The natural history of British insects: explaining them in their several states, with the periods of their transformations, their food, œconomy, &c. Together with the history of such minute insects as require investigation by the microscope. The whole illustrated by coloured figures, ... By E. Donovan. [pt.3]
[Page] PLATE LXXIII. PAPILIO LATHONIA. LESS SILVER-SPOTTED BUTTERFLY, OR, QUEEN OF SPAIN. FRITILLARY. LEPIDOPTERA.
- Syſt. Ent. 5. 17. 314.—Linn. Syſt. Nat. 2. 786. 213.— Fn. Sv. 1068.—Geoff. Inſ. 2. 120. 6.—Fab. Sp. Inſ. 2. 110. 481.
- Papilio Rigenſis minor aureus, maculis argenteis ſubtus perbelle notatus.—Raj. Inſ. 120. 6.
- Hufn. Pict Tab. 11. Fig. 11.
- Robert. Icon. Tab. 12.
- Merian. Europ. 2. Tab. 157.
- Roes. Inſ. 3. Tab. 10.
- Eſp. Pap. 1. Tab. 18. Fig. 2.
- Schaeff. Icon. Tab. 143. Fig. 1. 2.
- Seb. Muſ. 4. Tab. 1. H. 1—4.
[Page 2] We have ſeveral ſpecies of the Papilio tribe, which are highly valued in England either for their beauty or ſcarcity; the P. Lathonia is little, if by any means, inferior to the moſt beautiful; and as a rare Inſect is eſteemed an invaluable acquiſition.
The upper ſide is only a plain orange or brown colour, with ſpots of ſtrong black, and does not in general appearance differ materially from the greaſy Fritillary Butterfly, which is very common in moſt ſituations; but the underſide is entirely unlike every other Engliſh Inſect: the bright ſilver ſplaſhes on the under wings are ſingular in their form, and ſo beautifully relieved by the orange ground colour, and variegation of black between, as to form a delightful contraſt of the moſt pleaſing colours.
Whether this ſpecies was originally a native of this country, may be doubtful; we certainly have the moſt reſpectable teſtimonies of its being taken alive in different parts of the kingdom, but it might have been introduced by accident in the larva, or more probably in the pupa ſtate: it has been ſeen at Bath; and either Moſes Harris, or ſome of his friends, bred it from the caterpillar. "Queen of Spain Fritillaria changed into chryfalis April, appeared in the winged ſtate May 10th.—Gambling Gay wood, near Cambridge."
It has alſo been taken near London; Mr. Honey, of Union-ſtreet, in the Borough, took one a few years ſince in his garden. I requeſted the favour of whatever information he could communicate reſpecting this circumſtance, and received a note with theſe words:—
- Syſt. Ent. 130. 16.
- Linn. Syſt. Nat. 2. 611. 39.
- Fn. Sv. 605.
- Degeer Inſ. 5. 248. 5. Tab. 7. Fig. 25.
- Rhinomacer, &c. Geoff. Inſ. 1. 270. 2.
- Friſch. Inſ. 12. 17. Tab. 8. Fig. 2.
- Sulz. Hiſt. Inſ. Tab. 4. Fig. 5.
- Schaeff. Icon. Tab. 6. Fig. 4.
The Linnaean deſcription of the Curculio Betulae, ſo nearly correſponds with that of C. Populi, that if we allow for the variation of colour to which all Inſects are ſubject, a line can ſcarcely be drawn between the two ſpecies; the moſt material diſtinction is the underſide of C. Betulae being of the ſame colour as the back; but the underſide of C. Populi is purple, and ſmaller.
[Page 4] The deſcription which Linnaeus has given of our ſpecies is, ‘longiroſtris, corpore viridi aurato ſubtus concolore;’ and Degeer has deſcribed it in ſimilar words. It is evident that Linnaeus had reaſon to ſuſpect ſome difference of colour between the two ſexes, but perhaps he never imagined the C. Purpureus *, which he had before deſcribed, was alſo one ſex, or a variety of the ſame Inſect.
Geoffroy ſays, "Rhinomacer totus viridi coeruleus;" and Fabricius adds, ‘Variat ſaepius colore omnino coeruleo. Alter ſexus thoracem antrorſum ſpinoſum gerit.’ How thoſe different deſcriptions may be reconciled, ſo as to be deſcriptive of the two ſexes of C. Betulae, will appear more clearly on farther obſervation.
Late in May, this ſeaſon, being at Darent-Wood, Dartford, I met with one of the green kind, and one of a dark blue colour, with a ſhade of green on the elytra; I could not be deceived, they were male and female; as a farther corroboration, I met with a ſecond pair, in a ſimilar ſituation; and on the day following a third: the blue one of this laſt pair had not the ſhade of green as on the former, but was of a rich gloſſy blue purple; and I am greatly miſtaken if it is not the C. Purpureus of Linnaeus, or the Inſect which is arranged in Engliſh Cabinets for that ſpecies.
I communicated the circumſtance of meeting with thoſe two Inſects, which have always been conſidered as diſtinct kinds, to a perſon who alſo was collecting Inſects in the wood, on the ſame day, and he informed me that he had juſt before diſcovered them in the ſame ſituation. I have examined them very carefully, but cannot diſcover any ſpines on the thorax of the green and gold kind, though I have five of them, but the three purple ſpecimens are all ſpinous, as deſcribed by authors. I am of opinion, that the bright coloured ſpecimens are all females, and thoſe which are purple, I imagine, are males.
I mentioned the circumſtance to an eminent Entomologiſt, and he at firſt ſuſpected they might be mule Inſects, generated between the [Page 5] C. Betulae and the C. Purpureus, but that could not be the caſe, as they were all in copulation when taken.
We have been the more minute in this account, as we conſider the confounding of one ſpecies with another ſhould ever be avoided, with as much care as the ſeparation of varieties into diſtinct ſpecies; both tend to confuſe, or ſubvert that truth which ſhould be the guide of every enquirer into nature.
I have received a letter from my reſpectable friend T. Marſham, Eſq Sec. L. S. accompanied with a ſpecimen of the green kind of C. Betulae, that is ſpinous on the thorax; together with one of the blue or purple kind, which is ſpinous alſo: he informs me, that though his purple ſpecimen has ſpines, he is very certain he has had one without; hence it appears to me that they admit of great variation; indeed it would afford the moſt preſumptive argument, that there are males and females of both colours. Among the purple ſpecimens which I took, there was a conſiderable difference in their colours, but of the five green ſpecimens ſcarcely two exactly agreed; one in particular partook ſo much of a vivid crimſon that it might eaſily have been miſtaken by a curſory collector for the Curculio Bachus.
SPECIFIC CHARACTER. Head yellow; eyes brown, large. Thorax, anterior part yellow, poſterior black. Shells pale yellow brown, with a bright brown anterior margin, ſpotted with black. Beneath brown. Feet of two joints. Length ſix lines.
- Syſt. Ent. 689. 1.—Linn. Syſt. Nat. 2. 712. 1.— Fn. Sv. 903.
- Notonecta, &c. Geoff. Inſ. 1. 476. 1. Tab. 9. Fig. 6.
- Nepa notonecta, &c. Degeer Inſ. 3. 382. 5. Tab. 18. Fig. 16. 17.
- Cicada aquatica Mouffeti. Raj. Inſ. 58.
- Notonecta, &c. Petiv. Gazolph. Tab. 72. Fig. 6.
- Cimex aquaticus anguſtior. Friſch. Inſ. 6. 28. Tab. 13.
- Cimex aquaticus. Roeſ. Inſ. 3. Tab. 27.
- Bradl. Nat. Tab. 26. Fig. 2. E.
- Huffnag. Inſ. Tab. 12. Fig. 19.
- Sulz. Inſ. Tab. 10. Fig. 67.
- Schaeff. Elem. Tab. 90.
