another parcel of little Rocks, about eight or ten in number. Here the Land is very high and mountainous, having two or three rows of Hills one within another.
From theſe Rocks to the Port of Chilca, is three leagues. It is a very good Port, and good anchoring. The entry is on the North Eaſt ſide. In this Port is a Rock, called the Tortois; and when you are once within [Page 190] year 1704 that, all is clear, and there is ſix or ſeven fathom Water. In this Port they load great Ships with Salt for Guiaquil. The Town ſtands two leagues from the Port, and is inhabited partly by Spaniards and partly by Indians. It is but a ſmall Town, conſiſting not of above twenty or twentyfive Houſes, moſtly ill built.
From this Iſland to the Port of Canete of Guarco, is three leagues. Here the Spaniards lade Wheat for Lima and ſeveral other places. The marks of the Port are, that there is a high Mountain, called the Mountain of Guarco, which appears as if it was ſplit in two, and the Sea falls with a great force upon it. It hath a Fort on the top of it, which appears white when you are off at Sea.
From Canete or Guarco to Chinca, is nine leagues. The Coaſt runs N. N. W. and S S. E. It is a bad Port, and in it is commonly a great Sea. Here is laden Whea [...] and Indian Corn, to be tranſported to Lima; and near it lie three Iſlands, which are diſtant from the Cuſtom-houſe of Chinca three leagues, and bear with it N. E and S. W.
[Page 191] year 1704 From Chinca to Piſco, is three leagues. Piſco is a Bay, in which is a Port; and at the bottom of the Port, is a River of freſh water. All the Coaſt is clear and good; and there is good riding in ſix fathom water. At this place they lade Wine in great quantity, with which they ſupply moſt places hereabouts. The Land is very high and mountainous. The Hills are barren; but the Valleys are full of pleaſant Vineyards; with the Grapes of which they make extraordinary good Wine; this being one of the chief places for Wine on all the Coaſt.
From Paraca to the Mount of St Gallan, is two leagues. It is a high Mount, and barren, having not any green thing upon it. Over-againſt the Mount is a high Iſland called the Island of Lobos, which is a league diſtant from the Main. About this Island are many Rocks; and near the Mount, is a ſhole. The Mount lyes in the Latitude of 14 d. South.
The Land here, is of a prodigious height; lying in Ridges parallel to the ſhore, three or four Ridges one within the other, and each ſurpaſſing the other [Page 192] year 1704 in height. Thoſe that are furtheſt within Land are the higheſt, and they always appear Blue to thoſe that paſs by them at Sea.
The Weather upon this Coaſt of Peru, from the Latitude of 30 d. South to Cape Blanco in the Latitude of 3 d. 45 m. South, is always fair; here never being any ſtorms of Wind or Rain; although many times it is ſo hazey, that there is no taking an obſervation with the Quadrant. Alſo upon all this Coaſt are but very few Rivers; they being in ſome places a hundred and ſixty or a hundred and ſeventy leagues aſunder; whereas on the Coaſt of Mexico are abundance of Rivers, many within half a league or a league of each other. Alſo the Rivers of the Coaſt of Mexico are always full, and many times overflow their Banks; but theſe on this Coaſt of Peru, are little and ſhallow, and at ſome certain times of the Year quite dry.
From this Island to the Mountain of Aſia, is twelve leagues. The Coaſt runs N. N. W. and S. S. E. and it is pretty Windy hereabouts. Near this Mount of Aſia on the Eaſt ſide, is an anchoring place, [Page 193] year 1704 in a ſmall Port, called the Port of Cavales. This Port is ſomewhat dangerous, by reaſon of ſeveral ſholes near it. It lies in the Latitude of 15 d. 00 m. South. One League to the S. E. of this Port, is a very good Port, called the Port of St Nicolas. From whence to the Port of St John, is three Leagues. Its Entry is at a Bay, and you may go through any part of it. This Port is very windy, and is ſaid to have no freſh Water. At it they make a ſmall quantity of Wines, which they ſend by ſhipping to Lima and Panama.
From the Port of St John to Acary, is nine Leagues. The Coaſt runs S. S. E. and N. N. W. It is a low Coaſt by the Water-ſide, (although the Land is very high and mountainous in the Country,) and here is good Anchor-ground; but Ships ſeldom anchor in it, becauſe of the high Winds and great Sea which is commonly here.
From Acary to Attiquipa, is 8 leagues. It is high Land towards the Sea-ſide; and here begin the high mountainous Hills and Deſerts of Atico. At this Port Ships of the largeſt ſize lade with Corn, and other Neceſſaries. It lies in the Latitude of 16 d. South. It blows not ſo much here, as near the Mount of Aſia.
From Atico to Ocana is 8 leagues. At Ocana is a River of freſh Water, but at ſome certain times it is dry. Near the River, on the Main land, is ſome broken Ground; and on the Sea-Coaſt are ſome Rocks, which are called the Piſcadores. About them are a great many ſorts of very good Fiſh, and the Inhabitants of Ocana come hither often to fiſh.
From Camana to the Port of Chule, is five Leagues. This is a good Harbour for Ships; but there lies a Rock a little to the S. E. of it, which you muſt not come in leſs than a League of; for there is a ſhole about half a League round it; But keeping a League from the ſaid Rock, there is a good Entry.
From hence to the Port of Quilca, is eight Leagues. In the way is the Iſland Guara; which is a pretty high but barren Iſland. A little to the Southward of this Iſland, is a good Port, called the Port of Ariquipa. It is a good Port. In it are five great and ſmall Rocks, of a whitiſh Colour. They lie in the Latitude of 17 d 20 m. South; and in going in, the Entry is very narrow; but within there is eighteen [Page 195] year 1704 fathom Water; and the Port, when you are in, reſembles the Coil of a Cable. Within is a great Vulcan, called the Vulcan of Ariquipa, which Vulcan is ſaid to be ſixteen Leagues within Land, and is the higheſt of all the Hills hereabouts. VVhether it burns now or no, I know not; but I ſuppoſe, by its Name, it has formerly. From this Port of Ariquipa, to the Port of Ylo, is twelve Leagues. The Coaſt runneth S. S. W. and N. N. E. And two Leagues from Ariquipa, is the River of Tambo; In which ſpace is a League of low Land near the Sea-ſide; and there is good clear Ground, from ſix to twelve fathom Water.
From the River Tambo to Yerba Buena, is two Leagues; and from thence to the Port of Ylo, eight Leagues. This is a good Port to lade and unlade a Cargo in; and near to it, is a River of freſh Water, called the River of Ylo. This, as moſt of the other Rivers of Peru, runs with a quick Current from the beginning of January till the latter end of June; and then it decreaſes, running ſlower and ſlower, till the latter end of September; After which it wholly fails, and becomes dry; the VVaters not beginning to run again, till January. This moſt of the Rivers on the Coaſt of Peru are ſaid to do as conſtantly, as the Year goes about. Near to this River [Page 196] year 1704 is a Valley very well inhabited by Indians, in which they have ſtore of Corn, and other Proviſions, and ſeveral ſorts of very good Fruits. The Point of Ylo is low Land, and runneth out into the Sea. It is dangerous coming near it; for off it lies an Iſland, and ſeveral Rocks. It is in the Latitude of 18 d. South. To thoſe that are off at Sea, the Point looks like two or three Iſlands; and it bears with the Mount of Sama, S. W. and N. E. diſtance eight Leagues.
From the River of John Deus to the River of Arica, is two Leagues. On the Banks of this River is ſituated the Town of Arica. It is a large Town, inhabited by Spaniards, Mullattoes, Moſteſe and Indians. This Port of Arica lies in the Latitude of 18 d. 20 m. South; Longitude from London Weſt 72 d. 20 m. and we found variation 1 d. 27 m. Eaſterly. It i [...] a very good Port, and is the Embarcad [...] [Page 197] year 1704 to moſt of the Mine-Tows of Peru. It is a place of very great Trade, and ſeldom or never without ſhipping. It is a good place to anchor in; and the beſt and common anchoring place, is cloſe under the Mount of Arica, which is a great high Mountain, and defends Ships that ride there from the South-winds. The depth of the Water, is about eight fathom. VVithout the anchoring place, is a ſmall Iſland, called the Iſletta. The Land here is very high and mountainous; and from hence for near a hundred Leagues to the Southward, it is very much ſubject to Calms within thirty-five or forty Leagues of the ſhore. Theſe Calms are not uſual on any other part of this Coaſt, that I know of. VVhen the Sun is in the Northern Signs, that is, from March to September, the VVeather is commonly fair and clear; But when the Sun returns back into Southern Signs, then the VVeather for the moſt part is hazy, and the Horizon ſo thick, as often to hinder an Obſervation.
From the Mount of Arica to Chacola, is a League and half. Here is a very good anchoring place. And from hence to the broken Land of Victor, is a League and half more. From thence to Camarones is ſix Leagues; and from thence to Tucames, fourteen Leagues. The Coaſt [...], from the [Page 198] year 1704 Mount of Arica to this place, North and South.
From Tucames to the Iſland Yaneque, is twelve Leagues; from which place they carry Clay to lay in the Valleys of Arica and Sama; and here live ſome few Indian People, who are continually digging this clayey Ground for the uſe aforeſaid; for the Spaniards reckon that it fattens the Land very much.
From hence to the Bay of Majalones, is twenty Leagues, all high mountainous Land, and a great Sea falling upon the Shore, ſo that there is ſcarce any landing. From Majalones to the Bay of Salado, is eight leagues. In neither of theſe Bays is there any freſh water.
From the Bay of Salado to the Mount of Moreno, is fourteen leagues. The Coaſt runs North and South. In this Port of the Mount of Moreno, is ſtore of Salt; and here is very good freſh water to be had. It is a good Port, and in it you are defended from all Winds. Within the Port, the beſt riding is on the North-ſide. It is a very high Mount, and like to the Mount of Capricorn, which on the top has a great Rock.
A Deſcription of the Coaſt of Chili. The Port of Copiapo. The Port of Guaſco. Coquimbo. Tongoi. Lymary. Choape. Govanadore. Papuda. Clintera. Concon. The River of Chili. Valparizo. Bay of Rio. Salinas. Topa de Calma. Lora. River of Maule. Point of Unmos. River Itata. Point of Sinfonda. The Iſland Quinquina. City of the Conception. Port of St Vincent. The River Biobio. Hills of Guera. Port Labipi. Iſland of Santa Maria. Canero. Hill of Tucapell. The River Imperial. The Iſland La Moucha. River of Tolton. Valdivia Port. The Occaſion of its Name. Chili abounds moſt in Gold, as Peru does in Silver.
FRom hence the Land is all very high and barren to Copiapo, which lies in the Latitude of 21 d. South; and we found [Page 200] year 1704 variation 2 d. 50 m. Eaſterly. It is a good Port, and defended from all Winds. Near into the Port are four or five Rocks. The water on ſhore is brackiſh. It is inhabited within Land by Indians, who make good Wine; and here is good Meat, Corn and other Neceſſaries. The marks of the Mount of Copiapo, are, that it looks like the Point of Saint Hellena, and that about a league to the Southward is an Iſland. In this Port they load Wine, Money and other Goods, for Coquimbo.
From the Iſland which lies by the Mount of Copiapo, to the Bay of Salado, is five leagues; in which Bay is an anchoringplace, and a River of freſh water. From the Bay of Salado to Totoral, is ten leagues. The beſt riding here, is on the North ſide of the Point; which will be a defenſe from the South-winds. At this place is good wood and water to be had.
From Totoral to the Port of Guaſco, is ten leagues; all the way high mountainous Land, but a clear Coaſt from Rocks or Sholes. Within the Port is a ſmall round Iſland; and at the bottom of the Bay, near this Iſland, is a River of freſh water; right againſt the Mouth of which, is the common anchoring-place. The Country hereabouts is ſaid to be pretty well inhabited by Spaniards. In this Port you are defended from the South and South Weſt [Page 201] year 1704 Winds. The Land is pretty plain and even; and at the top of the Port is a Plain of Sand. Off the South Weſt Point of the Port, are ſeven or eight Rocks; about which are many Sholes, and there is no ſailing between them and the Main.
From hence to the Port of Coquimbo, is ten leagues. Coquimbo is a good Port; and the common anchoring-place is right againſt a ſmall round Iſland, on the South ſide of the Port, called the Iſland of Tortuga: Without this Iſland, near to the South Weſt Point of the Port, are two Rocks; but any Ship may go between them and the Main; for there is very deep water. To the Northward of theſe Rocks, are the Iſlands of Paxores, which are eight or nine in number. There is deep water between them; and amongſt them are caught ſeveral ſorts of very good Fiſh, with which they ſupply the City of Coquimbo. Some of theſe Iſlands are very high and rocky; but the Land upon the Main, is not altogether ſo high as it was from Copiapo to this place. A little on the North Eaſt ſide of this Port, is a noted great Hill, in faſhion of a Sugar-loaf; at the bottom of which, is ſituated the City of Coquimbo; which is ſaid to be a large and very rich City; i [...] driving a great Trade with Lima, Panama, and moſt of the South-ſea Coaſt.
[Page 202] year 1704 From the Port of Coquimbo to the Herradura, is three leagues; and they bear from each other South South Eaſt, and North North Weſt. This Herradura is a ſmall deep ſandy Bay, but ſeldom made uſe of by ſhipping; although in it is good faſt anchor-ground. But the reaſon is, it lies too much open to South Weſt and other Southerly winds.
From the Herradura to the Bay of Tongoi, is four leagues. At the bottom of the Bay is a River of freſh water; and right againſt the Rivers Mouth, is the common anchoring place, where is good defenſe from all the Southerly winds.
From this Bay of Tongoi to the Port of Lymary, is eight leagues. The Coaſt runs North North Eaſt and South South Weſt The marks of this Port are, that ir hath a great Mount near it, called the Mount of Lymary; the ſides of which, either to the Northward or Southward, appear full of high Trees; and in the middle of the Mount is broken Ground; and to the South VVeſt of it, are two Breaſts or Boſoms.
From Choape to the Port of Govanadore, is thirteen leagues. This Port lyes in th [...] [Page 203] year 1704 Latitude of 31 d. 20 m. South, and Longitude from London Weſt 75 d. 30 m. The Land is of a great height, three rows of Hills one within the other. The Port of Govanadore is a good and ſafe Port. It is defended from the South-winds, which are the common Trade-winds of this Coaſt. The anchoring place is right againſt the loweſt part of the Land, in twelve fathom water. At the end of the ſmall piece of low Land, is a Hill which has broken ground on the top of it, and looketh like the Chair of Paita. On the N. W. ſide of this Hill, is a Grove of great high Trees; and near the Port is an Iſland; on the North ſide of which is a good anchoring place and ſecure riding; for the Iſland it ſelf keeps off the Southerly Winds.
From this Port off Govanadore to the Port of Laligna, is five leagues. Near the Point of this Port, are two ſholes, on which, at high water, there is not above ten foot water. In this Port Ships lye at anchor in five fathom water, and here Ships load with Wheat and other Eatables for Panama.
From Laligna to Papuda, is three leagues. It is deep, but very good anchor ground. It hath a high Hill, with broken ground on the top of it; and near it, is a ſpot of Trees. So that it is very like the Port of Govanadore.
[Page 204] year 1704 From Papuda to the Rocks of Clintera, is five leagues. Theſe Rocks lye viſible above water; and near the Land, the Currents ſet ſtrong to the Northward. Ships often ſail pretty near theſe Rocks; for it is all clear and deep, ſeldom leſs than twelve fathom Water.