- — Icon. Tab. 33. Fig. 5. 6.
- Fueſly Inſ. Helv. 24. 468.
[Page 8] This ſpecies is by far the moſt common of the Notonecta genus in England. It is an aquatic Inſect, undergoes its ſeveral changes in the water, and in the laſt ſtate is furniſhed with wings for flight.
In the day-time it may be obſerved on the ſurface of ſtill waters; it always ſwims on its back, with its legs extended. In the evening it flies in the air. Found during moſt of the ſummer months. Moſt authors have deſcribed the upper ſhells as being of a brown colour, variegated with clouds of black; but this appearance is not conſtant in every ſpecimen; they loſe much of that colour after being taken out of the water, or if the wings are expanded.
SPECIFIC CHARACTER. Upper wings orange, rather inclining to brown; with a black line nearly of a triangular form on each; when the wings are expanded the lines reſemble a feſtoon. Under wings orange, clouded and froſted with black; margin pale.
We are happy to preſent our Subſcribers with the figure of a Moth which is ſcarcely known among the Engliſh Collectors, and we may venture to aſſert on the beſt authority has not a place in any cabinet of Inſects in this metropolis, except that of the Author; indeed the only perſon who appears to have been ſo fortunate as to meet with it except himſelf, is Mr. Lewin, who formerly reſided at Dartford; he conſidered it as ſuch an invaluable rarity, that had not a figure of it been diſcovered in Roeſel, it would no doubt have been publiſhed in the Tranſactions of the Linnaean Society; it muſt, however, be obſerved, that the Inſect Roeſel has figured is a foreign ſpecimen.
[Page 10] On the communication of Mr. JONES, of Chelſea, we preſume that this Inſect was formerly known among the Engliſh Collectors, and received from them the appellation Feſtoon Moth, but it muſt have been extremely rare even at that time, as it does not appear in Harris's Liſt of Engliſh Moths, nor has a ſingle ſpecimen, or its remains, been found among the old Collections, which have been handed down to the Entomologiſts of the preſent day.
On the 16th of Auguſt, 1793, I ſhook the Caterpillar from one of the high branches of an oak-tree, in Darent wood, Kent; it remained motionleſs for ſome time when in the net, and I concluded that it might have ſuſtained an injury by its fall; but I ſoon after diſcovered that it was naturally a ſluggiſh, inactive creature, and had received no damage; it remained ſeveral days in the Caterpillar ſtate, but as it was almoſt ready to change into Chryſalis, I had only an opportunity of being convinced that oak was its proper food.
This Caterpillar is a moſt ſingular creature; at one time it would flatten itſelf, and be conſiderably extended in breadth, or length; at another time it would gather itſelf up like an hedge-hog, or become almoſt round, and in a few minutes after it would be flat again; and frequently the orange colour on the back would be obliterated; ſometimes it ſo nearly reſembled the Caterpillars of ſeveral of the Papilio tribe, that I ſuſpected it to be one of the Hair-ſtreak Butterflies, or rather the Caterpillar of a new ſpecies. On the 23d of Auguſt it began to ſpin, and in a ſhort time after its caſe was completed.
The caſe in which it paſſed to the Pupa ſtate, was very firmly conſtructed, and precluded an opportunity of obſerving the different ſymptoms of change, which would otherwiſe have been viſible. This caſe, which was exactly in the form of an egg, was at firſt of a pale fleſh colour, but in the courſe of a few days it had heightened to a very fine ſanguineous, and after to a ſcarlet, or nearly vermilion colour; this colour it retained for ſeveral months, but as the time for the emancipation of the Moth within approached, the brightneſs of [Page 11] red ſomewhat abated, though even after the Fly came forth, much of the original colour remained.
The manner in which it burſts open the caſe is rather ſingular; it does not force an opening in an irregular form, as moſt Inſects which ſpin a caſe, but deſcribes an exact circle within at one end; after this it divides its caſe according to that circle, only leaving a ſmall portion to act as an hinge; when it has extricated itſelf from the Chryſalis, it forces the top of the caſe back, as ſhown in our Figure, and thereby a free paſſage is opened for its delivery.
TORTRIX. SPECIFIC CHARACTER. Upper wings yellow-brown, with dark ſhades; a broad irregular white mark, and a tuft or button, on the center of each. Head and thorax white clouded. Lower wings pale brown.
It is diſtinguiſhed by the unuſual form of the white markings on the upper wings, and particularly by the tuft or button which is ſituated in an upright poſition near the center of each; thoſe tufts appear only ſlightly feathered on the upper parts to the naked eye, but when one of them is examined with a microſcope, or even common magnifier, it preſents the appearance of a bundle of fibres, incloſed within a thin membrane; narrow at the baſe, encreaſing in bulk near the middle, [Page 14] and expanding at the ſummit into a number of ſhoots, in the form of a creſt: ſeveral other tufts are diſperſed near the extremities of the upper wings, but they are not conſpicuous to the naked eye.
I have ſeen an Inſect which correſponds in every reſpect with this ſpecimen, except that it had a line of a dull ochre colour along the poſterior margins of the upper wings; but I ſuſpect it to be either a variety, or perhaps only the difference of ſex.
SPECIFIC CHARACTER. Firſt wings, buff, with ſhades of orange; ſtriped or rayed with a very dark purple from the baſe to the apex of each; a white ſtripe near to, and parallel with the poſterior margin, and two ſpots of the ſame colour near the center of each wing. Second wings lead colour, deeply fringed.
[Page 15] This inſect alſo appears to be a nondeſcript ſpecies; we have called it Radiatella, or rayed, from the form of the dark ſtripes which riſe from the baſe, and ſpread in the form of rays to the apices of the upper wings. It is very liable to change after death, and particularly the buff colour, which appears very bright when the inſect is freſh, but is ſometimes ſo altered in appearance when placed in the cabinet, that an intermixture of that colour can be ſcarcely diſtinguiſhed between the rays of purple; we mention this circumſtance, as very few ſmall lepidopterous inſects are ſubject to ſuch alteration.
- Syſt. Ent. 97. 18.—Linn. Syſt. Nat. 2. 591. 36. —Fn. Sv. 52. 7.—Sulz. Hiſt. Inſ. Tab. 3. Fig. 9.
- Diaperis, Geoff. Inſ. 1. 337. Tab. 6. Fig. 3. mal.
- Diaperis, Schaeff. Elem. Tab. 58.—Icon. Tab. 77. Fig. 6.
- Dermeſtes, &c. Vdm. Diſſ. 4. Fig. 3.
- Tenebrio Boleti, &c. Degeer Inſ. 5. 49. 9. Tab. 3. Fig. 3.
- Coccinella faſciata. Scop. Ent. 247.
The Chryſomela Boleti is not very frequent in this country; it is almoſt invariably found in the hollows of ſome of the Boletus tribe of Fungi *, which grow on the ſtumps of trees in the month of May or June.
- Linn. Syſt. Nat. 2. 702. 55.—Fn. Sv. 875.
- ACRIDIUM BIGUTTULUM, &c. Degeer. Inſ. 3. 479. 6.
- GRYLLUS BIGUTTULUS. Schaeff. Icon. Tab. 190. Fig. 1. 2.— Fab. Spec. Inſ. 1. 370. 45.
Though few inſects require more elucidation to be well underſtood than thoſe of the Gryllus genus, no part of the ſcience has been leſs regarded even by ſyſtematic writers, who certainly appear to have been moſt intereſted to obtain a ſatisfactory knowledge of them: the preſent ſpecies is continued by Fabricius, in his Species Inſectorum, under the Linnaean genus, and ſpecific name GRYLLUS BIGUTTULUS.
All of the Grylli are very liable to variations in colour, and particularly after death; green changes to brown of various hues, the light colours become dark, and the dark colours fade, ſo that no juſt idea of the true appearance can be formed except from the living inſects.
[Page 20] The larva, and pupa, of moſt ſpecies of the Gryllus genus, ſcarcely differ in appearance from the perfect inſect, except that in the two firſt ſtates they are apterous, or without wings, and either leap or walk; but in the laſt ſtate they are furniſhed with four membranaceous wings.
SPECIFIC CHARACTER. Antennae very long. Thorax green, with a longitudinal line of yellow. Anterior wings membranaceous, green. Poſterior wings very delicate pale green. Body pale green, with the three laſt joints pale black.
SPECIFIC CHARACTER. Superior wings red brown; a black dot near the center of each. Inferior wings, roſe colour with black marks *. Abdomen, roſe colour with a chain of black ſpots down the center, and a row of dots on each ſide.
- Syſt. Ent. 588. 111.
- Linn. Syſt. Nat. 2. 836. 95.—Fn. Sv. 1159.
- Raj. Inſ. 228. 13.
- Harr. Aurel. Tab. 12.
- — Inſ. Anglic. Tab. 8. Fig. 7.
- Ammir. Inſ. Tab. 30.
- Roeſ. Inſ. 1. Phal. 2. Tab. 43.
- Wilk. Pap. Tab. 3. a. 14.
[Page 22] The leaves of Alder or Birch, the Turnip, Muſtard, and Ragwort, with many other vegetables, are noticed by different authors, as being proper food for the Ruby Tiger Moth in the larva ſtate; I have obſerved that they prefer the leaves of the Ragwort or Groundſel.
The Caterpillars are ſmall in the month of May, in June they paſs to the pupa form, and early in the month following, appear in the winged ſtate *.
This ſpecies is leſs frequent than the Cream Spot Tiger Moth †, lately figured in this work.
SPECIFIC CHARACTER. Eyes brown. Head and thorax greeniſh, with two yellow tranſverſe lines. A dark ſpot on the exterior margin of the wings. Body rather depreſſed; that of the female, bright brown with yellow marks on each diviſion; that of the male, blue grey, with ſimilar marks of yellow.
- Syſt. Ent. 420. 2.
- Linn. Syſt. Nat. 2. 902. 5.—Fn. Sv. 1413.
- Libellula, &c. Geoff. Inſ. 2. 226. 9.
- Libellula, &c. Raj. Inſ. 49. 5.
- Reaum. Inſ. 6. Tab. 35. Fig. 1.
- Roeſ. Inſ. 2. Aqu. Tab. 6. Fig. 4.
- Tab. 7. Fig. 3.
- Edw. Av. Tab. 333.
The Male Inſect of the Libellula Depreſſa, differs ſo very materially in colour from the female of that ſpecies, that we cannot imagine it will be improper to give a figure of the former in our preſent [Page 24] Number, though the latter is already repreſented in the early part of the Work.
We have nothing particular to add to our former account of its hiſtory. In the larva and pupa ſtate, it is found crawling at the bottoms of pools or ditches, and ſubſiſts on the larvae of Gnats and other Inſects; but in the laſt ſtate, it leaves its aquatic abode, and ſubſiſts on ſmall winged inſects, eſpecially Moths; it is not uncommon to ſee one of this ſpecies ſtop ſhort in its flight, dart down like a Hawk upon a Moth or Butterfly, and tear it to pieces in an inſtant; or fly with it in its mouth, to ſome more convenient place to devour it.
SPECIFIC CHARACTER. Wings angulated, indented, light brown varied with ſhades of a ſcorched colour. Three waves of dark brown acroſs each ſuperior wing; together with a ſpot of orange or bright brown colour, at the baſe, and another nearly of the ſame colour on the exterior margin of each.
Among the ſeveral Moths of the Geometrae diviſion of Phalenae which are known to the Engliſh Collectors by the trivial diſtinction, Thorn Moths, our preſent Inſect is neither the moſt conſpicuous, or rare; it is however a beautiful creature when taken immediately from the Pupa caſe, but rarely fine, when caught in the fly ſtate, in the fowling-net; the down being of ſuch an exquiſite texture that the ſlighteſt touch muſt inevitably damage its appearance.
[Page 26] The Pupa is marked with a brown colour at every annulation immediately after the Caterpillar has paſſed to that ſtate, but as the creature within becomes more perfect, that brown is gradually changed to a dark, or black colour.
I have obſerved much variation in the colours of different ſpecimens of this ſpecies; of three male Inſects which I have bred this ſeaſon, one only correſponded with the annexed figure, one inclined much more to a red brown, and the other to a dull purple.
I met with the Caterpillars on the oak, and they always preferred that food to any other. The Caterpillars are ſmall in July, they paſs to the Pupa ſtate in Autumn, and the Moths are to be taken about the middle of March.
Although, as we have juſt obſerved, this Inſect does not particularly claim our regard as a rarity, it does not appear to have been deſcribed by Linnaeus, or even by Fabricius in his Species Inſectorum; and no account of it is included in Berkenhout's Outlines, in Harris's Catalogue of Engliſh Inſects, or any other work we have had an opportunity of peruſing.
In its manners, the Caterpillar is not more ſingular than in its form; when young it is very active and in continual motion; but as it grows larger it becomes more ſluggiſh in its diſpoſition: it will ſometimes affix itſelf by its hind feet to one of the extreme branches of the tree on which it feeds, in the ſame manner as ſhewn in our plate, and will remain in that poſture ſeveral hours without the leaſt apparent ſigns of life.
- Syſt. Ent. 676. 8.
- Linn. Syſt. Nat. 2. 705.—Fn. Sv. 879.
- CICADA, &c. Geoff. Inſ. 2. 243. 18.
- Schreb. Inſ. 11. Fig. 3. 4.
- Degeer. Inſ 3. 181. 3. Tab. 11. Fig. 22.
- Ranata cornuta. Petiv. Gozoph. Tab. 47. Fig. 2. 3.
- Sulz. Inſ. Tab 10. Fig. 63.
- Schoeff. Icon. Tab. 96. Fig. 2.
- Scop. Carn. 340.
- Membracis cornuta. Tab. Spec. Inſ. 2. 317. 9.
[Page 28] The Cicada Cornuta is a native of Germany and other parts of Europe, as well as of England; with us it is by no means common. It is met with in the month of May, or June; Berkenhout ſays it is found on trees, ferns, &c. I have taken two ſpecimens this ſeaſon, one at Coombe-wood, Surrey, the other at Dartford; they were both concealed on the under ſides of ſome dock leaves.
At Fig. I. the creature is repreſented of the natural ſize, with the wings expanded; at Fig. II. one is given in a ſtanding poſition; and at Fig. III. the front of the head and ſingularly conſtructed thorax is ſhewn as they appear before the ſpeculum of an opaque microſcope.
SPECIFIC CHARACTER. Black. Antennae length of the body. Target yellow. Three tranſverſe yellow lines on the head; three on the thorax and three yellow arched lines, with as many ſpots of the ſame colour on each ſhell.
- LEPTURA ARCUATA. Linn. Syſt. Nat. 2. 640. 21. ed. XIII.— Fn. Sv. 696.
- LEPTURA, &c. Geoff. Inſ. 1. 212. 10.
- CERAMBYX niger, &c. Vdm. Diſſ. 30.
- SCARABAEUS, &c. Friſch. Inſ. 12. Th. n. 22. p. 31. Tab. IV. Fig. 1—5.
- CERAMBYX, &c. Leche Nou. Spec. 30.
- SCARABAEUS. Raj. Inſ. 83. 23.
- Petiv. Gazoph. Tab. 63. Fig. 7.
- Schoeff. Icon. Tab. 38. Fig. 6.
- Tab. 107. Fig. 2. 3.
- CALLIDIUM arcuatum. Fab. Spec. Ent. n. 26. p. 192.
- Spec. Inſ. T. I. n. 35. p. 241.