From theſe Rocks of Clintera, to the Port of Clintera, is two leagues. In it is deep water; and the Port has only a defenſe from the South winds, but to all Weſterly winds it lyes open. This Port bears with Valpariſo N. N. E. and S. S. W. diſtance ſive leagues: And between, it is all very high and mountainous Land: Yet between the Hills, are many pleaſant Valleys, which afford good Corn and Wine.
Near the Point of Concon, is a little Bay, in which are four ſmall Rocks; each of theſe Rocks has a ſmall ſhole quite round them, and the anchoring place is cloſe over to the South ſhore; and in between the ſaid Rocks, at the bottom of the Bay, is a ſmall River, called the River of Concon; upon the Banks of which are ſituated ſeveral ſmall Indian Towns and Villages. Here are ſeveral tall and large Trees, which upon occaſion will make very good Maſts for Ships.
A little to the Southward of this Point of Concon, is a large River, called the River [Page 205] year 1704 of Chily; upon the Banks of which, are ſeveral Towns and Villages belonging to both Spaniards and Indians. This River is ſaid to run ſome hundreds of Miles within Land. About half a League to the Southward of the Mouth of this River, are two ſmall high Rocks; they lie about a Mile and a half from the ſhore. They have each of them a ſmall ſhole of Sand round them; and there is no ſailing between them and the Main, becauſe it is ſhole-water.
From theſe Rocks to the Port of Valparizo or St James of Chili, is three Leagues. Here are four or five ſmall Rivers running into this Bay, which make the Port of Valparizo. I do not know any where ſo many Rivers ſo near each other, upon all the Coaſts of Peru or Chili: But upon the Coaſt of Mexico, it is very common. This Port lies in the Latitude of 32 d. 30 m. South. It is a place of great Trade, and from hence they ſend yearly ſeveral Ships laded with Corn, Wine, &c. and ſtore of Gold. For although Peru is reckoned to abound in Silver, yet Chili is moſt abundant in Gold. Here is a pretty Town of three hundred Houſes, belonging to the Spaniards; all pretty well built with Brick; But in none of theſe Parts of Peru or Chili are they ſo well built, as they are in and about Mexico. The Reaſon, as I [Page 206] year 1704 ſuppoſe, is, that at Mexico they have a great many of their Materials from Old Spain, which here they cannot ſo well have. This place is govern'd by a Spaniſh Governour, as are all the Sea-ports: But in the Country within Land, there are ſeveral Cities, Towns and Villages, governed by Indian Governours; yet with Subordination to the Spaniards. This Port is famous for the great Trade it drives with Lima and the other Parts of Peru; as alſo for the rich Prize taken in it by our Engliſh Hero Sir Francis Drake; in which Ship he took a vaſt quantity of Gold, beſides ſeveral other valuable Commodities. He alſo took the Town; in which he found ſtore of Proviſions. The Anchoring-place is at the bottom of the Bay, cloſe under the South-ſhore, in ſeven, eight and nine Fathom Water, good faſt Ground, rightagainſt the Mouth of the River Buajes; where is a very good defenſe from all the South or Weſterly Winds, by reaſon of a Point of Land, called the Point of St James of Chili, which ſhoots out to the Northward, and lies between the Anchoringplace and the Sea. At this Point is a ſhole of Sand; which, as the Point does, ſtretches away to the Northward; ſo that it is dangerous coming near the ſaid Point; for the Shole runs out beyond it, near half a league: and at high water there is not above [Page 207] year 1704 nine foot water on it. The Coaſt here runs South South Eaſt, and North North Weſt.
From the Point of Valparizo to the Bay of Zenaque, is one league: And from thence to the Bay of Rio, another. In this Bay is a little Rock, which is called Biſhops Rock. From this Rock to the Bay of Salinas, is four leagues. In this Bay is a good anchoring place, and it has a good defenſe from the Southerly winds. It is low Land by the Sea-ſide, although in the Country it is very high and mountainous. Here are ſeveral ſmall Bays, in moſt of which is good riding in ten fathom Water.
From theſe Bays to Topa de Calma, is four leagues. Between them are the Sholes of Raphael, and a River of the ſame name right againſt them. Theſe Sholes come out a league into the Sea, and there is no going between them and the main Land; for the Water is very ſhole. At Topa de Calma is an anchoring-place, but it lies open to the Southerly Winds; and near it, is an Iſland, on the North-ſide of which is a ſmall Bay, in which Ships upon occaſion ſometimes come to an anchor: and in the ſaid Bay is not leſs than twenty-five fathom Water. This place is much frequented with high winds.
[Page 208] year 1704 From Topa de Calma to Lora, is fourteen leagues. This Lora has broken Ground like to Lymary; and part of the Coaſt in the way, is low Land by the Seaſide, till you come to the River of Maule; which is diſtant from Topa de Calma ſeven leaves. In this River is two fathom at low water. In it are ſaid to be many Indian Towns and Villages, in which they have plenty of Proviſions. It is a very windy place, and at the entry of the River are two Rocks; half a league to Leeward of which, is a ſmall anchoringplace. From this River of Maule, to Lora, as I ſaid before, is ſeven leagues. Near to the broken Ground is an anchoring place, which has a defenſe from the Southerly Winds.
From Lora to the Point of Ʋnmos, is three leagues. It is a bad Point, having abundance of foul Ground lying off it. On this Point were caſt away two great Spaniſh Ships, and all their Men drowned. It is good to keep at a diſtance from it.
From the Point of Ʋnmos to the River Itata, is ſeven leagues. The River is extraordinarily well inhabited by Spaniads and Indians; and on the South-ſide, near the River's Mouth, is an anchoring-place The Coaſt is deep from Topa de Calma to this place, without any Port or an-choring place, excepting thoſe I have named.
[Page 209] year 1704 From the River Itata to the Point of Sinfonda, is four leagues. This Point runs out a good way; and to the Southward of it, is a fine Bay, called the Herradura; at the bottom of which is a River; and on each ſide the River, is broken Ground. This Herradura is in form like the Letter C. It hath three Rocks at the entry, and within is defended from the North and South Winds.
From the Herradura to the Iſland Quiquina, is two leagues, North Eaſt and South Weſt. This Iſland is four-ſquare; and on the Eaſt-ſide is a ſmall Bay, in which is very good anchoring in five fathom water. Ships that come from the Northward, go between this Iſland and the Main, on the North Eaſt ſide, when they are bound to the Port of the Conception; and it is a clear and good Paſſage, free from any Rocks, Sands or Sholes; and it is deep water. But Ships that come from the Southward, go in between the South Shore and the South Weſt ſide of the Iſland; but they always keep neareſt to the Iſland, by reaſon of a Rock and Shole which lie about a mile and a half off the Main. This Rock and Shole is called the Grifo, and is very dangerous: For ſeveral good Ships have been loſt upon it. And a little within this Grifo, is another dangerous Shole, called the Mormao. A little [Page 210] year 1704 within which, is an anchoring place. But the chief anchoring place is right againſt the City of the Conception. Here are ſeveral ſmall Rivers, but none of note. This City is near to the Sea-ſide. It is a very pleaſant place, having a fine River running through it; And three quarters of a mile from the City, is another fine River, called Anderlen. Ships that ride in the Port of Conception, muſt come to an anchor right-againſt the Fort of Don Garcia; that they may be ready to ſail with a North-wind. This is a place of great Trade, affording both Corn, Wine and Oil; of which they ſend great quantitie [...] yearly to Lima, Panama, and other Part [...] of Peru. This Port lies in the Latitude o [...] 37 d. South. On the South-ſide of th [...] Port, near the Main-land, are ſholes a [...] along to the S. W. Point, which Point [...] a defence from the Southerly Winds.
About a league to the Southward [...] this Point, is another Port, called the Po [...] of St Vincent; and between theſe tw [...] Points is a ſmall Iſland, with ſeveral Roc [...] about it; and at the Point of St Vince [...] are ſome very dangerous ſholes, whi [...] ſtretch off near a League into the S [...] But within the Port it is all good cle [...] Ground, with gradual Soundings fro [...] nine to four Fathom Water. It is a ve [...] good and ſecure Port, and in it is a defe [...] [Page 211] year 1704 from moſt Winds. It is all a ſandy Bay, round the Port; on which are many ſmall ſcattering Houſes, moſtly inhabited by Indians.
From this Port to the River Biobio, is two Leagues. This River runneth very ſtrong with a great Current, and hath two Rocks at the Entry of it. At this River beginneth the high Land of Guera; This Land is accounted by the Spaniards to be the higheſt Land of any yet known in the World; far exceeding the Pico of Teneriff, or Santa Martha, or any Land yet diſcovered. Near this River are the Breaſts of Biobio; which are two high Hills, naturally in the form of Breaſts.
From this River to Labipi, is ſeven Leagues. In the Harbour of Labipi is ſecure riding, and it has a defence from the North and South Winds. Near this Harbour is the Iſland of Santa Maria; in the Latitude of 37 d. 30 m. South. This is a low Iſland, about two Leagues in length; It is very well inhabited by Indians. On the N. E. ſide, is a fine deep and ſecure Bay, in which is from twelve to four fathom good faſt ſandy Ground; the Water growing ſhallow gradually, as one goes nearer to the bottom of the Bay.
From the Iſland of Santa Maria to the Iſland Canero, is ten Leagues; and they bear from each other N. W. and S. E. [Page 212] year 170 The Land here upon the Main, is of a prodigious height, but here is no Port or Place of anchoring, unleſs it be in the Port of Canero. In this Port is the Iſland Canero. It is a ſmall Iſland, lying on the North-ſide of the Port, juſt within its entrance. And at the bottom of the Bay is a ſmall River of freſh Water. In this Port are no Rocks nor Sholes, nor any danger, but all gradual Soundings; and it has a a good defenſe from the S. and S. W. and other Weſterly Winds, which are the worſt Winds upon the Coaſt.
The Winds here are variable all round the Compaſs, as it is upon all the Coaſt of Chili. Upon the Coaſt of Peru, from the Line to 30 degrees of Southern Latitude, the common Trade-wind is Southerly, with fine Weather and no Rain; But here upon this Coaſt, it is common to have hard Gales of Wind, and very often great ſhowers of Rain.
From the Port of Canero to the Hill of Tucapel, is two leagues. This is a high Hill, with a Plain or Table Land on the top. And a little to the Southward of it, is a River of the ſame Name. The Land hereabouts is very well inhabited by Indians. At the Mouth of this River, on the South-ſide, is a ſmall Point, called the Point of Tixba.
Right againſt the Mouth of the River, is the Iſland La Moucha. This Iſland is about four or five Leagues in length. It is pretty high Land, and very well clothed with tall and flouriſhing Trees of ſeveral ſorts; and on it are ſeveral ſmall Rivulets of freſh Water. It is very well inhabited by Indians, who are always at War with the Europeans: For they think all white Men to be Spaniards. This was the Southermoſt and the firſt Land we ſaw upon our coming into the South Seas. About this Iſland are ſeveral ſholes, and eſpecially on the Weſt-ſide, which ſtretch out a great way into the Sea. On the Eaſt-ſide is a fine Bay, in which is very good ſafe anchoring. It lies in the Latitude of 38 d. 30 m. South; and I made Longitude from London to this place Weſt 78 d. 00 m. and we found variation 8 d. 42 m. Eaſterly. It was at this place that Sir Francis Drake and his Boats-Crew going aſhore for Water, and asking the Indians for Agua, (which is the Spaniſh name for Water,) the Indians by their Language thinking them to be Spaniards, with whom they are always at mortal Variance, fell [Page 214] year 1704 upon the Engliſh, and with their Arrows wounded every one of them; but by the good Conduct of Sir Francis he and his Company got to his Boat, and ſo ſaved themſelves to the Ship.
A little to the South of this Iſland, on the main Land, is the River of Tolton; which is a large River. And here the Rivers are commonly full, as on the Coaſt of Mexico; not drying away at certain times, as they do on the Coaſt of Peru. This River is diſtant from the Port of Valdivia 25 Leagues.
Valdivia or Baldivia, is a noted place. It lies in the Latitude of 40 d. South. It is very well fortified and hinders the approach of an Enemy. In this Port are a great many Iſlands; on one of which is ſituated the Town and Fortifications of Valdivia▪ This place (as we were told by the Spaniards) was ſo called from one Valdivia a Spaniard, who was formerly Governour o [...] it. This Man was ſaid to be ſo covetou [...] of Gold, that he would not by his goodwill let any body have any but himſelf▪ The poor Indians he would puniſh ſo barbarouſly, that they often died under it▪ and his reaſon was, becauſe they did no [...] bring him Gold enough. He employe [...] ſome thouſands of Indians to ſeek it, an [...] taxed them ſo much per Day; which th [...] poor Indians being not able to get, an [...] [Page 215] year 1704 knowing if they returned empty-handed, they ſhould be ſeverely uſed, they joined together in a Body, and took two pound weight of Gold, which they melted, and with it reſolutely came to the Governour, and ſaid; O, Valdivia! Thou haſt a very great and greedy deſire after our Gold; we have uſed all poſſible means to ſatisfie thee, but could not. Now by good hap we have thought upon a way. Here is Gold; drink thy fill; for here is enough to ſatisfie the moſt Covetous. And immediately they bound him, and poured it down his Throat; with which he preſently died, and with his death gave name to this Town and Port of Valdivia. The Indians have ever ſince been at War with the Spaniards, and hold them hard to it: And the Spaniards are deſirous by all means poſſible to conquer theſe people; that they might be Maſters of ſo rich a Country. For though Peru does abound in Silver, yet this Empire of Chily is the moſt aboundant in Gold. And Mexico abounds both in Gold and Silver, Cochineel, Indico and Cocoa. They have alſo in Mexico many Mines of Iron; but the Spaniards think it not worth their while to open them.
Difficulty in getting Water at the Iſland Conchagua in the Gulf of Amapalla. Departure from the Gulf of Amapalla for India. The Fiſh Yellow-Tail deſcribed. Tradewind brisker in the South Sea, than in the Atlantick. Very little Variation obſerved in the Run over to India. Arrival at the Iſland Magon. The Iſland Guam. Matan. Arracife. Three unknown Iſlands diſcovered. The Boneto deſcribed. Indians wonderfully amazed at the ſight of white Men. The Main-Land of New-Guinea. The Iſland Gillolo. Attempt to find a new Paſſage on the Coaſt of New-Guinea. A new Streight diſcovered, called St John's Streight. The Iſlands Ceram and Bonoa. They indeavour in vain to get Proviſions at Manipa. Deſcription of the Iſland Manipa. [Page 219] year 1704 Great diſtreſs for want of Proviſions. The Iſland Amblow. Arrival at Amboyna.
AND now having given a particular Deſcription of the Coaſt of Mexico, Peru and Chili (from the Tropic of Cancer to 40 d. South) as far as we obſerved our ſelves or could learn from the Spaniards; I ſhall return to the Gulf of Amapalla, where we were fitting our Veſſel in order to our intended Voyage for India.