- Mant. Inſ. T. I. n. 50. p. 155.
- Ent. Syſt. T. II. n. 64. p. 333.
Fabricius having ſeparated the Lepturae of Linnaeus, and arranged them under three diſtinct generic diviſions, as Callidium, Donacia, and Leptura, it will be proper to obſerve, that the CALLIDIUM Arcuatum, Claſs I. ELEVTERA, Fab. Spec. Inſ. is the LEPTURA Arcuata of Linnaeus; to this we muſt alſo add that the LEPTURA Arcuata, figured in the ſeventh Number of Panzer's Faunae Inſectorum Germanicae Initia, is a very different ſpecies to our ſpecimen, is a native of Auſtria, and received its name from Hellwig.
- Linn. Syſt. Nat. 2. 639. 18.—Fn. Sv. 693.
- LEPTURA, &c. Geoff. Inſ. 1. 217. 15.
- CERAMBYX albo faſciatus niger, &c. Degeer. Inſ. 5. 82. 19.
- CERAMBYX quadricolor. Scop. Ent. Carn. 177.
- SCARABAEUS, &c. Raj. Inſ. 83. 26.
- Schoeff. Icon. Tab. 2. Fig. 9.
- CALLIDIUM myſticum. Fab. Spec. Inſ. 1. 244. 51. 45.
- Linn. Syſt. Nat. 2. 637. 1.—Fn. Sv. 677.
- LEPTURA aquatica ſpinoſa, &c. Degeer. Inſ. 5. 140. 80. Tab. 4. Fig. 14. 15.
- STENOCORUS, &c. Geoff. Inſ. 1. 229. 12.
- CANTHARIS. Raj. Inſ. 100. 1.
- SCARABAEUS. Friſch. Inſ. 12. 33. Tab. 6. Fig. 2.
- DONACIA craſſipes. Fab. Spec. Inſ. 1. 245. 52. 1.
This Inſect is very common in England during the early part of ſummer; it lives on aquatic vegetables, and runs with much celerity when diſturbed. It has alſo been found among the decayed wood of willow trees.
SPECIFIC CHARACTER. Antennae with black and brown ſpots alternately. Head and thorax black. Shells yellow, tipped at the extremity with black; alſo two tranſverſe bands and two ſpots of the ſame colour. Thighs and part of the legs light brown. Feet black.
- Linn. Syſt. Nat. 2. 815. 29.—Fn. Sv. 1112.
- Geoff. Inſ. 2. 104. 5.
- Raj. Inſ. 153. 5.
- Geod. Inſ. 1. Tab. 65.
- 2. Tab. 37.
- Merian. Europ. Tab. 39. Fig. 140.
- Albin. Inſ. 11. Tab. 5.
- Sepp. Inſ. 4. Tab. 5.
- Wilk. pap. Tab. 13. Fig. 1. e. 1.
- Reaum Inſ. 2. Tab. 21.
- Friſch. Inſ. 6. Tab. 8.
- Degeer. Inſ. 1. Tab. 23. Fig. 12.
- Roeſ. Inſ. 1. phal. 2. Tab. 19.
- Fab. Spec. Inſ. 2. 178. 52.
[Page 34] The Caterpillar, from which it is produced, is of a very extraordinary form, and has rather the appearance of a formidable or venomous creature, than the larva of a Moth: it feeds on Willows and Poplars, and is generally found in great plenty where thoſe trees grow, in the month of July. The two tails, or crimſon filaments at the extremity of the body, are protruded or concealed within their baſe at the creature's pleaſure; when protruded they have a continual writhing or vibratory motion.
- Linn. Syſt. Nat. 2. 671. 21.—Fn. Sv. 794.
- CARABUS, &c. Degeer Inſ. 4. 100. 17. Tab. 3. Fig. 17.
- BUPRESTIS, &c. Geoff. Inſ. 1. 149. 40.
- CANTHARIS, &c. Raj. Inſ. 89. 1.
- Schoeff. Icon. Tab. 10. Fig. 14.
- FIG. I. The Natural Size.
- FIG. II. The Magnified Appearance of the Upper-ſide.
- FIG. III. The Under-ſide, Natural Size.
SPECIFIC CHARACTER. Antennae black. Head and Thorax bright yellow; Body rich brown, except the laſt joints, which are yellow; Abdomen bearded with black. Wings tranſparent, with a broad dark brown border; Veins dark.
- Linn. Syſt. Nat. 2. 803. 28.—Fn. Sv. 1092.
- SPHINX, &c. Geoff. Inſ. 2. 82.
- Roeſ. Inſ. 3. Tab. 38.
- 4. Tab. 34. Fig. 1—4.
- Bradl. nat. 26. Fig. 1. B.
- Sulz. Inſ. Tab. 15. Fig. 90.
- Poda Inſ. Tab. 2. Fig. 6.
- Schoef. Icon. Tab. 16. Fig. 1.
- SESIA Fuciformis. Fab. Sp. Inſ. 2. 156. 11.
The Caterpillar of this Inſect feeds on the wood of Willows, and is concealed within the ſolid ſubſtance of the trunk, in the ſame [Page 38] manner as the larva of the Sphinx Apiformis *, and Sphinx Tipuliformis †, are concealed within the wood of the Poplar, and ſtalks of Currant buſhes.
Fabricius deſcribes the Caterpillar, green with a lateral line of yellow; ſpine at the end of the body red. Harris obſerves, that in the winged ſtate the fly is found in Gardens, on flowers, in May; Fabricius writes on the Honey-ſuckle, &c.
- Syſt. Ent. 379. 5.—Linn. Syſt. Nat. 2. 959. 41. —Fn. Sv. 2709.
- Bombylius major niger, linea duplici tranſverſim ducta lutea, alia ſupra ſcapulas, alia per medium abdominis, imo abdomine albo. Raj. Inſ. 247. 5.
- Mouff. Inſ. 53. t. 2.
- Goed. Inſ. 2. tab. 46.
- Bradl. nat. tab. 26. fig. 1. D.
- Reaum. Inſ. 6. tab. 3. fig. 1.
- Friſch. Inſ. 9. tab. 13. fig. 1.
The manners of the common Humble Bee are too well known to require elucidation; its dwelling is formed very deep in the earth; it [Page 42] comes forth when the ſun ſhines to extract the melliferous moiſture of flowers, and is perfectly harmleſs unleſs when irritated. Linnaeus deſcribes the Anus of the Apis Terreſtris white, but I find this is not always conſtant; I have ſeveral ſpecimens that agree with the one repreſented in the annexed plate.
I have compared them with the ſpecimen in the Linnaean Cabinet; they perfectly agree in every reſpect except in the brown or yellow colour of the extreme part of the Abdomen: they are certainly only varieties.
- A. L. hirſuta atra, ano fulvo. Syſt. Ent. 381. 14. habitat lapidum in acervis.
- Linn. Syſt. Nat. 2. 960. 44.—Fn. Sv. 1701.— Geoff. Inſ. 2. 417.
- Bombylius maximus totus niger, exceptis duobus extremis abdominis annulis rufis. Raj. Inſ. 246. 1. Scop. Carn. 813.
- Friſch. Inſ. 9. p. 25. Fig. 2.
- Reaum Inſ. 6. t. 1. f. 1. 4.
- Schoef. Icon. Tab. 69. Fig. 9.
In the Linnaean Cabinet, (now in the poſſeſſion of Dr. Smith) I find under the name Apis Lapidaria two inſects, ſo very different in ſize, that it certainly will admit ſome doubt whether they ought to be [Page 43] conſidered as the ſame ſpecies: Linnaeus does indeed, notice this diſſimilarity of their ſize in his deſcription, and ſays one is three times larger than the other, &c. whence we may conclude that it was after mature deliberation he had ventured to place the ſmalleſt as a variety of the other*.—I do not know whether the largeſt has ever been taken in England; the ſpecimen of it, in the Linnaean Collection, is a Swediſh Inſect: the ſmalleſt (which we have figured) is well known as a native of this country.