Here therefore we went aſhore at the Iſland Conchagua, to ſeek for water; and after ſome ſearch, we found behind the Hills a large bottom, in which was a large Plantain-walk, and a great deal of Rainwater, that fell from the Mountains. This was very inconvenient for us, becauſe lying ſo behind the Hills, we knew we muſt be forced to carry all our water over a high Hill, which we could hardly climb by our ſelves: But ſeeing there was no remedy, we firſt cut down the Buſhes which were in our way, to make us a clear Path; After which, the Hill being pretty ſteep on the Land-ſide, towards the bottom, wherein was the freſh water; we with our Axes and Shovels cut out ſteps in the Hill: And our Sail-maker having in the mean time made us a Canvas-Pipe of about ninety fathom [Page 220] year 1704 long, to carry our water from the top of the Hill down to our Cask which lay at the foot of it; we went to work to fill our water; each Man having with him a ſix Gallon Cask. The water which we took up was very muddy; and on the top of it grew Duck-weed, as it does uſually in our Ditches. At firſt we raked the Duck-weed away: But our Doctor perſwading us, that if we took up the weeds, they would mightily preſerve our water; we, according to his advice, took up both weeds and water together. When each Man had filled his ſix Gallon Cask, he carried it up to the top of the Hill, and then poured it into the Canvas-Pipe, which conveyed it down the Hill into our Cask. Thus we employed our ſelves for four days. And having filled about twenty-five Tuns, which we concluded would laſt longer than our Victuals; and got it on board our Veſſel; the next day, being the 31ſt of January 1704/5, we all went aſhore to the Plantain-walk: And having cut down a ſufficient quantity of them, we returned at night on board our Veſſel, intending to ſail next day. This Evening two of our Men who had reſolved to ſtay with Captain Dampier, left him and came over to us; ſo that now we were 35 in number, viz. thirty-four Engliſh, and one little Negro Boy, whom we had taken from the Spaniards.
[Page 221] year 1704 During the time of our watering our Bark, the Men on board the Ship belonging to Captain Dampier, were buſie in refitting their Ship as well as they could: The Carpenter ſtopt the Shot-holes, which they had in their Powder-room, with Tallow and Charcoal; not daring, as he ſaid, to drive in a Nail, for fear of making it worſe: And the four great Guns, which uſually ſtood between Decks, were put down into the Hold; there being ſixteen beſides, which was more than they had Men to manage; for there remained with them no more than twenty-eight Men and Boys, and moſt of them Landmen.
On the 1ſt of February, 1704/5, we left the Gulf of Amapalla, and Captain Dampier in his Ship the St George at anchor in it. We ſteered out between the Iſland of Amapalla and the Iſland Mangera; and many times had not above two fathom Water. We had a fine Gale of Wind at N. E. which ſoon carryed us out of the Mouth of the Gulf. So long as we had been in any of the Harbours on this Coaſt of Mexico, we had ſeldom been allowed any thing but Flower; Excepting that we uſed to go aſhore, and found upon the Rocks ſtore of Conchs, Oyſters, Muſcles, Snails, &c. of which we made many a good Meal: But now being in hopes of [Page 222] year 1704 getting into a Land of Plenty, we bore Hunger with more patience. And indeed we had great need of Patience. For now our Commons was leſſened to half a pound of courſe Flower a Man per Day, with two Ounces of Salt-Meat every other Day. Our Veſſel was a ſmall Bark with two Maſts, of about ſeventy Tuns, which we had taken from the Spaniards; But whilſt we lay here, ſhe was ſo eaten by the Worms, that ſhe begun to grow very leaky; and to add to our Afflictions, we had no Carpenter; neither if any of us ſhould fall ſick, had we any Doctor, or any Medicines to make uſe of; And, which was worſt of all, we had no Boat to aſſiſt our ſelves, if our Veſſel ſhould fail us; for the Doctor, Carpenter and Boat were left with Captain Dampier. But truſting to Gods Providence, who had already delivered us out of ſo many dangers, we proceeded on our intended Voyage for India.
On the 2d of Febuary we had a calm moſt part of the day and night; and this day we caught ſeveral Fiſh called Yellowtails, [Note: See Fig. XXVIII.] which came ſwimming about our Veſſel. Theſe Fiſh were about four Foot in length. He had twenty Fins on his Back; one middling one near the hinderpart of his Head, one large one near the middle of his Back, and eighteen ſmall ones ſtretching from the ſaid large one to [Page 223] year 1704 his Tail. He had two large Fins near his Gills, one of each ſide; and thirteen under his Belly; viz. one middling one underneath near the Gills; one large one near the middle of his Belly, which goes in with a Dent, and eleven ſmall ones ſtretching from the ſaid large one to his Tail, which is Half-moon'd. He has a very large Head, a great Eye, and is extraordinary good Food. It is very Fleſhy, having no Bone but the Back-bone. Theſe Fiſh, when taken by us, looked very white; but the tips of their Fins and Tail, were yellow; for which reaſon we called them Yellow-tails. They were very welcome to us; for whilſt they laſted, which was three days, we ſaved our own Proviſions, feeding upon nothing elſe but this Fiſh.
On the 3d of February, the firſt part of the day it continued calm, in which time five or ſix Turtles coming near the Veſſel, we caught two of them; which ſtill ſerved to help us out. About ſix in the Evening we had the Land-wind at N. E. a fine freſh Gale: So we took our departure from the Mount of St Michaels, a noted Mount, of which I have already given a Deſcription. It lies in the Gulf of Amapalla, in the Latitude of 13 d. North. We reckoned Longitude from London Weſt. 97 d. 30 m. and, as I ſaid before, we found Variation [Page 224] year 1704 3 d. 26 m. weſterly. We ſteered away S. W. the ſooner to get off the Land into the true N. E. or E. N. E. Trade. For we knew the preſent Wind to be only the Land-wind, which we could not think would laſt long. For we did not expect to get into the true Trade, till we had run about ninety or a hundred leagues from the Land. For which reaſon we ſteered away, as I ſaid, S. W. and S. W. by W. Which courſe we held till we came into the Latitude of 10 d. When finding our ſelves in the true Trade, we hauled away VV. N. VV. intending to get into the Latitude of 13 d. North; and ſo as near as we could, to maintain our Latitude till our arrival at the Ladrone Iſlands; knowing, if we kept in that Latitude, it was impoſſible to miſs them; We had fine freſh Gales of VVind, firſt at N. E; but as we run off the Land, we found it edge to the N. E. by E, and thence to the E. N. E; where it continued with us till our paſſing the Ladrone Iſlands. VVe now made us ſtudding Sails out of our Mainſail and Main-top-ſail. VVe got our ſtudding Sails up by day break every morning, and at Sun-ſet haul'd them down again: For it commonly blew ſo freſh in the Night, that we were forced to ſettle our Top-ſail; and with the riſing of the Sun, the VVind would ſomething abate again: [Page 225] year 1705 Yet we always had as much as we could well carry with our Studding-ſails. The Trade-wind we found here to blow much brisker than it does in the Atlantick or Eaſt-Indian Oceans.
For the firſt twenty Days after our Fiſh and Turtle was gone, we fed upon nothing but our Plantains, of which we allowed our ſelves two for a Meal, and two ſuch Meals a day: But after our Plantains were gone, we went to our half pound of Flower a Man per day, and our two ounces of Salt Beef or Pork every other day. The Meat had been ſo long in Salt, that when we boiled it, it commonly ſhrunk one half. So we finding a loſs in boiling our Meat, concluded to eat it raw; which we did all the Voyage after, ſo long as it laſted. We now and then caught a Dolphin, and ſometimes ſaw a great many Sea-birds, as Boobies, Noddies, &c. which would come and ſettle upon our Veſſel; and happy was he, that could catch one of them.
year 1705 On the 10th of April 1705, towards Evening, we ſaw the Clouds gather about the Horizon much more than uſual. This was a great ſign or token of Land. For [Page 226] year 1705 it is common between the Tropicks to be foggy or cloudy over the Land; although it be never ſo clear at Sea. Therefore all this Night we took a ſpecial care to look out; and on the 11th in the Morning betimes we ſaw the Iſland of Magon bearing Weſt, diſtant about ten Leagues. [Note: See Fig. XXIX.] It was a high woody Iſland, and very plain and green on the top. So we ſtood towards it; and when we had brought it to bear North, diſtant about a Mile, I took the Draught of it, which appeared as in the Figure. Being in ſo near, we laid our Ship by; and ſeveral fiſhing Boats came to us, and brought us ſome Fiſh, with ſome Eggs, Yams, Potatoes, &c. Theſe vvere very acceptable to us; for now our Salt Beef and Pork was juſt at an end; and we had nothing to truſt to, but our half pound of Flower a Day for each Man, and that very full of Vermine, Maggots and Spiders. The Men in thoſe Fiſhing-Boats were a very tall and large-limb'd People, of a tawny Complexion, having long black Hair reaching down to their middle: They all go ſtark-naked, not ſo much as covering their Privy-parts. In exchange of what we had of them, we would have given them Money; but they looked on it and gave it us again, making Signs to us to give them Tobacco in the room of it; which we did, and [Page 227] year 1705 they ſeemed very much pleaſed. We alſo gave them ſome old Shirts, which they immediately tore in pieces, and rowled them round about their Heads. We would have given each of them a Dram of Brandy, but they were afraid to drink it. Only one of them, ſeeing us drink to each other, and that it did us no hurt, at laſt made Signs that he would drink with us. So we gave him a good Glaſs full, which he immediately drank off; but we thought the Fellow would never ſhut his Mouth again; for he was ſo amazed at the Heat it had left in his Mouth and in his Belly, that I believe he thought he had ſet himſelf on Fire. He laid himſelf down and roared like a Bull; which ſcared moſt of the reſt of them away. After he had roared near half an Hour, he fell faſt a ſleep: And we being in haſte, put the poor Fellow into his Boat; and made ſigns to his Conſorts to take care of him, that he might not fall over-board. They ſeemed to be a very civil People; but however we did not care to let too many of them come into our Veſſel at a time. Their Language we could not underſtand at all. When they firſt approached us, they tied two Sticks together in faſhion of a Croſs, and held them up for us to ſee: Which was, as we ſuppoſe, to ſignifie to us that they had ſome Knowledge of the Chriſtian Religion. [Page 228] year 1745 We in return ſhowed them a Crucifix, which we had taken from the Spaniards; at the ſight of which they all bowed their Bodies, and came on board. This Iſland of Magon I make to lie in the Latitude of 13 d. 00 m. North; and we made Longitude from the Mount of St Michael's W. 120 d. 09 m. or 7029 Miles; allowing between 58 and 59 Miles to a degree of Longitude in this Parallel. The Boats which theſe Fiſhermen came on board in, were about forty foot in length, and about ſeventeen or eighteen Inches broad aloft, but not above three Inches broad below. Their Head and Stern were alike. The bottom to the Waters edge, was one entire piece, but hollow; upon which, for the ſide of the Boat, was a piece of thin Plank, about three foot broad, and of the ſame length as the Boat it ſelf. It had its lower Edge ſowed with Rattans to the bottom of the Boat. They had two long Poles put out of one ſide; One was within ten foot of one end of the Boat, and the other within ten foot of the other end: So that they lay diſtant from each other about twenty foot. The Poles were about thirty foot in length; at the end of which was a long piece of Plank of about twenty-one foot, of the ſame ſhape, and about one fourth part of the bigneſs of the bottom of the Boat. This piece is laid acroſs [Page 229] year 1705 at the outer end of the Poles, from one Pole to the other; where it is very ſecurely made faſt: And this altogether, is called the Out-leaker. This is always the Weather-ſide; and the uſe of it, is to keep the Boat from over-ſetting. For without the Out-leaker the Boat is ſo narrow, that it would not bear it ſelf. They have but one Sail, which is made of Matt, and like our Bermudo's Sail. It is not above two Inches broad at top, and hauls out by a Boom. When they have a mind to go about; it is only letting go the Sheet of the Sail, and hauling it aft on the ſame ſide at the other end of the Boat; and then that which was the Stern before, is now become the Head; any end going foremoſt, and no diſtinction in the built of either end: But the ſame Side ſtill and always remains the Weather-ſide. Moſt of theſe Boats were painted red. See the Figure of the Boat with its Out-leaker. [Note: See Fig. XXX.]
We were now in Conſultation amongſt our ſelves, whether we ſhould ſteer away for the North Weſt, amongſt the Philippine Iſlands; or to the South Weſt, for the Coaſt of New-Guinea; But after a debate of about two Hours, we concluded to haul away South Weſt, for the Cape of New Guinea. Which accordingly we did; and the ſame day paſſed by the Iſland of Guam, which lies South from the Iſland [Page 230] year 1705 of Magon, about ſeven leagues: So that I make this Iſland to lie in the Latitude of 12 d. 39 m. North. We only paſſed by it at a diſtance. Wherefore I can give no particular Deſcription of it. Yet as we paſſed by, I took a Draught of it, as it appeared to us South, diſtance 5 leagues. The Land to us ſeemed of an indifferent height; but it was quite plain and flat on the top. This Iſland belongs to the Spaniards, who have a ſmall Fortification on it. [Note: See Fig. XXXI.] It is kept for the conveniency of the Manila-Ship, which always touches here to refreſh, in her way to Manila.
From hence we kept our Courſe South Weſt, and paſſed by the Iſland of Matan, which lies about ſix leagues due North from the Iſlan Guam. And at ſix this ſame Evening, being April the 11th, we took our departure from the Iſland of Magon, it then bearing North Eaſt, diſtant nine leagues. We ſtill had a freſh Gale, as uſual, at Eaſt by North and Eaſt North Eaſt. And on the 17th we ſaw the Iſland of Arracife, bearing Eaſt by North, diſtant 10 leagues. It ſeemed to be a very high Iſland. Whether it is inhabited or no, I know not.
On the 3d of May, ſprung up a ſmall Gale of Wind at Weſt; and we ſteered away South, till being almoſt out of hopes, becauſe the Wind began to die away again, on the 5th, about ten in the Evening, we ſmelt a very fine and fragrant ſmell, which gave us new hopes that we were near ſome Land. We looked over our Draughts; but they gave no Deſcription of any; yet we were ſure we could not be far off ſome Land, from whence that fragrant ſmell muſt proceed. So we continued in our hopes till the next Morning; when accordingly [Page 232] year 1705 we ſaw Land right a-head of us, as far as we could ſee. And a ſmall Gale ſpringing up at South Eaſt, we ſteered away South Weſt by Weſt directly to it. By Noon we made it to be three ſmall Iſlands, very low Land, but all very green and pleaſant. At the ſame time we had an Obſervation, and found our ſelves in the Latitude of 00 d. 50 m. North. The Eaſtermoſt of the ſaid three Iſlands bearing South Eaſt, diſtant about four leagues, which makes its Latitude to be 00 d. 42 m. North.
At the ſame time we caught two Bonetoes, [Note: See Fig. XXXII.] which were very welcome to us; for they made a good Meal for all our Company; And this was the firſt we had had for a long time. This Fiſh is commonly of about three foot in length, and two foot about. It hath two middling Fins on his Back, with eleven ſmall ones ſtretching to his Tail. He hath the like number oppoſite under his Belly: with two large ones, one on each ſide, near his Gills. He hath a very ſharp Head, with a ſmall Mouth, a full Eye, and a half-moon'd Tail. It is a very fleſhy Fiſh, having no Bone but his Back-bone: And they make very good Broth.
All this Night we ſtood off and on; deſigning not to venture too near theſe unknown Iſlands in the Night; not knowing [Page 233] year 1705 what danger there might be near them. The next Morning, at Day-break, being May the 7th, we found our ſelves within a Ships length of a great ledge of Rocks, which ran from 1 Iſland to the other; which we not ſeeing before, and thinking to go between the two Iſlands, had like to have been upon them; But through God's great Mercy, a ſmall breeze of Wind coming from the Shore, we got off, and ſtood to the weſtermoſt Iſland; becauſe we ſaw many Sholes lying off the reſt of them. The Rocks we had like to have been upon, were near the Northermoſt Iſland; which, upon account of our miraculous eſcape, we call'd the Iſland of Deceit; it having, to the Eye, diſcover'd no ſuch danger. When we came near the Weſtermoſt Iſland, which was the biggeſt of the three, we ſtood in for the Iſland; and as we drew nearer, about forty or fifty of their flying Proes came off; in which might be about four hundred and fifty Men, allowing ten to each Proe: And we could ſee multitudes of people upon the Shore: For as we paſt by any of theſe Iſlands to go to the next, the people alſo followed us. Their flying Proes lay at a diſtance from us, and viewed us; till we beckoned and made Signs for them to come to us. Then one of them, which was in the midſt, advanced towards us; and being pretty near, lay [Page 234] year 1705 and looked on us for a while. VVe ſtill made Signs for him to draw nearer: Then he came within a Ships length of us, and lay ſtill again. In her were ten Men all naked; and in the midſt of them, a grave chearful old Man, of a pleaſant Countenance; who had on his Head a four-cornered Cap, without a Crown; but otherwiſe he was quite naked, as were all the reſt of them. This Man, by the Reſpect which all the reſt in the Boat ſhowed to him, we gueſſed to be a King or Prince. At their approach to us they ſung a Song, which continued about a quarter of an hour: VVe could not underſtand it, but it was tuned very prettily. VVhen this Song was done, they came almoſt cloſe to our Veſſel's ſide, and then ſung another Song. This was begun by the grave old Man, and followed by all the reſt in the Boat. VVhich done, they put themſelves in the poſture of praying, and made ſeveral Bows and Cringes towards us, after the manner of their Country. Then one of the Men in the Boat, having a very ſore Leg, held it up to us, and pointed to the VVound: By the Signs he made to us, we underſtood that he would have us to cure it; for we being white, and they (I believe) having never ſeen any white Man before, they ſeem'd as if they did not think us to be mortal Men. [Page 235] year 1705 After this, we poured ſome Water out of a Bucket into a Glaſs; and pointing to our Mouths, made ſigns that we wanted Victuals and Drink. Then they ſhook their Heads, in way of Denial, as I ſuppoſe. But ſeeing us ſtill make towards the Iſland, one of the Men in the Boat blew a Horn; at the ſound of which, all the reſt of the Boats made boldly to us. Upon this, we all believing they would be aboard of us, fired a Musket over them; not deſigning to harm, but only to frighten them: At the noiſe of which they ſeemed wonderfully amazed, and drew back; menacing us at a diſtance with their Paddles, and ſtill following us. So, ſeeing, as I ſaid before, many hundreds of them upon the ſhore; and finding we could have nothing from them, but by force; and having no Anchors or Cables by which we dare truſt our Bark; and beſides having no Boat to go aſhore in; ſo that ſhould we ſwim aſhore, as ſome of our Men propoſed, yet we could not carry our Arms with us; and the Indians might knock us on the Head with Stones, whilſt we were in the Water; we concluded there was no good to be done here. VVherefore examining our VVater, and finding ſufficient for eighteen Days at a quart of VVater to each Man per Day; we reſolved to leave theſe Iſlands, and to truſt to God's Providence [Page 236] year 1705 to guide us to a more friendly place, where we might ſupply our wants; not doubting but we ſhould furniſh our ſelves with Water at ſome Iſland or other, in a place where there were ſo many. So we left the ſaid Iſlands, and called the Weſtermoſt of them The Iſland of Diſappointment, becauſe we made certain account of getting ſome Water here, but could not. They were all three, low, flat, even Iſlands; full of ſeveral ſorts of Trees, all very green and flouriſhing; And no doubt, if we had had a Boat, we might have met with ſomething which would have been beneficial to our ſelves, and of advantage to our Country: As we might alſo at ſeveral other ſmall Iſlands, which we afterwards paſs'd by. The Inhabitants of moſt of theſe Iſlands, were a very large ſtrong-bon'd People. They had long black ſtreight Hair, which reached down to their middle; and they all go ſtark naked, not ſo much as covering their Privy-parts. I think I never ſaw ſuch a parcel of large ſtout-limb'd Fellows together in my Life. We here found a Current ſetting pretty ſtrongly to the Northward; as it did ever ſince we left the Ladrone Iſlands.
From theſe Iſlands we ſteered away South Weſt; having a fine freſh Gale of Wind at Eaſt. The water here was very foul, being full of Graſs and other Traſh, [Page 237] year 1705 which lay driving up and down. VVe ſounded ſeveral times, but had no Ground at a hundred Fathom; ſo we ſtill kept on our Courſe, and kept good looking out all night. The next Morning betimes, being May the 8th, we ſaw the main Land of New-Guinea, bearing South by Weſt, diſtant eighteen or nineteen leagues. And now with a few old broken Boards, which we had in our Veſſel, we went to work to build us a ſmall Boat; which afterwards proved very uſeful to us. The Land was very high and mountainous. At a diſtance it looked very black; but drawing nearer, it looked more grey. The 9th, we had dirty ſqually uncertain weather, and the VVinds variable all round the Compaſs. VVe kept the Coaſt of New-Guinea aboard; and the Land ſtill continued to be of a good height, very full of great high Hills, and ſmall Valleys; which all ſeemed very barren. [Note: See Fig. XXXIII.] It is all a rocky Coaſt; neither could we perceive any Harbour, Bay, or place to anchor in. VVhether there be any Inhabitants hereabouts, I know not; but vve never ſavv any, nor any ſign of any, either by Sea in Boats, or upon the Land by Fires or Smokes, as is uſual in all inhabited Countries.
The ſame day vve came abreaſt of two ſmall Iſlands; neither of vvhich vvas above a league in length. They vvere lovv, [Page 238] year 1705 and very vvell clothed vvith ſmall and green Trees. At the ſame time we ſaw alſo a part of the great Iſland Gillolo, [Note: See Fig. XXXIII.] bearing VVeſt, diſtant eight leagues. This vvas alſo high Land, but not ſo high as the Coaſt of New-Guinea. We kept on our Courſe, ſteering Weſt South Weſt, intending to go between the Main of New-Guinea and the Iſland Gillolo; this being our paſſage for the Eaſt-Indian Sea.
From the 8th to the 11th, we had dirty Rainy-weather for the moſt part, with uncertain Gales of Wind; and in the Night, it being dark, and we not keeping the Coaſt of New Guinea ſo cloſe aboard as we ſhould, we miſſed the common Paſſage, and ran paſt it; and in the Morning betimes, found our ſelves amongſt a vaſt number of ſmall Iſlands: When perceiving we had over-ſhot the Paſſage, and the Wind being at Eaſt, we concluded to look out for a paſſage to the Southward amongſt theſe Iſlands. Accordingly we ſtood to the Southward; but found a great many Rocks and Sholes which ſtretched from one Iſland to another: Wherefore at Night, there being little Wind, and not daring to venture further amongſt theſe unfrequented Iſlands and Sholes; we reſolved to lye by all Night: Intending in the morning, if the Wind ſhould prove Weſterly, to return back again and [Page 239] year 1705 go through the common Paſſage; but if it ſtill continued Eaſterly, then to indeavour to find out a new Paſſage to the Weſtward. This Night we ſaw two or three Fires, which were made on ſhore by the Inhabitants. The Iſlands here were moſt of them of a good height, and pretty well clothed with ſeveral ſorts of Trees, which all appeared very green and flouriſhing. This day we put our ſelves to a Pint and half of Water a Man per day. On the 12th we had fair weather; with a fine freſh Gale at N. E. So we proceeded to the Weſtward, and at the ſame time had a ſtrong Tide ſetting to the Weſtward. About eight this morning we ſhot in between two high Head-lands, which were diſtant from each other near two Miles. Upon this, ſome of us went to the Topmaſt-head, to look if we had a clear Paſſage through; and we ſaw not any let or hindrance: So we got through this place by two in the Afternoon. It was in length about ſeven leagues, and about two Miles broad. In it we could find no Anchor-ground, till within a Ships length of the ſhore; and then we had thirty fathom Water. The Land here was of an indifferent height, and very woody. At noon the Tide ſetting back to the Eaſtward, and it being calm, we drove by five in the Evening half way back again; [Page 240] year 1705 and drove with our Veſſel ſo near the ſhore, that we kept her off with our Poles, and might have ſtepped from our Bark to the ſhore; and yet our Veſſel never touched the ground, the Water being very deep cloſe to the ſhore. Not long after, a ſtrong Gale ſpringing up again, by ſeven in the Evening we got clear out of this ſtreight the ſecond time; and then it fell calm again: And we drove with the Tide, which then ſet to the Weſtward. In this ſtreight we ſaw a flying Proe under Sail, but it did not come near us. We alſo in ſome of the ſmall Bays ſaw ſeveral old Houſes, ſome ſtanding, and ſome half down; but could not ſee any Inhabitants. On the 13th, we had little wind at E. S. E. and ſometimes calm; but when we had any wind, we ſteered away S. by W. Here we ſaw a great many Iſlands to the Southward of us, but none of them ſo near together but that there vvas room enough to paſs between them, and ſcarce any ground to be found vvith one hundred Fathom of Line. We ſtill found vve got but very little; the Tides ſetting ſometimes to the Southvvard, and then back again to the Northvvard, ſo that vve vvere not yet got above a league to the Southvvard of the ſaid ſtreight, vvhich vve, after the Name of our Bark, called St Johns Streighs. And I believe vve vvere the firſt Europeans that ever paſt it.
[Page 241] year 1705 On the 14th, vve had hazy vveather, vvith ſmall driſling Rain, and little VVind; ſo that vve vvere not above two leagues further to the Southvvard, than vve vvere the day before. VVe here met vvith a great many ſmall Iſlands. They vvere moſt of them of a good height, and very vvoody; but vve could perceive no ſign of any Inhabitants. The 16th vve had hazy vveather, vvith freſh Gales of vvind at S. E. by S. and thence to the S. W. by S; ſo that vve vvere forced to reef our Top-ſails: And in the Evening vve ſavv the Iſland Ceram, bearing South, diſtant nine leagues: We then ſteering E. by N. having the wind at S. E. by S. The Iſland Ceram at a diſtance ſeemed to be high Land, and looked very black. This day vve finiſhed our Boat vvhich vve vvere building; it vvas tvvelve foot long, and four broad. On the 17th vve had fair vveather, vvith freſh Gales off ſhore; ſo that vve vvere forced to ſtand off and on, as the vvind vvould permit. This day vve ſavv a Sloop to the Eaſtward of us, which we vvould very vvillingly have ſpoken to; But they kept from us, ſtanding to the Eaſtvvard along the Coaſt of Ceram. So vve ſtill plyed in for the ſhore; and at noon ſavv the Iſland Bonoa. The Iſland Bonoa lyes in the Latitude of about [...] d. 45 m. South. And it is almoſt in the [Page 242] year 1705 ſhape of a Horſe-ſhooe. We ſtill made towards the Iſland of Bonoa; and on the 18th of May, the wind veering about to the E. S. E. and Eaſt, we got in. We anchored near the N. W. end of the Iſland in thirty fathom Water, about a League from the ſhore. We durſt not venture any nearer in, becauſe of the many Sands and ſholes which lye off here. But we ſent our little Boat aſhore, with two Men, and an empty Hogs-head to be filled with water. When they came aſhore, they went up and down ſeeking for water; and after ſome ſearch, found a ſmall Pond. Here they filled the Hogs-head, and at Night returned on Board. They could not ſee any Inhabitants; although the Iſland is very well inhabited. But this North and N. W. ſide of the Iſland, is very barren, being nothing but great Rocky Hills, not affording any thing but ſome ſmall Buſhes. This probably might be the reaſon, that we ſaw no Inhabitants hereabouts. So that ſame Night a Laud-wind coming off, and we finding it very inconvenient watering here, becauſe we were forced to lye ſo far off ſhore with our Veſſel; and our Boat not being able to bring off more than one Hogs-head at a time; we weighed from this place, intending to water upon the Iſland Ceram On the 20th, we got into the Bay of Ceram; [Page 243] year 1705 where we Anchored in twenty five Fathom hard Sand, not above two Ships length from the ſhore; and ſent our little Boat with three Men to look for water. At twelve this Night they returned again, having found out a fine ſmall Spring of freſh water. The next day, it being calm, we got up our Anchor, and rowed our Veſſel further in, till we brought the ſaid River to bear S. E, diſtant about half a Mile, and then anchored in thirty Fathom water, good faſt hard Sand; the bearings of the Land being as is repreſented in the Draught. [Note: See Fig. XXXIV.] The Bay here was very woody all round, the Land pretty low, the water pretty deep cloſe to the ſhore, which was ſandy quite round the Bay. From W. S. W. to the S. E. and thence to the N. by VV. the Bay it ſelf is a Defenſe from thoſe winds; and from the VV. by S. to the W. N. W. the Iſland of Bonoa is a Defenſe. The Iſland Bonoa is much higher Land than this part of the Iſland Ceram. On the South ſide it is very well clothed with ſeveral ſorts of large Trees, and the Valleys are very fruitful in Rice. Alſo on this South ſide, it is ſaid to be very well inhabited. We ſtaid in this Bay of Ceram till the 22d at Noon; and then having filled eight Tuns of water, and having a fine freſh Gale at S. E, we weighed from Ceram, and ſteered out between Ceram and [Page 244] year 1705 the Iſland Bonoa; but kept neareſt the Ceram ſhore. Between theſe Iſlands we ſaw ſeveral Proes, and a Sloop. We lay by, and ſent our Boat to the Sloop; intending, if they had any Victuals that they could ſpare, to buy ſome of them; But the Sloop made the beſt of her way, and would not ſtay for our Boat: So our Boat returned on board again.
At the ſame time a large Indian Proe came on board us; in which was a Freeman of Amboyna. To him we declared our great want of Victuals, having had nothing for a long time to eat, but Flower and Water; and ſo little of that, as would hardly keep us alive. He told us, if we would go to the Iſland of Manipa, which was then in ſight, he would be our Pilot, and carry us in; where he did not doubt but we might have Rice enough for our Money, to carry us to Batavia. Accordingly we ſteered directly for the faid Iſland of Manipa; and in our way paſſed by the Iſland Keylan; which is a ſmall, but high Iſland, very well inhabited, and clothed with ſeveral ſorts of Trees: Its chief product is Rice, and ſome few Cloves. And here liveth a Dutch Corporal with ſix Soldiers, whoſe only buſineſs is to ſee all the Clove-trees cut down and deſtroyed. From hence we proceeded to Manipa, where we arrived at about twelve [Page 245] year 1705 at Night, and came to an anchor in a ſmall Bay at the N. W. end of the Island. Then our Dutch Pilot ſent two of his Men aſhore, with a Letter to the Governour, to acquaint him with our wants. On the 23d, betimes in the morning, a Dutch Corporal with two Soldiers came on Board, and read to us an Order which he had from the Dutch Eaſt-India Company; that it was not uſual for any Ships, except thoſe belonging to the Dutch Eaſt-India Company, to anchor there; and that if any did, they were not to ſupply them with any thing. We told him it was through want of Victuals, that we were forced to put in here; and that if we could have ſubſiſted, we ſhould not have touched at any place till our arrival at Batavia. Wherefore we deſired him to go aſhore again, and declare to the Governour our wants. He ſeeing us in a very weak condition, promiſed he would; [...]nd that he would bring us word again. Accordingly he went aſhore, and at four [...] the Evening returned again, and brought [...] word that we ſhould have no Proviſi [...]s there; but if we would go to Amboy [...], there we might be ſupplyed. So to [...] great diſcouragement we were forced [...] leave this unfriendly place; intending, [...] the wind would permit, to go for Am [...]a.