- T. V. Antennis clavatis, abdomine ſupra nigro, lateribus rufis, femoribus poſticis dentatis. Syſt. Ent. 318. 6.
- T. V. Antennis clavatis, ore elabiato, abdomine rufo dorſo nigro, femoribus poſticis dentatis.
- Linn. Syſt. Nat. 2. 921. 5.—Fn. Sv. 1535.
- Stroem. Sundm. 171. Tab. 10. Fig. 11.
- [Page 44] Larva vireſcens per aperturam ante anum tanquam e ſiphone aquam exſpuit. Fabricius. Spec. Inſ. 1. 407. 7.
SPECIFIC CHARACTER. Wings angulated, rich purple-brown, with a pale yellow external border; and an intermediate dark border, with a row of bluiſh eyes; on the anterior margin of the firſt wings two long yellowiſh ſpots.
- Raj. Inſ. 135. 136.
- Jonſt. Inſ. t. 9. & 11.
- Schoeff. Elem. Tab. 94. Fig. 1.
- — Icon. Tab. 70. Fig. 1. & 2.
- Sulz. Inſ. 1. Tab. 14. Fig. 85.
- Roeſ. Inſ. 1. Pap. 1. Tab. 1.
- Eſp. Pap. 1. Tab. 12. Fig. 2.
- Seb. Muſ. 4. Tab. 32. Fig. 1, 2.
- Bergſtraeſs. 2. Tab. 39. Fig. 1. 2. 3. 4.
- Wilk. Pap. 58. Tab. 2. a. 10.
- Degeer. Inſ. 1. Tab. 21. Fig. 8. 9.
[Page 46] The Papilio Antiopa is found in every part of Europe; in Germany particularly it is very common; it is as frequent in America as in Europe, and is eſteemed as a rarity only in this country: it is, indeed, ſometimes found in abundance with us, but as its appearance is neither annual nor periodical, it is generally valued by Engliſh Collectors.
There have been ſeveral inſtances of this Inſect being found in different parts of the country in mild ſeaſons, as plenty as the Peacock, or Admirable, Butterflies; in the ſummer of 1793 particularly, they were as numerous in ſome places as the common garden White Butterfly is uſually near London.
But as a proof that its appearance does not altogether depend on the temperature of the weather, we need only adduce, that not a ſingle ſpecimen has been taken this ſeaſon, although it has been one of the moſt favourable for all kinds of Inſects that can be recollected; and many ſpecies of Moths and Butterflies, which have not been ſeen for ſeveral years before, have been taken at Combe-Wood, Darn-Wood, and ſimilar adjacent parts, during ſummer, in plenty.
It is from the uncertainty of its appearance that we have ſuch different, and, ſeemingly, irreconcileable accounts of the abundance and ſcarcity of this Butterfly; it was certainly well known as a native of this country to former Collectors, yet it received only a few years ſince the new name Grand Surpriſe; this name, which was given by Moſes Harris, or by ſome of the company of Aurelians, of whoſe ſociety he was a member, was evidently intended as a ſignificant expreſſion of their admiration, not of the beauty of the Inſect, but of the ſingular circumſtance of the ſpecies remaining ſo long in thoſe very places where the moſt diligent reſearches of preceding Collectors had been made in vain; of their unwearied induſtry they were well perſuaded, and were therefore unable to account for the appearance of a numerous brood of large Inſects, which muſt have remained concealed many years, or been lately tranſported to thoſe places.
Harris, in his Aurelian, calls it the Camberwell Beauty, though in his liſt of Engliſh Butterflies Hawk-Moths, and Moths, he uſes the name Grand Surpriſe: we mention this circumſtance, as it appears very inconſiſtent that the new name he adopts in one work, and the [Page 47] old one he ſhould have diſcarded in the other, are equally and indiſcriminately uſed in the ſeveral editions of both; we ſtill find it in the Aurelian, "Camberwell Beauty," in the other, "Grand Surpriſe," from which it might be readily inferred, that he meant two diſtinct Inſects, were it not for the addition of the Linnaean name Pap. Antiopa.
In the general deſcription of this Inſect in the Aurelian, Harris does not ſay that it was ſcarce at that time (1775), which he certainly would if it had been ſo; but Berkenhout, in his outlines of Natural Hiſtory, (1789) adds, after its ſpecific character, that it is ‘very rare in this kingdom.’ To reconcile thoſe accounts, we can only obſerve, that no Inſect is more uncertain as to the time of its appearance; that though found in abundance in one ſeaſon, it may not be ſeen in the next, or even for ſeveral ſucceſſive years; it will then appear in ſmall or large quantities, for one, two, or more ſeaſons, and again diſappear for many years as before.
The Engliſh ſpecimens differ from thoſe of other countries in the colour of the light exterior border of the wings; in the former, that part is of a very pale yellow brown, inclining to a dirty white; in the latter, it is of a deep yellow, marked and ſpotted with brown. Fabricius notices this difference, and ſays they are varieties.
The Caterpillars feed on the Willow, and are generally found on the higheſt branches; they caſt their ſkin early in July, and paſs to the Chryſalis, as repreſented in the plate. The underſide of the Butterfly is of a black brown, with irregular dark ſtreaks; the yellowiſh border is viſible on that ſide.
TORTRIX. SPECIFIC CHARACTER. Firſt wings yellowiſh, or buff colour, marked with tranſverſe ſhort ſtreaks of red, or brick colour, alſo two irregular marks of the ſame colour, reſembling XX, on the anterior margin. Under wings and body lead colour.
This little Moth has great affinity with the Phal. Forſkahliana of Linnaeus, the wings are indeed more angulated, but the form of the XX on the upper wings are nearly the ſame, and in the general colours both of the upper and under wings they perfectly agree.
Phal. Loeflingiana is found in the greateſt abundance on the Oak, in the month of April and May, in the Caterpillar ſtate, and in July every Tree that will afford them a moiſt retreat during the heat of the day, conceals numbers in the winged ſtate; morning and evening they are on the wing, they come forth at day break, ſport about the buſhes till after ſun-riſe. and then retire among the thickeſt Oak boughs; a little before ſun-ſet they come forth again, but conceal themſelves as before about twilight.
[Page 50] The Caterpillars are of a fine green colour, beſet with black ſpecks, the head is ſhining black, a collar of the ſame colour paſſes round the firſt joint, or annulation of the body next the head, but a narrow belt of white paſſing between, ſeparates the black of the head from the ſhoulders. It is a briſk creature, and the thread which it ſpins is of a very ſtrong texture.
- Sphinx Euphorbiae alis integris faſcis, vitta anticis pallida, poſticis rubra. Syſt. Ent. 541. 17.
- Linn. Syſt. Nat. 2. 802. 19.—Fn. Sv. 1086.— Muſ. Lud. Vir. 356.
- Sphinx Euphorbiae alis integris griſeis, faſciis duabus vireſcentibus poſticis rufis baſi ſtrigaque nigris, antennis niueis. Fab. Spec. Inſ. 2. 146. 32.
- Sphinx ſpirilingius, alis viridi fulvo purpureoque varie faſciatis et maculatis, ſubtus purpureis. Geoff. Inſ. 2. 87. 11.
- Drury Inſ. 1. Tab. 29. Fig. 3.
- Roeſ. Inſ. 1. Phal. 1. Tab. 3.
- Reaum. Inſ. 1. Tab. 13. Fig. 1. 4. 5. 6.
- Degeer. Inſ. 1. Tab. 8. Fig. 6. 11.
- Schaeff. Icon. Tab. 99. Fig. 3. 4.
- Friſch. Inſ. 2. Tab. 11.