[Page 246] year 1705 The Iſland Manipa, is in length, S. E, and N. W, about fifteen Miles; in breadth, about eight; and lyes in the Latitude of about 3 d. 25 m. South; and Weſtward of the Iſland Bonoa about 20 Miles. It is a pretty high Iſland, and very well inhabited by Malayans; as are all the Molucca Iſlands. It is ſhole almoſt all round; which ſholes ſome of them ſtretch a league and a half off the ſhore. Wherefore, unleſs a Man be acquainted or has good Draughts of the place, it is dangerous coming near it. The Iſland is of a good height, but not ſo high as the Iſland Keylan before mentioned. On it are ſeveral very good ſprings of freſh water; and on the S. W, ſide of the Iſland, the Dutch have a ſmall Fort of ſix Guns. The Island is governed by a Dutch Sergeant, three Corporals, and a Maſtergunner; and they have under them twenty Dutch Soldiers. On it grow abundance of Cloves and Rice, of which they ſend great quantities to Amboyna. The Inhabitants are moſt of them Fiſher-men. They catch abundance of Fiſh here; not only enough for their own uſe, but alſo to ſupply Amboyna with.
From this place we ſtood to the South Weſtward, having the wind at S. S. E And it blowing freſh, we reefed our Top ſails. But when we got clear of the Island, [Page 247] year 1705 it blew ſo very hard, that we were forced to hand our Top ſails, and go away under our courſes. We were now quite out of heart: For we did not expect to fetch Amboyna; the S. E. Monſoon being ſet in, which wind was right againſt us; and beſides it blew ſo hard, that we could ſcarcely carry any Sail. And we could not think of getting to Batavia, becauſe we had not Victuals to carry us thither; and beſides, as the wind was, we could not weather the ſholes, which lye to the E. S. E, of the Island of Bouton. So being almoſt in deſpair, and the wind continuing, we kept our courſe to the Southward, till we came over againſt the Island Bouro; and then the wind veering to the S. S. W, we ſtood away S. E: But finding a ſtrong Current ſetting to Leeward, ſo that we rather loſt than got ground; and ſeeing no likelihood of getting to Amboyna; we by a general conſent ſhared all that was Eatable on Board our Veſſel; and the whole of what each Mans ſhare amounted to, was ſix Pound and three quarters of Flower, with five Pound of Bran; which how long it was to laſt, we could not tell; however every one deſigned to be as ſparing of his part, as poſſibly he could.
[Page 248] year 1705 On the 25th, the wind veering about to the S. S. E, we tackt and ſtood to the S. W; and ſoon weathered the Island of Amblow; which is a ſmall Island, not above three Leagues in length. It is of an indifferent height, and lyes in the Latitude of 4 d. 05 m. South. It is pretty well furniſhed with Trees of ſeveral ſorts, but not inhabited; neither do I know whether there be any freſh Water upon it. From hence we continued our Courſe till twelve at night; when a hard Gale of Wind coming down upon us, before we could hand our Sails (by reaſon of our weakneſs) it almoſt overſet our Veſſel: It ſplit our Man-ſail and Main-top-ſail all to pieces, broke our Main-ſtay and two of our Fore-ſhrowds. We were then ſtanding away South Weſt, and had the Wind at South South Eaſt; intending, if we could weather the Sholes, to put for Batavia. But as ſoon as the Squall was over, it fell calm; and then we had ſo great a Sea, occaſioned, as I believe, by the meeting of ſeveral Currents, that we thought our Bark could not hold it out. She laboured ſo much; and the Sea took us ſo a-head, a-ſtern, and on both ſides, that we were always almoſt covered with water.
[Page 249] year 1705 On the 26th, ſprung up a fine freſh gale at S. E. Whereupon, knowing we could not weather the Sholes, we tack'd and ſtood away N. E. for the Iſland of Amboyna. On the 27th, the Wind continuing, we held the ſame Courſe, and on the 28th betimes in the Morning ſaw the Island of Amboyna bearing due North, diſtant about ſix Leagues. So we ſtood away directly for the Island; and by Noon came juſt off the Harbour.
The A. and the whole Crew and Ship ſecured at Amboyna. A particular Deſcription of Amboyna; Its Situation, Soil, Inhabitants, Caſtle, Buildings; Its Subjectneſs to great Earthquakes; Its Government. Of the Malayan Inhabitants in it. The Hill-Malayans always at War with the Dutch. Malayan Slaves. The Cuſtom of dealing with Debtors. Women-ſlaves. The Product of the Iſland; Cloves, Ginger, Pepper, Rattans, Canes, and Nutmegs. A particular Deſcription of the growth of Cloves, the manner of gathering them, &c. Some Gold-mines ſaid to be in this Iſland. The Governours annual Progreſs to viſit the Spice-Iſlands. The Beaſts and Birds upon this Iſland. The Crockadore deſcribed. The Caſſawaris deſcribed. The Bird of Paradice. [Page 251] year 1705 The Sea-Porcupine. The Fruits in this Iſland. The Pine-apple deſcribed. The Mangoe. Very deep Water round the Iſland. Its Harbour and Fortifications. The place where the Engliſh formerly maſſacred here, were thrown. Several little Iſlands about Amboyna. Boangbeſſy and Hinomoa. Banda. The Governour of Amboyna, Chief over all the Spice-Iſlands. Moskitoes very troubleſome at Amboyna. The Tryal of a certain Malayan for murdering his Slave. The A. and part of his Company releaſed, and depart from Amboyna.
AT our going into the Harbour of Amboyna, we met with two Ships coming out. Theſe two Ships were laden with Cloves, and bound for Batavia. The Dutch Captain of one of them came on board of us, and demanded from whence we came, whither bound, and deſired we would give him a Journal of our Voyage; promiſing to return it again, upon our arrival at Battavia. We ſatisfied him to all his demands; and our Agent for the Owners, gave him a ſmall account of our Voyage. [Page 252] year 1705 After which we ſtood farther in, and the two Dutch Ships left us. At night the Land-wind coming off, we run in for the Shore, to anchor; but could find no Ground with a hundred fathom of Line, till we came within a Ships length of the Shore; and then we had twenty fathom, hard Sand. Here we lay all night; and the next Morning, (being in our account Tueſday May the 28th; but according to the Dutch account, Wedneſday; we having loſt about eighteen Hours by our going to the Weſtward, and the Dutch having got ſix Hours by coming to the Eaſtward; which makes the difference of time to be 24 hours,) two Dutch Orambyes, with 40 Paddles each, came on board of us. They brought the Fiſcal Secretary and ſeveral Dutch Gentlemen, and about thirty Soldiers, who took poſſeſſion of our Bark. They alſo went down and ſealed up all our Cheſts; and the two Orambyes went a-head to tow us in; and by noon we got up as high as the Town, where they moored our Veſſel in the common anchoring-place. Here we continued till the 31ſt, not knowing how they deſigned to diſpoſe of us. In which time they would not afford us any Victuals, although we proffer'd them a Crown for a pound of Beef, Pork, or Bread. In the Evening we were all ſent on ſhore; where they had provided us two Rooms [Page 253] year 1705 for our Reception, near the State-Houſe; and our Bark, Money and Goods, except what we had about us, were all taken from us; and ſoon after, our Bark and Goods were ſold at a publick Out-cry. We were fed with very bad Meat, which We who had been at ſpare Diet ſo long, and our Stomachs were very weak, could ill digeſt. And if we vvould have better, vve muſt buy it vvith our ovvn Money. Several of us had the good luck to have ſome Money about us; and as long as that laſted, vve bought our ovvn Victuals of our Keeper. Our Spaniſh Dollar, vvhich was five Shillings and a Penny value, he vvould give us no more than five Dutch Skillings for; which was to the value of about Half a Crown; And for this Half-Crown we could have no more Victuals than we might have bought for five Pence, if we had had our liberty to go into the Tovvn. So that inſtead of having five Shillings for our Spaniſh Dollar, we had indeed no more than five Pence.
And now being at a ſtop for a while at this Iſland of Amboyna, a place often mentioned for the Cruelties uſed towards the Engliſh here formerly, and having had time and opportunity to enquire into the Manners, Ways, Cuſtoms of the People, Strength of the Iſland, and Product of it; I ſhall give a ſmall deſcription of it, as far as I obſerved my ſelf, or could learn of any of the Inhabitants, tho' ſecretly.
[Page 254] year 1705 And firſt, This Iſland of Amboyna is in length North Eaſt and South Weſt twelve leagues. [Note: See Fig. XXXV.] It is a high mountainous Land; the Hills are ſomewhat barren, but the Valleys are very fruitful. The Soil is black: and the Surface of it Salt-Petreiſh. The middle of the Iſland lies in about 3 d. 40 m. South. It is inhabited by Malayans, who are the original Natives. They are of a middle Stature, and tawny; but the Women are of a brighter tawny than the Men, and have long black Hair, which reaches down to the Calfs of their Legs: They have round Faces, ſmall Mouths, Noſes and Lips: They wear a Linnen Waſte-coat, which reaches no lower than the lower part of their Breaſts; and about their middle they were a piece of Cloth, about four Yards wide, and a yard deep; This they roul round them, and it ſerves them inſtead of a Petty-coat; For none are allowed to wear Petty-coats but the Dutch Women only; Neither are any of the Malayan Men allowed to wear a Hat, excepting only their King.
The Iſland is govern'd by a Council, which conſiſts of five Perſons, viz. the Governour, the Chief Merchant (or upper Koop-man,) the Malayan King, the Captain of the Fort, and the Fiſcal, who is in the Nature of a Judge. Upon the Iſland are ſaid to be about 350 Dutch Soldiers, with about 120 or 130 Dutch Free-men and Petty-Officers, and near as many [Page 256] year 1705 Chineſe, who live here for the advantage of Trade; although they are not allowed to trade in Spice, that being a peculiar Trade which the Dutch Company reſerve to themſelves. So that I reckon they can make in all about five hundred and fifty fighting Men, Dutch and Chineſe: As for the Malayans, they would be of little Service to them, but rather be glad to be aſſiſtant to any Body againſt them. The Malayan Women here, are ſaid to be great Whores; of which they are nothing aſhamed. They are ſoon ripe, and often marry by nine Years of Age; and many of them are ſaid to have Children by ten or eleven. All near the Water-ſide are forced to be under the Dutch Government, which is very Abſolute and Tyrannick over them. For any ſmall Fault they are ſeverely handled; and many think themſelves well, if they are not made Slaves, and to wear an Iron upon their Leg during Life. Thoſe, I ſay, which dwell near the Sea-ſide, are all ſubject to the Dutch Government, and are Chriſtians: But thoſe within the Country, which are called the Hill-Malayans, are Mahometans. They are always at War with the Dutch: And if they take one of them Priſoner at any time; they never give him any quarter; but after they have kept him in Priſon five Days without either [Page 257] year 1705 Victuals or Drink, they bring him out, and firſt of all rip up his Breaſt with a ſharp Knife and take out his Heart; at which there is great rejoycing of all the Malayans that are preſent. Then they cut off his Head, and embalm it with Spice to keep; And they who can ſhow moſt of ſuch Heads, are accounted the moſt honourable, and value themſelves much upon it. The dead Body is left expoſed to the ravenous Birds of Prey to feed on. The Dutch, to retaliate this uſage, when they take any of theſe Malayans, lade them with many Irons, and lay them in Priſon, where they continue ſome time; After which they cut off their Noſes and Ears; and then they are ſent to Priſon again, where they continue ſome further time: After which they are brought out the ſecond and laſt time, and they rack them till they die.
As for thoſe under their own Government; if they are found guilty of thieving, they often cut off their Noſes and Ears, and put a great Iron Chain upon their Legs, and ſo make them Slaves during Life. There were near five hundred of theſe poor Wretches, who were in continual Slavery whilſt we were here; and they always took care to keep them employed; ſome in ſawing of Timber, others in cutting of Stone; ſome in carrying of [Page 256] [...] [Page 257] [...] [Page 258] year 1705 Burthens, and other labour. At Sun-riſing every Morning they are let out of the Priſon, in which they are kept, the Men in one, and the Women in another; and are immediately ſent to work; where they continue till twelve at Noon; at which time they return back, and have an Hours time to dine: Their Dinner is always the ſame, being nothing but a Pint of courſe Rice boiled for each Man. At One they are ſent to work again; where they continue till ſix in the Evening; at which time they return again, and go to Supper, which is always the ſame both in quantity and quality, as at dinner. Soon after they have ſupp'd, they are put into their Lodgings, and lock'd in; where they lie upon the bare Boards; and have ſeldom any thing but a large piece of Wood, which commonly ſerves five or ſix of them for a Pillow. Sometimes theſe poor Wretches make ſhift to eſcape; but if they are caught again, they are ſure to be ſeverely handled. There was One of theſe poor Slaves, a Woman, who had been ſeverely uſed by the Dutch; and having once made her eſcape, and being taken again; ſhe, knowing how ſeverely ſhe ſhould be uſed, cut her own Throat, the Day before her appointed Puniſhment: After which ſhe was by the Hair dragged out of the Priſon all round the Town [Page 259] year 1705 and then hung upon a Gibbet by her Feet, with her Head down-wards; which is the common Puniſhment for any that are guilty of Self-murther.
Such as are in Debt, and cannot ſatisfie their Creditors, the Creditors turn over to the Company; who ſend them to work amongſt their Slaves. They have nothing allowed them, but Rice and Water, as the other Slaves; only they have two-pence a Day given them towards the Payment of their Debts; which avails but little: So that it is very ſeldom, if ever, that any one gets out, till he is carried out dead.
But though the poor Natives are thus ſeverely handled; yet the Dutch themſelves will wink at one anothers Faults; ſo that it is a great Rarity for any one of them to be puniſhed, unleſs it be for Murther. Otherwiſe a ſmall matter of Money will buy off a great Fault.
The Women that are Slaves to the Free-men, have all the liberty that may be, from their Maſters and Miſtreſſes; only they are obliged every Night to bring them a certain Acknowledgement, which is commonly about ſix-pence a Day; and to find their own Victuals, Cloths, &c. In default of which, they are ſeverely uſed. They may whore and Deal, and all is well; if the dayly Acknowledgment [Page 260] year 1705 be but brought, and no Complaint be made againſt them.