- SPOTTED ELEPHANT Harris. Aurel. pl. 44.
[Page 52] The Sphinx Euphorbiae, conſidered as a native of this country, is without exception the rareſt ſpecies of the genus we have: and if we omit the Sp. Porcellus, Lineata, Atropos, with a very few others, we have no indigenous ſpecies that can by any means be compared with it as a rare, or, we may add, beautiful Inſect.
Drury has given a figure of the Sphinx without its changes among his rare Inſects, but as a native of a foreign country: and before the time of Harris it was frequently an object of diſcuſſion among Aurelians, whether it ever had been taken in England; Harris in his work, expreſſes himſelf thus, ‘It has been long in diſpute whether the Spotted Elephant was a native of this iſland; but it is now paſt a doubt, as I have had the good fortune to find a Caterpillar of this Moth in marſhy ground at Barnſcray, near Crayford in Kent, about the middle of Auguſt *; it was better than three inches long, of a dark brown colour; the horn at the tail part, which was about half an inch long, appeared long and gloſſy. The head was nearly the ſize of a ſmall pea, of a lightiſh yellow, brown, or tan colour. I tried various herbs to bring it to feed, but my attempts were fruitleſs, and it died for want †. The Chryſalis in the plate was ſent me from Belleiſle in France; and the Moth was produced from it about the beginning of June. ’—Harris's Aurelian, plate 44.
We are not informed of more than two ſimilar circumſtances that may place its exiſtence in this country beyond diſpute; a damaged ſpecimen of the Fly has been taken at Bath, and is in our cabinet; and Mr. Curtis, author of the Flora Londinenſis, &c. found four of the Caterpillars laſt ſummer in Devonſhire.
In the Caterpillar ſtate it frequently changes its ſkin, and appears as frequently to alter its appearance; we cannot elſe account for the diſſimilarity that prevails among all the coloured repreſentations of the Inſect in that ſtate that have come under our inſpection; in Roeſel's Hiſt. Inſ. we find a figure of the Caterpillar apparently in the laſt ſkin, [Page 53] that very nearly correſponds with our ſpecimen; but that figured by Harris does not agree with either, in the form or number of the ſpots. At an early ſtage of its growth the Caterpillar, according to Roeſel, is bright yellow, with black patches, and minute white ſpecks.
The figure in plate XCII. is copied from a moſt perfect ſpecimen of the Caterpillar, and which is now in our poſſeſſion; but as we cannot aſſure our Subſcribers that it was found in England, we have been careful to add it in a ſeparate plate, that ſo it may either be included in the volume with the Sphinx and Pupa, or be excluded with propriety.
- SPHEX SABULOSA. Syſt. Ent. 346. 1.—Linn. Syſt. Nat. 2. 941. 1. —Fn. Sv. 1648.
- SPHEX, &c. Degeer Inſ. 2. 2. 148. 4. tab. 28. fig. 27.
- ICHNEUMON, &c. Geoff. Inſ. 2. 349. 63.
- Scop. carn. 770.
- Friſch. Inſ. 2. tab. 1. fig. 6. 7.
- Sulz. Inſ. tab. 19. fig. 120.
- Schaeff. Icon. 83. fig. 1.
- Fab. Spec. Inſ. 2. 442. 112. 1.
Linnaeus never deſcribed this Inſect, or he would have placed it in the Cerambyx genus. Fabricius has deſcribed it in his Species Inſectorum under the ſpecific name Bifaſciatum; but he has ſeparated it from the Linnaean genus, and given it the new generic title Rhagium: the Cerambyx Inquiſitor, C. Curſor and C. Noctis of Linnaeus, our preſent ſpecies, and R. Ornatum, are the only Inſects Fabricius has included in the new genus Rhagium.
- Linn. Syſt. Nat. 2. 627. 34.—Faun. Suec. 652.
- CERAMBYX odoratus, &c. Degeer. Inſ. 5. 64. 2.
- SCARABAEUS. Raj.—Friſch.—Liſter.
Few Inſects vary more in their colours than the Cerambyx Moſchatus; in ſome ſpecimens the Green colour is very predominant, in others the Copper colour; in ſome the Purple is the moſt vivid, and again in others the colours are ſo blended as to appear altogether of a dull brown. They feed on the ſoft wood of willow trees; are very plenty in moſt places in ſummer, and emit a very powerful muſk-like odour.
- P. Neuſtria. B. alis reverſis griſeis, ſtrigis duabus ferrugineis, ſubtus unica. Syſt. Ent. 567. 42.—Linn. Syſt. Nat. 2. 818. 35.
- Phalaena pectinicornis elinguis, alis deflexis pallidis, faſcia alarum tranſverſali ſaturatiore. Geoff. Inſ. 2. 114. 16.
- Phalaena media tota cinerea. Raj. Inſ. 214. 8.
- Reaum. Inſ. 2. Tab. 4. Fig. 1.—11.
- Goed. Inſ. 1. 57. Tab. 10.
- Harris's Aurel. pl. 17.
- Wilk. Pap. 21. Tab. 3. a 10.
- Alb. Inſ. 19. Fig. 27.
- Friſch. Inſ. 1. Tab. 2.
- Roeſ. Inſ. 1. Phal. 2. Tab. 6.
- Fab. Spec. Inſ. 2. 180. 58.
[Page 62] The Caterpillar of the Ph. Neuſtria are found in June, either on the white-thorn, black-thorn, or briar; ſometimes on fruit trees: they paſs to the Chryſalis ſtate in July, and the Moths appear in Auguſt.
The female depoſits her eggs with ſuch particular care and regularity, that a cluſter of them forms one of the moſt pleaſing objects for microſcopical inveſtigation; they are cruſtaceous, of a light grey or bluiſh colour, elegantly marked at the broadeſt end; they are diſpoſed with the greateſt ſymmetry around the ſmall branches of the thorn, and are ſo cemented together that they cannot readily be ſeparated.—The appearance of a cluſter is repreſented in our plate.
The eggs are laid in autumn, though they are not hatched till the enſuing ſpring. When the young Caterpillars burſt forth, they form into ſocieties, ſometimes of thirty or forty individuals, ſometimes of a much greater number; they immediately commence the formation of a ſpacious web, and if the weather be fine in two or three days, their work is completed; as however they encreaſe in bulk, it is neceſſary to enlarge their dwelling, and this they manage either by adding new external coverings, or encreaſing and extending the windings within. They ſeldom paſs to the Pupa form in thoſe neſts, but ſeparate in ſearch of a more convenient place for that purpoſe when they have attained their full ſize.
The Caterpillar, when preparing for its next ſtate, weaves a large ſilky caſe; within which it forms another ſomewhat ſmaller; and thus enveloped by its double cone, it changes to the Pupa form. The Pupa is black, and may be juſt diſcerned through the two caſes, as repreſented in our plate.
- C. Polygoni. Ouata caerulea, thorace femoribus anoque rufis. Syſt. Ent. 100. 32.—Linn. Syſt. Nat. 2. 589. 24.— Fn. Sv. 520.
- Chryſomela, &c. Geoff. Inſ. 1. 283. 4.
- Chryſomela, &c. Degeer. Inſ. 5. 322. 26.
- Reaum. Inſ. 3. Tab. 17. Fig. 14. 15.
- Schaeff. Icon. Tab. 51. Fig. 5.
- Tab. 161. Fig. 4.
- Tab. 173. Fig. 4.
- CANTHARIS Aenea thorace marginato, corpore viridi aeneo elytris extrorſum undique rubris. Linn. Syſt. Nat. 2. 648. 7.— Fn. Sv. 708.
- Cicindela viridi aenea, elytris extrorſum rubris. Geoff. Inſ. 1. 174. 7.
- Thelephorus aeneus, &c. Degeer. Inſ. 4. 73. 6. Tab. 2. Fig. 16. 17.