The Clove-Tree is not very great of Body, but rather ſlender. It is in length from twelve to thirty or forty foot. The Branches are ſmall; the Leaves about five Inches long, and two broad; and end tapering. One of theſe Leaves rubb'd between the Fingers, will ſmell very ſtrong of Cloves; but without rubbing they have no ſmell at all. The Cloves grow juſt at the tip of the Branches; ten, twelve or fourteen in a Cluſter. They are firſt white, then green, then of a dark Copper-colour; which is the time of their being ripe. The manner of gathering them, is to ſpread Cloths or Sheets round the bottom of the Tree, for a good diſtance. Then they ſhake the Tree; and all the Cloves that are throughly ripe and fit to be gathered, fall down. The reſt which are left upon the Tree, they let hang for about ſix or ſeven Days. Then they ſhake as many more of them off, as are ripe and will fall. This they do three, four, or five times; till they are all down. The uſual time of gathering of them, is in October and February. Thoſe which are ripe in October, are called the Winter Clove; [Page 261] year 1705 this being the end of their Winter; and they are not accounted ſo good or ſtrong as the other. Theſe they commonly preſerve and put up in ſmall Jarrs, of about a quart; of which they tranſport great quantities to ſeveral parts of the World. Thoſe which are ripe in February, are called the Summer-Clove: Theſe are accounted much better and ſtronger than the former; becauſe theſe have the beſt part of the Summer to ripen in; whereas the former have not above a Months fair Weather, and all the reſt is rainy and cloudy, ſo that the Rays of the Sun cannot come to them. It is the common receiv'd Opinion, that Cloves, Nutmegs, Mace and Cinamon, grow all upon one Tree; but it is a great miſtake. Theſe Trees commonly bear ſixty, ſeventy, or eighty pound weight at a time; and every ſix Years they are ſure to have a double Crop. There is a vaſt number of theſe Trees upon this Iſland; which are very carefully looked after, and a Regiſter kept of them in the Company's Book. They are numbred once every Year; and beyond a certain number they will not let them encreaſe, but cut them down and deſtroy them for fear of leſſenning the Price. All theſe Trees belong to the Dutch Company, or to their Freemen: But thoſe that belong to the Free-men, the Company ſets them an allowance as to [Page 262] year 1705 their number: And if any one rears up more than what the Company allows of, he is ſeverely fined, and his Trees forfeited. And whatſoever Cloves, the Trees belonging to Free-men produce, the Freemen are obliged to ſell to the Company, after the rate of 6 d. a pound. So that properly all the Cloves upon the Iſland are ingroſſed into the Companies Hands; And if any Freeman or other ſells or conveys away to the value of ten pounds; all that he has in the World is forfeited to the Company, and he to be made a Slave during Life. The Inhabitants uſed formerly to put Cheats upon the Dutch in the Sale of their Cloves; for it was common with them to put their Cloves in a large Sheet, which they hung up by its four Corners under the Cieling of their Houſe; and upon the Floor, right under the Cloves, they would ſet a large Tub of freſh Water; which the Cloves, being very dry and of a hot Nature, would by degrees draw up, and make a large addition to their weight, without being eaſily perceived: But now the Dutch are grown too cunning for them; For they always try them by giving them a ſmall fillip with their Fore-finger on the Head; and then, if the Clove be throughly ripe, and no Deceit has been uſed, the Head will break all in pieces like a piece of thin brittle Glaſs: But if it has been wetted, [Page 263] year 1705 then the Clove will be very tough; and the whole Clove will ſooner bend, than the Head fly off.
There are ſome few Nut-megs upon this Iſland; the Trees of which are much like the Peach. But they grow moſtly at the Iſland Banda: From whence two or three Ship-loads are exported every Year. The Fruit of this Tree conſiſts of four Parts; the firſt and outward Rind, is like that of a green Wal-nut; the ſecond is dry and thin, which we call Mace; the third is a tough thin Shell, like that of a Cheſnut; and the fourth is the Kernel included in the ſaid Shell, which we call Nut-meg.
There are ſaid to be upon this Iſland ſome Mines of Gold. One of the Malayans ſhowed me ſome of the Ore, which he ſaid was taken out of them: But this he ſaid was a great Crime; and if the Dutch ſhould know it, he ſhould be ſeverely puniſhed: For this is an extraordinary Secret, which, as much as they can, they keep from all Europeans.
Although, as I ſaid before, they can raiſe about five hundred and fifty fighting Men upon this Iſland; yet once every Year they are forced to ſpare a great many of their People, which are ſent away upon other Buſineſſes. For commonly on the 20th of October each Year, eight or ten Days ſooner or later, the Governour [Page 264] year 1705 of this place goes his Progreſs, attended with about ſeventy five Orambies, ſome with a hundred, ſome eighty, ſome fifty, and ſome forty Paddles a-piece: In each of which go two Dutch Soldiers. I reckon there may be in this whole Fleet, of Dutch about 150 or 160, and about 5250 Malayans, reckoning ſeventy Malayans to each Oramby, one with another. Theſe ſeventy-five Orambies are divided into three Squadrons: The firſt conſiſting of twenty Orambies; which Squadron is always commanded by one of the Council, who carries a yellow Flag: The Rear conſiſts of twenty more, and is commanded by the Fiſcall, who commonly carries a red Flag: The reſt are in the middle Squadron, and attend the Governour, who hath twelve Dutch Soldiers, a Corporal and a Serjeant for his Body-guard, and carries a blew Flag. The Governour carries with him the Indian King, and all their Princes, for fear they ſhould rebel in his Abſence. In this Order they go and viſit all theſe Eaſtern Iſlands, but eſpecially thoſe that do or would produce Cloves or Nut-megs. And at every Iſland they go to, they have an additional ſtrength. The time of their cruizing in this manner, is commonly ſix Weeks; in which time they cut down, burn and deſtroy all the Clove and Nutmeg Trees they can find, excepting ſuch as [Page 265] year 1705 are reſerved for the Companies uſe. For all or moſt of theſe Iſlands do or would produce Cloves; But they will not ſuffer them, becauſe they have enough to ſupply all Europe at Amboyna alone; and even there alſo, as I ſaid before, they will permit but a certain number, leaſt a Plenty of them ſhould lower the price. Upon all theſe Iſlands the Dutch Company keeps Soldiers, three, ſix, nine or twelve, according as they are in bigneſs; Whoſe only buſineſs it is to ſee the Trees cut down, or at leaſt to take care they do not encreaſe: For they are very jealous leaſt the Engliſh or French ſhould ſerve them ſuch a Trick, as they themſelves formerly ſerved the Engliſh at Amboyna. During the time of their thus cruizing, they gather Tribute from all the petty Kings and Princes of theſe Iſlands; and commonly at the end of about ſix Weeks, return again.
The Crockadore is a Bird of various ſizes; ſome being as big as a Hen, and others no bigger than a Pidgeon. They are in all parts exactly of the ſhape of a Parrot. Their Feathers are all over white, excepting only a Bunch upon their Head, [Page 266] year 1705 which is always either yellow or red. This Bunch of Feathers lies ſo cloſe fitted into a dent in the Head, that they cannot be perceived, unleſs when the Bird is frighted; and then he ſets it up an end, and it ſpreads open like a Fan. The Fleſh and Legs of this Bird are quite black; and they ſmell very ſweet. When thy fly wild up and down the Woods, they will call Crockadore, Crockadore; for which reaſon they go by that name.
The Caſſawaris [Note: See Fig. XXXVI.] is about the bigneſs of a large Virginia Turkey. His Head is the ſame as a Turkeys; and he has a long ſtiff hairy Beard upon his Breaſt before, like a Turkey. He hath two great Legs, almoſt as thick as a Man's Wriſt; with five great Claws upon each Foot: He has a high round Back; and inſtead of Feathers only long Hairs; and the ſame upon the Pinions of his Wings. It lays an Egg ſo big that it will hold a Pint. The Shell is pretty thick, ſpotted with green and white, and looks exactly like China-ware. I never taſted the Eggs, but the Bird it ſelf is extraordinary good Victuals, as I have tried ſeveral times. It taſtes very like a Turkey, but much ſtronger.
Of Fiſh here are alſo ſeveral ſorts; but the moſt noted is the Sea-Porcupine: [Note: See Fig. XXXVII.] It is in length about three foot, and two foot and a half round. It has a very large Eye; with two Fins on his Back, and one large one on each ſide near his Gills. It is very full of ſharp-pointed Quills, (which are hard ſtiff Bones,) and from thence is called the Sea-Porcupine.
Of Fruits here are Plantains, Bonanoes, Pine-Apples, &c. The Pine-Apple grows upon a low ſhrub, with prickly Leaves. They are ſo big, that they will commonly weigh two pound, and two pound and a half. When it is ripe, it is yellow and red without, and full of little Bunches; within it is yellow, and ſo juicy, that when you bite it, the Juice will run down your Chin and Clothes; and the Liquor [Page 268] year 1705 is very cool and pleaſant. Before they eat it, they commonly rub it well with Salt, and ſo let it lye for about an Hour, which takes away the rawneſs of it; then they waſh it in freſh Water, and eat it. But One is ſufficient for two or three People: For they are very apt to cauſe Feavers.
Here is alſo another ſort of Fruit, called a Mangoe. It is about the bigneſs of our common Cucumber. The out-ſide, altho' ripe, looks green; and within, it is very yellow. It is a very delicious Fruit, when ripe; and has a fine fragrant ſmell. When they are green, they cut them in two pieces, which they pickle and ſend to moſt parts of the World. They grow upon a Tree about the bigneſs of our common Apple-tree.
This Iſland of Amboyna is ſandy all round; but the Water is ſo deep, that there is no anchoring near it, but at the Ley, (which is at the Weſt-end of the Iſland,) in forty fathom Water cloſe to the ſhore; and in the common Harbour. This Harbour runs up a great way into the Iſland, and almoſt divides it into two Parts, ſo that they are almoſt two Iſlands, being only joined by a ſmall Neck of Land, ſo narrow, that the Malayans often haul their Canoas over. At the entrance into the Harbour, on the Eaſt-ſide, there [Page 269] year 1705 is a ſmall Fortification, of about ſix Guns, and cloſe to it is twenty fathom Water; And about a league further up, is the Harbour for Ships, where they lie under the Command of their great Caſtle, which ever ſince the Maſſacre of the Engliſh has been called the Caſtle Victoria.
About two Miles further to the North Eaſt, within the Harbour, is the place where formerly our Engliſh Factory was ſettled; and near it is ſaid to be the Hole, into which all the Engliſh were thrown, after they had been maſſacred by the Dutch. There were few of us now here, but expected the ſame Fate; and ſome of the Inhabitants were no way ſhy to tell us, that the Journal which was ſent in the Dutch Ships that we met going out hence for Batavia, was our Protection. For they were ſenſible that upon thoſe Ships arrival at Batavia, it would be preſently known that a part of Captain Dampier's Company was arrived at Amboyna; and from thence it would ſpread all over India; and ſo they knew, if we fared otherwiſe than well, we ſhould be enquired after.
A little to the Eaſtward of this Iſland, are ſeveral other ſmall Iſlands; the moſt noted and biggeſt of which, are Boangbeſſey and Hinomoa. They lie Eaſt from Amboyna at a ſmall diſtance. They are of an indifferent height, and not above a third [Page 270] year 1705 part ſo big as the Iſland of Amboyna. They are both pretty well fortified, and produce ſtore of Cloves: But the chief place for Nut-megs, is the Iſland of Banda, which alſo belongs to the Dutch. It lies in the Latitude of 4d. 20m. South, and bears from Amboyna E. S. E. diſtance 28 Leagues. The Iſland is ſaid to be in form of a Man's Foot and Leg; and to be pretty well fortified: And as it has the preheminence for Nut-megs, ſo Amboyna has for Cloves.
The Governour of Amboyna is reckoned the Chief and Head-Governour of all theſe Spice-Iſlands, even to Ternate and Tidore, which are alſo Spice-Iſlands in poſſeſſion of the Dutch, and lie about forty Miles to the Northward of the Equator.
Whilſt we were at this Iſland of Amboyna, we were ſo much troubled with Moskitoes, (which are a ſort of Gnats,) that every Night we were forced to put our ſelves in a Bag, before we could go to ſleep; for otherwiſe theſe Creatures would ſo bite us, that there was no ſleeping: And whereever they bite, they commonly raiſed a red Bliſter, almoſt as broad as a Silver-penny: This would itch very much, and many could not forbear ſcratching themſelves ſo, as to cauſe Inflammations, which ſometimes are the cauſe of the loſs of a Limb.
[Page 271] year 1705 During our ſtay here, we had the liberty of a broad paved Yard, about ſixty Yards ſquare; but by no means would they let us go out into the Town; being very jealous of us, and deſirous to prevent (as much as they could) our knowing their Strength, or making any other Diſcoveries which they thought might be prejudicial to them.
Here we remained from the 31ſt of May to the 14th of September 1705. At which time there being three of the Companies Sloops ready to ſail hence, laden with Cloves; twenty five of our Men were ſent away with them for Batavia; and we were ten of us left behind, who were (as they ſaid) to go in another Veſſel, which was almoſt ready to ſail.
It was very obſervable, that all the time of our being here, none of us fell ſick or died. For this was the S. E. or bad Monſoon, which begins in the latter end of April, and laſts till the latter end of September; Moſt of which time, we had hard Storms of Wind; with much Thunder, Lightning and Rain; and the Weather ſo very cloudy, that for ſix or ſeven Days together we ſaw not the Sun. The greateſt violence of this Weather, is in June, July and Auguſt; and then it abates, and at the latter end of September quite breaks up; And then begins the weſterly [Page 272] year 1705 Monſoon, which is fine fair clear Weather, with gentle Gales, variable, but moſtly inclining to be Weſterly. This is counted the healthy Monſoon; and the other the ſickly one: For in the Eaſterly Monſoon the Inhabitants are very much troubled with Feavers and Fluxes, of which a great many die; as vaſt numbers did whilſt we were here; eſpecially of the Malayan Inhabitants, who are more apt to die of them than the Dutch; but I ſuppoſe the reaſon is, becauſe they are not ſo well provided with Doctors and Medicines as the Dutch; neither are they ſo well looked after. They admired at us, ſeeing we were fed with ſuch bad Diet, and but newly come from Sea very weak, that we could bear up under ſo many Hardſhips and Inconveniences; and it uſed to be their common Saying, That nothing of Hardſhips or ſickly Places would kill the Engliſh, ſo long as they had any Victuals to eat.
The Reaſon why I have given ſo little account of the Winds and Seaſons of the Year in this whole Voyage, is becauſe theſe things are ſo well deſcribed in Capt. Dampier's 2d Volume; But he not having ſpoken much of theſe Moluccoes or Spice-Iſlands, I have therefore endeavoured to give the more particular Account of them.
[Page 273] year 1705 On the 27th of September a Malayan Man was brought in here at Amboyna to the State-houſe to be tryed for his Life. He was accuſed by his own Wife, for murthering his Slave. The Slave had been dead about ſix Months, and ſhe had concealed it; but happening to fall out with her Husband, ſhe went before the Fiſcal in the Heat of her Anger, and declared it. So her Husband was put in Priſon, and the Corps of the dead Slave dug up: But it being conſumed and rotten, no Marks of any Violence could be perceived upon it; and it was generally believed that the Man's Wife accuſed him wrongfully. He was upon his Tryal when the Earthquake happened. At which time I obſerved, that it is a common Error to ſuppoſe that during an Earthquake it is always calm. For we had a fine freſh Gale at S. S. W. both Days on which the Earthquake happened. This Earthquake made all the Court break up, being in fear the Houſe would fall on their Heads. So the Man was committed to Priſon again; and the next Day, being September the 28th, about 11 at Noon, the Court being ſet again, the Man was again brought to his Tryal; when in about a quarter of an Hour, when his Wife was in her greateſt violence againſt him, the Earth ſhook very much again, and cauſed them all to break up [Page 274] year 1705 the ſecond time. The ſame Day my ſelf with four more of our Men, were ſent on board a China-Sloop for Batavia. How they proceeded further with the Man, I know not; But many thought it a great token of his Innocency, that the two ſeveral Earthquakes happened the two ſeveral Days juſt at the time of his Trial. The other five of our Men, which were left behind, they promiſed ſhould be ſent after us in a ſhort time; but we never heard of them after.