- Scarabaeus, &c. Raj. Inſ. 77. 12.
- Schaeff. monogr. 1754. Tab. 2. Fig. 10. 11.
- Icon. Tab. 18. Fig. 12. 13.
- Sp. Maxilloſus. Pubeſcens niger, faſciis cinereis. Syſt. Ent. 265. 3. Linn. Syſt. Nat. 2. 683. 3.—Fn. Sv. 841.
- Staphylinus, &c. Geoff. Inſ. 1. 360. 1. Tab. 7. Fig. 1.
- Staphylinus balteatus, &c. Degeer. Inſ. 4. 18. 4. Tab. 1. Fig. 7. 8.
- Scarabaeus. Liſt. Logu. 391.
- Jonſt. Inſ. Tab. 17. Fig. 1. 2. 3.
- Bocc. Muſ. 2. Tab. 31. Fig. AA.
- Schaeff. Icon. Tab. 20. Fig. 1.
- Staphylinus olens, &c. Müll. Faun. Fridrickſd. 23. 228. Zool. Dan. 97. 1090.
Found chiefly in ſandy places; may be often obſerved flying againſt dry banks when the ſun ſhines; makes a buzzing noiſe; feeds on decayed vegetables, but more eſpecially on the fleſh of dead animals. Met with in May, June, and July.
GENERIC CHARACTER. Antennae taper, lodged in a groove under the Head and Thorax. Under ſide of the Thorax terminates in a point lodged in a cavity of the Abdomen. Spring to a conſiderable height when laid on their backs.
This ſpecies we have ever found peculiar to the woods about two or three miles beyond Dartford (Kent), particularly on the ſkirts of Darnwood, and near the banks of the river Thames at Queenhithe; it has probably never been taken elſewhere, or the name Dartford Emerald would not have been ſo generally adopted by Collectors.
It is not very frequent even in thoſe local ſituations, nor can we learn that its larva and pupa ſtate has been aſcertained before; the ſpecies has neither been deſcribed by Linneus nor Fabricius; Harris does not mention it in his catalogue of Engliſh Moths, nor has a figure of it been given in any preceding publication that have come under our inſpection.
[Page 68] I am not certain whether in the larva ſtate it feeds on the Convolvulus, although I found it on a plant of that kind; as its climbing ſtalks and tendrils were ſo intricated with branches of white-thorn, oak, and broom, as to preclude any accurate determination.
I kept them in a gauze cage for the ſpace of a fortnight, and ſupplied them with freſh portions of the different plants every day, but could never obſerve them take the leaſt ſubſiſtence during the whole time; they affixed their tails and hinder legs in the meſhes of the gauze when I firſt removed them into the cage, and never ſhewed the leaſt ſigns of life after; as they held firmly by the gauze, in the poſitions repreſented in our plate, I was very much diſappointed to find on attempting to remove them, that two were dead; May 23d I obſerved that which was alive threw out a very delicate white thread, as if about to ſpin a cone; the body gradually ſhrivelled at the upper part, while the lower became proportionably thicker; two days after it fell to the bottom of the cage and became a pupa, at firſt of a whitiſh, and after of a fine green colour, marked at the narrow end with ſhort black ſtreaks. June 13th the Moth came forth.
Fabricius is the only writer who has deſcribed this beautiful Inſect; the deſcription in the Species Inſectorum is taken from a ſpecimen in the collection of Sir J. Banks, Bart. A very minute Latin account is alſo given in a Mantiſſa of Entomology lately publiſhed by the ſame author, but in which he does not even mention the larva or pupa ſtate, though their characters differ ſo eſſentially from the perfect Inſect; we ſuſpect in the two firſt ſtates the Inſect has hitherto remained [Page 70] unknown, as in the perfect ſtate it is very rarely met with. We have never ſeen a figure of either in any former publication.
June 10th, 1794.—I found one ſpecimen in the larva ſtate at Coombe-wood, Surrey; it was lurking beneath a branch of hazel, among ſome ſmall Caterpillars that had formed a ſlight web on the leaves; as it was only ſerved with vegetable food when confined in the breeding cage, it died in a few days.
June 26th, 1794.—I ſhook another ſpecimen from the upper branches of a tall oak in Darn-wood, Dartford. At firſt it refuſed to eat, but ſhortly after I obſerved it ſuſpended acroſs a leaf, with its head downward, and its roſtrum extended and transfixed through the head of a ſmall Caterpillar which had unfortunately ſtrayed into the box. I fed it after with dead worms, houſe flies, &c. from which it extracted nutritive moiſture, and encreaſed conſiderably in bulk.— June 29th it caſt its exuviae—July the 2d. it caſt another, when the perfect Inſect came forth: the larva can ſcarcely be diſtinguiſhed from the pupa ſtate.
SPECIFIC CHARACTER. Antennae near the length of the body, black. Head, thorax, and underſide, black. Shells red, inclining to yellow brown, with a broad longitudinal black ſtripe extending from the baſe, nearly to the extremity of each.
This Inſect is deſcribed in the manuſcripts of T. MARSHAM, ESQ. S. L. S. who favoured me with the ſpecimen from which the figure in the annexed plate is copied; it does not appear to have been either figured or deſcribed in any preceding Natural Hiſtory, and may therefore be eſteemed as a rare Inſect. The ſpecific name biliturala is adopted from that Gentleman's manuſcripts by permiſſion.
SPECIFIC CHARACTER. Antennae feathered. Superior wings brown, marbled with blueiſh green; the reſemblance of a double figure of eight on each. Inferior wings lighter with a browniſh ſcallopped margin.
- PHALAENA COERULEOCEPHALA elinguis criſtata, alis deflexis griſeis, ſtigmatibus albidis coadunatis.—Linn. Syſt. Nat. 2. 826. 59.—Fn. Sv. 1117.
- PHALAENA pectinicornis elinguis, alis deflexis fuſcis, macula duplici albo flaveſcente, geminata. Geoff. Inſ. 2. 122. 27·
- Raj. Inſ. 163. 17.
- Goed. Inſ. 1. tab. 61.
- Reaum. Inſ. 1. tab. 18. fig. 6. 9.
- Roeſ. Inſ. 1. phal. 2. tab. 16.
- Friſch. Inſ. 10. tab. 3. fig. 4.
- Merian. Europ. tab. 9.
- Albin. Inſ. tab. 13. fig. 17.
- Wilks Pap. 6. tab. 1. a 12.
- Haris. Aurel. pl. 30. a. b. c. d.
- Fab. Spec. Inſ. 2. 184. 72.
SPECIFIC CHARACTER. Antennae yellow. Eyes black. Head and thorax yellowiſh orange colour; four diſtinct black ſpots, and a tranſverſe band of the ſame on the latter. Wings yellow, with an orange ſhade, and ſtreaked with black. Legs and body bright orange.
This very rare and non-deſcript ſpecies is diſtinct from the Cimex ſtriatus, with which it has been ſuppoſed to have ſome affinity; it is ſmaller, the head, thorax, and body are very different, though in the colours of the wings they nearly correſpond.—The four black ſpots on the thorax furniſh our ſpecific diſtinction.
- C. FESTIVUS. Ovatus nigro rubroque varius, thorace punctis ſex nigris, alis fuſcis, margine albido. Fabric. Syſt. Ent. 714. 87. Linn. Syſt. Nat. 2. 723. 57.
- CIMEX DOMINULUS. Scop. Carn. 362. Fueſly Inſ. Helv. 26. 490.
- Die Staatſwanze. Panzer Faun. Inſ. Germ. 6. 19.
This little Inſect is deſcribed in the manuſcripts of T. Marſham, Eſq S. L. S. under the ſpecific name C. Palleſcens; it is by no means uncommon though it has never appeared in any former publication.