Departure from Amboyna, and arrival at the Iſland of Lancas. The Iſlands Cabeſes. The Iſland Bouton. The Iſland Celebes. The Paſſages between Celebes and Zalayer. The Iſland Zalayer. A very large and dangerous Shole, with an Obſervation of a great Fault in the Dutch Maps relating to it. Arrival at Batavia. Deſcription of part of the Coaſt of Java. Batavia deſcribed. The Tamarind-tree. The Mangaſtan. The Rumboſtan. Departure from Batavia for England. Bantam. Streights of Sunda. Princes Iſland. The Cape of Good Hope. Hottentotes. Their beaſtly manner of Living. Their Worſhip. The Difficulty of civilizing them. Their Houſes, &c. Wild Beaſts, how killed by the Dutch. The Product of the Country. Beaſts. Fowls. Fiſhes. News from the [Page 276] year 1705 Men that had left the A. in the Gulf of Nicoya. Departure from the Cape for England. Penguin Iſland and Birds. An Earthquake felt at Sea. Great Difference of Cold in 60 d. of Northern, and 60 d. of Southern Latitude; and the Reaſon of it. The Iſlands of Faro. Return Home.
FROM Amboyna we ſteered away S. W. by W. till we came to the Iſland Lancas; and in our way paſſed by the Iſland Amblow, of which I have already ſpoken. The Iſland Lancas is a ſhort low Iſland, on which is ſtore of Wood. It is not inhabited; and all round it, for a good diſtance, is ſaid to be ſhole Water. It lies in the Latitude of 5 d. 27 m. South; and I made Meridian diſtance ftom Amboyna 155 Miles, or 2 d. 35. m. Weſt.
From hence we ſteered W. by N. for a ſmall time, till we came up with the two Iſlands Cabeſes. Where it falling calm, we ſent our Boat aſhore to the Eaſtermoſt of them, and cut down ſome Hundreds of Coco-nuts, which we carried on board. This was alſo a low Iſland, not inhabited, but all round full of Coco-nut-trees, which are planted here on purpoſe for the uſe [Page 277] year 1705 of ſuch Dutch Ships and Veſſels as paſs by here for Batavia. For it is a great Rarity to ſee any European ſhipping here, beſides the Dutch. Off this Iſland we met our Bark, which had brought us from America to Amboyna. The Dutch after they had taken her from us, fitted her up, put a Mizen-Maſt in, and made a very good Veſſel of her. This Iſland lies in the Latitude of 5 d. 23 m. South; and nearly W. by N. from the Iſland Lancas, diſtance about 45 Miles: It is ſhole two Miles from the Shore. To the S. W. of this, is the other Iſland of Cabeſes, which is a pretty high Iſland, and upon it the Dutch always keep ſix Soldiers and a Corporal, who two or three times a Year go round the Iſland to ſee that no Cloves be planted; and if there be, they cut them down and burn them, for fear leaſt any other Nation ſhould take it from them; which if they ſhould, I am apt to believe Amboyna would be of little uſe to them; Cloves being the only Product valuable upon it.
From hence we ſteered to the Weſtward, and paſſed between the Iſland Celebes and the Iſland Zalayer. The South-part [Page 278] year 1705 of the Iſland Celebes, is very high Land. It is very well inhabited, and is a very large Iſland, taking up ſeven degrees in Latitude. At the South-end of this Iſland, on the Weſt-ſide, the Dutch have a Factory, called Macaſſer, where they have a Fort of about ſeventy Guns, mann'd with ſix or ſeven hundred Dutch Soldiers. The chief Product of the Place, is Rice; with which they ſupply all or moſt of their Eaſtern Iſlands. Here are alſo ſaid to be ſeveral Gold-mines, of which the Dutch are not yet maſters. For the Inhabitants are often at War with the Dutch, and pretty well defend thoſe Places.
Between the South-end of the Iſland Celebes, and the Iſland Zalayer, are three ſmall low Iſlands; and the beſt Paſſage, is between that which lies next to the Iſland Zalayer, and a little ſmall one which lies to the Northward of That. This is called the ſecond Paſſage from Zalayer, and is accounted the beſt; For in the firſt Paſſage from Zalayer, are many ſholes, but in this ſecond it is deep Water: The third and fourth are alſo deep; but if you go through with the Sea-wind, you will be ſo nigh the ſhore of Celebes, that you muſt be forced to anchor till the Land-wind comes: Wherefore the ſecond is always accounted the beſt Paſſage; and moſt Ships, rather than go through the firſt, [Page 279] year 1705 third or fourth, will lie a whole Day to go through the ſecond; which they do as commonly in the Night, as in the Day, there being no danger.
The Iſland Zalayer is of a moderate height. It is inhabited by Malayans, and planted all round with Coco-nut-trees. The Inhabitants are forced yearly to ſend ſtore of Oil and Match to the Dutch at Macaſſer, as a Tribute.
From hence we ſteered W. by N. (having had the Wind in the Eaſtern Quarter ever ſince we left Amboyna,) till we had paſſed a dangerous ſhole called the Brill; and then we haul'd up S. W. and in the Night ſaw a ſmall Iſland juſt by us; which finding we could not weather, we tack'd and ſtood the other way till Day-light; and then finding our ſelves to the Southward of the ſaid Iſland, we tackt and ſtood to the South-weſtward; and ſoon after ſaw two other ſmall low Iſlands, bearing from the North to the North-weſt. We could ſee the Ground very plain for about two Miles; and never had above ſix, or under five fathom Water, though it looked as if there was not above two fathom. We came over this ſhole about a league to the Southward of the ſaid two ſmall Iſlands; and this is accounted the narroweſt part of the Shole; for further to the Southward it is five or ſix Leagues [Page 280] year 1705 over: But There alſo there is no danger, becauſe you have very even Soundings, as five or ſix fathom, ſeldom over or under. But to the Northward of theſe two Iſlands, it is very dangerous; it being all very foul rocky Ground, and in ſome places not above four or five foot Water. Therefore be ſure to go to the Southward of theſe Iſlands, and you will be ſafe: Although the Dutch in moſt of their Maps, (unleſs in ſuch as they give to their own People,) have laid down the Dangers to the Southward, which ſhould have been laid down to the Northward of the two Iſlands: And the ſafe ſholes, which we and they always go over, they have laid down to the Northward of the two Iſlands; whereas we and they alſo went over to the Southward of them. We had a Draught on board belonging to the Captain of the Veſſel, which ſhowed all this very exactly as we found it. I compared it with ſeveral others which were on board, and found a great deal of Difference. I asked the Captain the reaſon of their Difference; and he told me that the Hollanders knew all the ſholes and dangerous places hereabouts very well; but did not deſire that any Body elſe ſhould know them. So that if any Foreigner ſhould come into theſe Parts amongſt theſe ſholes, and ſail by their [Page 281] year 1705 Draughts; they, thinking all ſafe, might unexpectedly be amongſt Rocks and Sholes, where they would certainly loſe their Ship; as we had done, if we had ſailed by the common Draughts. It being the Dutch Policy, to keep all Ships belonging to the Engliſh or French, as far off theſe Eaſtern Iſlands, as they can; or at leaſt if any do chance to come amongſt them, and happen into their Hands, as we did; to take care to ſend them away from among them, and to let them know as little of them as may be.
On the 16th of October we paſſed by the Dutch Factory, called Rambang; and on the 21ſt, arrived in the Harbour of Batavia. Here we were ſent aſhore to the Bomb-Key, to the reſt of our Men, who had been ſent hither before, and were not yet cleared. And ſoon after, the Major of the Caſtle was ſent to us, and deſired we would ſend to the General by him an Account of our Loſſes and Damages, which we received by our being taken at Amboyna; and that we ſhould be ſatisfied upon all Accounts, both as to our loſt Things, loſs of Time, and Impriſonment. Accordingly we each of us drew up an account of our Loſſes, and ſent it by the Major to the General, who return'd us anſwer, that very ſpeedily we ſhould have Satisfaction and our Freedom. On the [Page 282] year 1705 27th of October we were all ſent for to the Fort, and moſt of our ready Money was return'd to us again; but for our Goods, loſs of Time, and Impriſonment, we could have no Satisfaction. Only the General told us he had given us all that the Governour of Amboyna had ſent to him; and that if there was any thing more, he knew nothing of it; and that we were now at our liberty to go where we pleaſed. We deſired, that ſince our Veſſel was taken from us by the Company, (of which He was the Head,) he would be pleaſed to take care to find us ſome Ship in which we might return home; which he promiſed he would. We were forced to be content; and went and took Lodgings in the Town, till we could meet with an opportunity of returning home.
And now being at a ſtop here for a while, I ſhall give ſome Deſcription of this North Coaſt of Java. The Iſland is in length Eaſt and Weſt about ten Degrees. And from the Eaſt end of Madura to this Port of Batavia, you have the common Land and Sea Winds. In the Eaſterly Monſoon the Land-winds are at South Eaſt, ſometimes more Southerly; and the Sea-winds at North Eaſt, fine pleaſant Gales. This Eaſterly Monſoon is accounted the good Monſoon; it being fine fair clear Weather, beginning in April, and [Page 283] year 1705 ending in October: But the Weſterly Monſoon is called the bad Monſoon, being rainy and bluſtering weather, with much Thunder and Lighting, eſpecially in December, January and February. This bad Monſoon begins in November, and ends in March, or the beginning of April. In it the Land-winds are at Weſt South Weſt and South Weſt, and the Sea-winds at North Weſt and Weſt North Weſt. The Anchor-ground all along the North ſide of Java, from the Iſland Madura to Batavia, is brave oazey Ground, and clear of Rocks. The principal places on this ſide of the Iſland, are Batavia, Bantam, Japara, Samarang, Surabon, Taggall, the Quale and Rambang. All theſe places are ſettled by the Dutch. They afford Rice, with which they ſupply all their Out-factories hereabouts; as alſo very good Plank, to build Shipping with. The chief place of building is Rambang; where the Freemen go to build their ſmall Veſſels, as Sloops and Brigantines. Alſo ſeveral Ships of five, ſix, or ſeven hundred Tuns, lade with Timber at Rambang, the Quale, Japara, &c. And each Ship, when full, taketh a great Raft of the largeſt of the Timber in a tow to Batavia. Some of theſe Rafts are ſaid to be thirty foot ſquare, and to draw twenty-two foot water. There are commonly fix of theſe [Page 284] year 1705 Ships, which thus lade with Timber; and they commonly make four Voyages in the good Monſoon: For in the bad, they cannot do any thing. All this Timber is commonly landed upon a ſmall Iſland between four and five leagues from Batavia; where the Ship-Carpenters are uſually kept at work; nay, they are ſaid to be never out of Employ. They are about two hundred in number; and the Iſland is called Ʋnreſt; a very fit name for it; for here is ſaid to be no reſt for an idle perſon. The Dutch careen all their Ships here; and it is very well fortified, being all round a Bed of Guns.
Batavia is the chief place the Dutch have in India; receiving by Shipping, the Product of India, Japan, and China. It is inhabited by ſeveral ſorts of people; as Dutch, Portugueſe, Chineſe, Perſians and Negroes; but the Malayans are the Natives. The Dutch are Maſters of the place, and have a very fine large Town, in which are ſeven Churches, Dutch, Portugueſe, Malays and Chineſe; with ſeveral very fine ſpacious Houſes, built after the European manner. The Town is all walled, and moted round; and upon the Walls are planted ſtore of Cannon. In the middle of the Town, in a great ſquare place, is a very ſine and handſome Statehouſe, where all Affairs are tranſacted. [Page 285] year 1705 The Town, with all the Fortifications, is commonly governed by one of the States of Holland, who has the Title of General of India; and all other Governours are ſubordinate to him. The Inhabitants here, do not care how often they change their General; For at the coming of a new one, all Priſoners are releaſed, excepting ſuch as have committed murther. He has twelve to aſſiſt him, who have always the Title of Raids or Lords of India. Theſe are ſuch as have been formerly chief Governours in ſeveral places in India; as of Ceylon, Amboyna, Malacca, &c. The Town is divided by Rivers; over which, almoſt in every Street, there are Bridges laid, and Bombs to haul acroſs; which let no Boats go in or out after Sun-ſet.
At this place grows the Tamarind-Tree, whoſe Leaves ſhut and open according to the riſing and ſetting of the Sun. And much like this is another Tree, that buds in the night; and as the Sun riſes, blooms a Flower almoſt like a Lilly; So that the Tree will be full of theſe Flowers by noon; and when the Sun is down, within half an hour, the Flowers will be all fallen off, and not one left upon the Tree. This I have ſeen daily.
The Mangaſtan, is about the bigneſs of a Golden-Runnet. It is quite round, and looks like a ſmall Pomegranate. The outſide Rind is like that of a Pomegranate, only of a darker colour; But the inſide of the Rind is of a fine red. Within this Rind is the Fruit, which is of a fine white, and lies in Cloves almoſt like Garlick. There are commonly four or five of theſe Cloves in each; and they are very ſoft and juicy. Within the Cloves is a ſmall black Stone. We commonly ſuck the Fruit from the Stone: And the Fruit is very delicious; the Stone we throw away, being very bitter if chewed.
The Rumboſtan is about the bigneſs of a Walnut, when the green Peel is off. It is alſo much of the ſhape of the Walnut; And hath a prety thick tough outer-rind, which is of a deep red, and is full of little knobs of the ſame colour. Within the Rind is the Fruit, which is quite white, and looks almoſt like a Jelly: And within the Fruit is a large Stone. It is very delicate Fruit; and though a Man eat never ſo much, yet it never does him any harm; provided he ſwallows the Stones [Page 287] year 1705 as well as the Fruit: But otherways they are ſaid to cauſe Fevers.
On the ſecond of December, all of us which had a deſire to return to England, were ordered on board the Dutch Eaſt-India Fleet; And the next Day the whole Fleet, conſiſting of about twelve Sail, weigh'd anchor and left Batavia. On the 8th we arrived at Bantam; where we wooded, water'd, and refreſh'd our ſelves; and took in ſtore of Proviſions, as Beeves, Hogs, &c. for our ſupply during our Paſſage to the Cape. This is alſo a Dutch Factory; and the chief Trading is for Pepper. On the 11th we weigh'd from Bantam. The Weſterly Monſoon was ſet in pretty hard againſt us; But however, having a ſtrong Current ſetting to the Wind-ward, we made ſhift to turn againſt the Monſoon: Yet it commonly blowing very hard at Night, whilſt we were in the Streights of Sunda, we uſed to run in under the Java ſhore, and there anchor till the next Morning. All through theſe Streights the Coaſt is good and bold; and though there be many Sholes, yet the Soundings are good even in the moſt dangerous place, which is between Bantam and Batavia: But no Man will venture to [Page 288] year 1705 ſail by Night, although it ſholeth gradually near any Bank, and the Anchor-ground is very good, that Ships can ſtop when they pleaſe if they are plying to Windward.
On the 13th we came up with a ſmall high Iſland, called Princes Iſland. It lies at the Weſt-end of this Streight of Sunda; And from hence we took our departure for the Cape of Good Hope. We had nothing material happen'd to us, in this our Paſſage: And we arrived at the Cape on the 3d of February 1705/6; having been juſt two Months in our paſſage: And here we found four Ships belonging to our Eaſt-India Company.
The Cape of good Hope, is the Southermoſt part of Africa, ſituated four Degrees and a half within the Southern Temperate Zone. Near it, is the Table Bay; a very healthy place, and producing all Neceſſaries for the Life of Man. The Dutch are Maſters of this place, and have here a Fort of about fifty Guns, which they were now about moting round. Half a mile to the Weſtward of the ſaid Fort, they have belonging to them a pretty Town, conſiſting of about a hundred and fifty Dutch Houſes, and a ſmall Church, ſituated under a very high Mountain, called the Table-Land. The Town and Fort are under a Governour and a Fiſcal, (who, as I have ſaid before, is in the nature of a Judge.)
[Page 289] year 1705 The Natives of this Place, are a tawny ſwarthy ſort of People, who call themſelves Hodmandods; and are certainly the next to Beaſts, of any People on the face of the Earth. Both Men and Women are of a middle Stature, with ſmall Noſes, little Mouths and Eyes, and an oval Face. They have a woolly Head of Hair, like the Guinea or Angola-Negroes. Both Men and Women cover themſelves with only two raw Sheeps Hides, juſt as they come from the Sheeps Back. In the Day they wear them like a Mantle, over their Shoulders; and in the Night when they ſleep, one of them ſerves to lie under them inſtead of a Bed, the other to cover them. And thus like Beaſts they lie, Men, Women, and Children, the whole Family together. They ſmear or greaſe themſelves very much; which makes them ſtink abominably; And the thicker they are with Greaſe, the more they are admired by one another. The Women to diſtinguiſh themſelves from the Men, wear dried Thongs of the Sheeps Skins, rouled round their Legs from the Ankle to the Knee; which makes their Legs ſeem as big as Poſts; and they look'd like a Rowl of Tobacco. They alſo wear a long Cap (made of the ſame) which goes up tapering like a Piramid. But their clothing is the ſame as the Mens, viz. two raw Sheeps [Page 290] year 1705 Skins. They are a very ſhameleſs ignorant People, and as far as I could perceive, without any Laws or Government of their own; only each Family is ſubject to the eldeſt of their Family. Both Men and Women are great Lovers of Tobacco; and for two or three ounces of it, a Man will not ſtick to proſtitute his Wife to any European whatſoever. The Men are not at all jealous, and care not how many Europeans lye with their Wives; yet they will beat their Wives ſeverely, if they know them to lye with any of their own Nation beſides themſelves. They are a People that will eat any ſoul or naſty thing. For if the Dutch kill a Beeve or a Sheep, they will beg the Guts, out of which they ſqueeze the Dung; and without waſhing or any cleaning at all, cut them into ſmall peices, and lay them upon the fire; and aſſoon as they are hot through, take them off and eat them.
Their Children, when they are young, are ſomething inclining to be White; and were it not for their naſty way of greazing them, they would make likely Men and Women: For they are moſt of them very well featured. The Dutch did formerly what they could, to bring them to the knowledge of the true God, and to leave their naſty way of living: [Page 291] year 1705 but never could prevail with them; they ſtill deſiring rather to live like Beaſts; Worſhip they ſeem to have none; except at the full Moons; and then they Dance and Sing all or moſt of the Night; and the brighter the Moon is, the more is their Mirth; For then they think the Moon, which ſeems to be their God, is well-pleaſed with them: But if the Moon chance to be obſcured with Clouds, then they ſeem much dejected, and fancy their God is angry with them.
I was told a ſtory by the Perſon with whom I lodged here, that ſome years ſince, the Dutch ſent two of theſe Hodmandod Men to Holland; where they were very well cloathed, had a good maintenance allowed them, and for the ſpace of four years were ſent up and down to ſee the ſeveral parts of Holland and other Countries adjacent: The Dutch thinking this would be a means of bringing them to a more civilized way of living. But it proved ineffectual: For the two Hodmandods at their return, as ſoon as they got aſhore, tore off all their Cloaths, and returned to their old beaſtly way of living.
[Page 292] year 1705 Theſe people have low Matt Houſes, in form of a Bee-hive; The Door not above three foot high; and the higheſt part of the Houſe about ſix foot high: In the middle of which, in cold weather, they make a Fire; and the whole Family, Men, Women and Children, and their Dogs, all lie round it; where they ſleep as ſound, as other people do in their Beds of Down. Yet theſe people are as healthy, and as free from Pains and Aches, as any on the whole Continent of Africa. Their Houſhold-goods are ſeldom any thing more than two earthen Pots; one broken, the other whole; The broken Pot ſerves them inſtead of a Frying-pan, and the other to boil their Victuals in.
They are no way ingenious, neither do they follow any Trades. The moſt of their delight is in looking after Flocks of Sheep; and in this the Dutch often employ them. If one of them does half an hours work for a Dutchman or any European, he will demand a Doublekey; which is a piece of Money that goes for Two-pence; And if there be occaſion to work him from morning till night, he will demand no more.
The Land hereabouts is very mountainous, and the Mountains are moſt of them very barren, producing only a few ſmall ſhrubby Buſhes. And within the Country [Page 293] year 1705 are abundance of Lions, Tygers, wild Elephants, &c. Theſe wild Beaſts the Dutch kill after this manner: They make a pretty large Circle, upon the edge of which they fix five, ſix, ſeven, or eight Poſts, about eighteen or twenty foot from each other: Upon each of theſe Poſts is a Muſket made faſt, the Muzles of which are all placed ſo as to point to the Center of the Circle: The Muskets are well loaded; and from the Trigger of each Musket is a ſmall Line, reaching to the Center of the ſaid Circle, and there faſtned to a piece of raw Fleſh; which when a wild Beaſt ſeizes upon, moſt or all of the Muskets go off, and ſeldom fail to kill him. Any one that kills a Lion, is paid by the Publick fifty-two Guilders, which amounts to four Pound ſix Shillings and eight Pence; And for killing a Tyger he has a Reward of twenty-four Guilders or forty Shillings. There was a Scotchman whilſt we were here, who killed four Lions, three Tygers, and three wild Elephants; for which he had his Reward, according to the aforeſaid Proportion.
This place produces ſeveral ſorts of Fruits, both common and not common to us in Europe; as Pomgranates, Water-melons, Cheſnuts, with ſome few Plantains and Bonanoes, and ſtore of very good Grapes, of which the Dutch make a very [Page 294] year 1705 pretty and pleaſant Wine in great quantities, which by Retale is commonly ſold at eight Pence a Quart. It alſo produces abundance of Garden-Fruit, which is very refreſhing to thoſe that arrive here ſick of the Scurvy.
Of Beaſts here are great ſtore; to wit, Lions, Tygers, Elephants, &c. which all run wild up and down the Country; but near the Towns they are ſeldom ſeen: Here are alſo abundance of Sheep, very large, and I think as good Meat as ever I eat.
Of Fowls here are alſo ſeveral ſorts; But the moſt noted, as I think, is the Oſtridge; which is a very large Fowl. The Bird it ſelf is little valuable, but for its Feathers, which are ſent as Rarities to ſeveral parts of the World. Their Eggs are very good Meat, as I have experienc'd many times. That theſe Birds do feed upon Iron, Stones, or any thing that chances to be near them, is fabulous; but, like a great many other Fowls, they peck up ſmall Stones, which only ſerve to digeſt their proper Food. They are of ſeveral colours, as black, white, &c.
Of the Sea Inhabitants, the moſt noted is the Seal, or, as the Dutch call it, the Sea-Hound. They are the ſame as thoſe before ſpoken of at the Iſland Juan Fernandoes, only the Furr of theſe is not ſo fine.
[Page 295] year 1705 In this Harbour, on the South ſide, are two great high noted Mountains; the one called the Table-Land, which is pretty plain and even at the top; and the other called the Sugar-loaf, from its ſhape. At the top of this Sugar-loaf the Dutch have a ſmall Houſe, and four Guns mounted: Here they always keep a Look-out, and at the approach of any Ship or Ships, hoiſt a Flag, and fire as many Guns as they ſee Ships, to give notice to thoſe at the Town.
During our ſtay here, there arrived ſome more Eaſt-India homeward bound Ships, both Dutch and Engliſh; alſo here we met with ſome of our Men that had left us in the Gulf of Nicoya, and went away with our Chief-mate. They gave us an account, that in a Week after they left us, they went into the Port of Ria Leon on the Coaſt of Mexico, where they took two Spaniſh Ships at Anchor; one of which, being very old and wormeaten, they immediately ſunk. Which being done, they ſent two of their Priſoners aſhore with a Letter to the Governour, in which they demanded 10000 Dollars for the ranſome of the other Prize. The Governour ſent them word, that the Owners of the ſaid Ship were poor, and that the Town was alſo poor, ſo that they could not give ſo much; [Page 296] year 1705 but if 4000 Dollars would ſatisfie them, he would ſend them aboard the next day, upon our Mens word, that upon the receipt of the Money they would deliver up the ſaid Prize. They anſwered, that they wanted Proviſions and Water; and therefore whatever was found in the ſaid Prize either Eatable or Drinkable, ſhould not be comprehended in the Bargain. To this the Governour readily agreed, and ſent the Money. And aſſoon as the Proviſions could be got out of her, ſhe was according to agreement delivered up. From thence our Men went to the Gulf of Salinas, and haul'd their Veſſel aſhore, and clean'd and refitted her. And from thence, with all the haſte they could, they proceeded on their Voyage for India; and in fifty four Days reached the Philippine Iſlands, having kept all the way in the Latitude of 18 d. North. Amongſt the Philippine Iſlands a Canoa came off to them with a Spaniſh Prieſt in her: Him they detained and ſent the Canoa aſhore for ſome freſh Proviſions, as a ranſom for the ſaid Prieſt; which accordingly was ſent to them, and they releaſed the prieſt. From thence they went to the Iſland Pulo Condore; but ſinding the Engliſh all cut off, they went for Mocoa in China, where after they had given an account from whence they came, [Page 297] year 1705 they every one diſperſed, ſome for Goa to ſerve the Portugueze, ſome to Benjar to the Engliſh, and others to ſerve the Mogull.
On the 24th of March, we having refitted our Ships, and refreſhed our Men, and taken in ſtore of freſh Proviſions; and there being a freſh Gale of Wind at S. E; we all weigh'd from the Cape, and went out between Penguin Iſland and the Main Land; having the Main on the Star-board-ſide, and the Iſland Penguin on the Lar-board. This is a pretty low ſandy Iſland. In the middle of which, upon the higheſt part of it, they have a few Guns mounted, and near them a Flag-ſtaff, on which at the approach of any Ship they hoiſt a Flag, and fire a Gun, to give notice to the Town. This Iſland takes its name from a vaſt number of Birds, called Penguins, which commonly reſort near it. Theſe Birds are about the bigneſs of a Wild Duck: They do not fly, but flutter, having no Wings, but only ſtumps like young Ducks; and theſe ſtumps are inſtead of Fins to them when they are in the Water. They have a ſharp Bill, but Feet like a Duck; and their Fleſh is but mean Victuals.
We were now twenty-four Sail of us, viz. nine Engliſh and fifteen Dutch; and the Gale continuing, ſoon carried us into [Page 298] year 1706 the true Trade. We met with nothing material till the 10th of April; year 1706 when two of the Engliſh Ships ſailing very heavy, fell a ſtern, and loſt our Company. They put into St. Hellena; and, as we hear ſince, were taken out of the Road by the French.
On the 11th we had twenty five Hogs killed, for the Ships Company; and the Commodore ordered a Hog to a Meſs, that is, to every ſeven Men, to diſpoſe of as we pleaſed, beſides our daily Allowance; ſo that we had more Victuals than we could tell what to do with.
On the 15th, a Man being barbarouſly murthered on Board the Dutch Vice-Admiral, the Murtherer was brought on Board our Ship and tryed for his Life, and the ſame day condemned to dye. He owned he did the Murther, and deſired the favour of the Court that he might chuſe his Death; which was granted; and he choſe to be Shot, which the next day was accordingly done; all the Fleet lying by till his Death, and then we all made ſail again.
On the 17th we ſaw the Iſland of Aſcenſion; but did not touch here for Turtle, although it was their laying time; the reaſon was, becauſe we were ſo well provided with Proviſions at the Cape, that we had no occaſion for more; and [Page 299] year 1706 the Engliſh Ships being willing to keep us Company, they alſo did not touch here.
On the 19th we had fine fair Weather, with a freſh Gale at South Eaſt. About eleven this morning happened a great Earth-quake. At firſt it ſeemed as if the Ship run along upon the Ground: So we heaved out a Lead on each ſide with two hundred fathom of Line, but found no ground. The whole Fleet felt the Shock at the ſame time; ſo that for half a quarter of an hour there was nothing but making of Signals and firing of Guns. We then reckoned the Iſland of Aſcenſion to bear South Eaſt, diſtant about forty Leagues.
On the 30th we found our ſelves in the Latitude of 62 d. 40 m. North, which was the furtheſt to the Northward that I ever was. And here I could not but take notice of the difference of cold in this place and in 60 d. of Southern Latitude. For there we had continual Showers of Snow or Hail, and the weather very cold; whereas here on the contrary we found the Weather very fair and moderate. [Page 300] year 1706 The reaſon of which, I ſuppoſe, was this. When we were to the Southward, we were always pretty near to the Main of America, having it to the Weſt of us. Likewiſe when we were to the Northward, we were always pretty near the main Land of Europe, having it to the Eaſt of us. Now being near the Land, we always account the Land-winds to be the coldeſt, and the Sea-winds the warmeſt. Thus the North Eaſterly Wind is accounted the coldeſt Wind we have in England, Holland, &c. But in the ſame Latitude North, near the Coaſt of America, the North Weſt Wind is commonly accounted the coldeſt. And in the ſame height of South Latitude on the Coaſt of America, the South Weſt Wind is the coldeſt: As near the Cape of good Hopo the South Eaſt Wind is the coldeſt. Now the Weſterly Winds at ſuch a height both in North and South Latitude, having generally the Predominancy over the Eaſterly, very much alter the degrees of the heat or cold of the Weather. For which reaſon, in the South part of America the Weſterly Wind cauſed cold Weather; but to the Northward the Weſterly wind cauſed warm Weather. And as the Eaſterly-wind, being near the European ſhore, is the coldeſt; ſo, being near the American ſhore in the ſame height of Southern [Page 301] year 1706 Latitude, the Weſterly-wind is the coldeſt.
On the 3d of July, in the Evening, we ſaw the Iſlands of Faro, bearing Eaſt by North, diſtant about eleven or twelve Leagues. We alſo ſounded, but had no ground at two hundred and ten fathom. At twelve at Night we had ground at eighty-five fathom; and at three the next morning, at ſeventy fathom. On the 4th of July at noon the opening of the two Iſlands of Faro bore South Eaſt, diſtant about eight Leagues. We then ſteering North Eaſt and ground at eighty fathom, ſmall pieces of broken Shells. All laſt Night we kept firing a Gun once every half hour, to give notice to the Cruizers, whom we expected to meet here.
On the 5th, according to our Expectations, we met with our Convoy, which had been cruizing for us. They conſiſted of eight Dutch Men of War, four Victualers, and three of the Companies Privateers. After Mutual Salutations we proceeded to the South Eaſtward, being all bound for Amſterdam. And on the 15th of July, we all arrived ſafely in the Texel; and on the 17th got to Amſterdam, where we continued a while. After which, my ſelf and the reſt of our Company went to ſee the ſeveral parts of Holland, as Delf, Rotterdam, the Hague, &c. [Page 300] year 1706 And on the 26th of Auguſt, 1706. after many Dangers both by Sea and Land, we happily arrived in England; being but eighteen out of one hundred and eighty-three which went out with us.