[Page 79] In the larva and pupa ſtate it is a very beautiful creature, as the colours are much brighter than in the perfect Inſect; they are generally found in April or May, among the graſs and young plants that grow under hedges; in June or July they are taken in the winged ſtate.—Fig. V. the pupa ſtate, and Fig. VI. the perfect Inſect; both of the natural ſize: in the annexed plate we have given the magnified appearance of the former.
SPECIFIC CHARACTER. Antennae of the Male feathered. Wings dark brown, with a bright yellow bar acroſs each, and a ſtrong white ſpot on the center of each ſuperior wing.—Female marked like the Male, but of a paler colour.
- PHALAENA QUERCUS. Linn. Syſt. Nat. 2. 814. 25.—Fn. Sv. 1106.
- PHALAENA maxima fulva, alarum exteriorum ſuperioritate intenſius colorata, cum macula in media alba, inferiore dilutiore. Raj. Inſ. 142. 2.
- Merian. Europ. 1. tab. 10.
- Harris. Aurel. pl. 29. a. b. c. d. e. f.
- Albin. Inſ. tab. 18. fig. 25.
- Reaum. Inſ. 1. tab. 35.
- An [...]miral. Inſ. tab. 31.
- Roeſ. Inſ. 1. phal. 2. tab. 35.
- Petiv. Gazoph. tab. 45. fig. 5.
- Goed. Inſ. 1. 51. tab. 7.
The Caterpillars of this Moth feed on the White and Black Thorn, together with ſeveral herbaceous plants; it has been obſerved to thrive better in the breeding cage when regularly ſupplied with freſh graſs, to keep the former in a proper ſtate of moiſture.
The Female depoſits her eggs in June or July, the Caterpillars are hatched in Autumn, and remain in that ſtate during the Winter; about the middle of May it ſpins a large brown caſe, within which it paſſes to the Pupa ſtate; the Moths appear in June.
In the Caterpillar ſtate it is ſcarcely poſſible to diſtinguiſh the Male from the Female, except that the former is ſmaller than the latter; but in the laſt ſtate their colours are entirely different, the Female being of a pale yellowiſh teint, inclining to fox colour, the Male is of a rich brown.
The Caterpillars caſt their ſkins ſeveral times, and always thereby aſſume a new appearance, though the general colours and character of the ſpecies may be traced through every ſtage. Our figure is copied from a very large and fine coloured ſpecimen of the Female, that was met with at Darent-Wood, Dartford.
- NEPA LINEARIS, manibus ſpina laterali pollicatis. Linn. Syſt. Nat. 2. 714. 7. Fn. Sv. 908.
- NEPA LINEARIS corpore anguſtiſſimo elongato, thorace longo, tibiis anticis in medio ſpina laterali. Degeer. Inſ. 3. 369. 2. tab. 19. fig. 1. 2.
- Locuſta aquatica. Mouffeti. Raj. Inſ. 59.
- Fueſ. Inſ. Helv. 25. 473.
- Gronov. Zooph. 683.
- Schoeff. Icon. tab. 5. fig. 56.
- Swammerdam Bibl. Nat. 1. 233. tab. 3. fig. 9.
- Roeſ. Inſ. 3. 141. tab. 23.
This ſingular ſpecies is by no means ſo common as the Nepa Cinerea, already figured in this Work. One ſpecimen was taken at Ilford, in Eſſex, laſt September; and Thomas Walford, Eſq met [Page 88] with another in a bog near Clare Priory, Suffolk: the latter is preſerved in the Muſeum of Mr. Parkinſon.
In the Larva and Pupa ſtate it is very rarely met with, as it lives in deep ſtagnant water; the figure of the latter, which we have given at Fig. I. is copied from the only Engliſh Specimen of the Inſect we have ever ſeen in that ſtate; it was taken out of a Pool, near Epping, in the month of June, 1790.
- P. Emargana. Alis ſubcaudatis flavis fuſco reticulatis faſciaque lata fuſca, margine craſſiori late emarginato. Syſt. Ent. Fab. 651. 37.
The excavations of the ſuperior wings of this Inſect contribute ſuch an air of novelty to its general appearance, that it might rather be conſidered as the effect of chance or deſign, on a ſingle Inſect, if we did not obſerve that character prevail through every ſpecimen; we find two kinds of them in ſeveral cabinets in London, and we are in poſſeſſion of a third that differs from either.
[Page 92] By moſt practical Entomologiſts they have been conſidered as diſtinct ſpecies, and they may be ſuch; but as we are unwilling to create confuſion by extending the number of ſpecies, we prefer admitting them as varieties under the Fabrician name Emargana.—We are more readily inclined to adopt this meaſure, as we have always found them at the ſame time of the year, in the ſame parts of the woods, and generally ſporting together, which is not commonly obſerved of Inſects that are not either varieties or differ only in ſex.
- PHAL. Zoëgana alis flavis puncto medio furrugineo, poſtice ferrugineis macula flava. Linn. Syſt. Nat. 2. 876. 289.
- [Page 93] β. PHAL. hamata alis ſuperioribus flavis puncto lituraque poſtica hamata ferrugineis. Linn. Syſt. Nat. 2. 876. 290. Fn. Sv. 1309.
- Clerk. Phal. tab. 4. fig. 4.
- —tab. 4. fig. 5. 6.
- Fabri. Spec. Inſ. 2. 280. 25.
- PHAL. Quercana alis anticis flavis, maculis daubus coſtalibus ſulphureis. Fab. Syſt. Ent. 652. 39.
- PHALAENA fagana Wien. Vers. 28. 7. tab. 1. a. b. — tab. 1. b. b.
The low oaks, and particularly ſuch as are encircled with ivy, generally afford a ſhelter to numbers of this pretty Inſect during the heat of the day; they are ſeldom found in the thickeſt of the wood, they ſeem to prefer the thick hedges by the road ſides.
SPECIFIC CHARACTER. Long, narrow. Anterior wings pale clay colour, with a dark ſtreak down the middle, and a few minute ſpots of the ſame colour near the apex. Poſterior wings almoſt tranſparent, bluiſh, fringe very deep, of a clay colour.
It has certainly never been deſcribed or figured before; nor is it in the cabinet of any Entomologiſt within the circle of our friends; if we except a very diſtinct variety which is in the cabinet of Mr. Honey, Union-Street, Borough.
In Plate LXXXVIII. of this work I gave a figure of the Small Apis Lapidaria, Red-tail Bee, which is well known as a native of this country; but declined including a figure of the largeſt kind, until I could affirm on credible authority it had been taken in England alſo.
I have lately had the good fortune to be ſatisfied in this particular; LORD WILLIAM SEYMOUR favoured me with the ſpecimen from [Page 98] which the annexed figure is copied; his Lordſhip told me he met with it in Wiltſhire laſt ſummer, with ſeveral other rare Inſects, which will appear ſhortly in this work.
- Chryſomela Boleti Plate 78 Fig. 1. 2.
- —Ceruina Plate ib. Fig. 3. 4.
- —Biliturata Plate 99 Fig. 1. 2. 3.
- —Polygoni Plate 96 Fig. 1.
- Curculio Betulae Plate 74
- —Argentatus Plate 107 Fig. 1. 2.
- Cerambyx Moſchatus. Muſk Cerambyx Plate 29 Fig. 2.
- Rhagium Bifaciatum (F.) Plate ib. Fig. 1.
- Leptura arcuata, Great Waſp Beetle Plate 86 Fig. 1.
- —Myſtica Plate ib. Fig. 2.
- —Aquatica Plate ib. Fig. 3.
- —Elongata Plate ib. Fig. 4.
- Cantharis Aenea Plate 96 Fig. 2.
- Elater Sputator Plate ib. Fig. 4.
- Carabus Cyanocephalus Plate 86 Fig. 1. 2. 3.
- Staphylinus Maxilloſus Plate 96 Fig. 3.
- Gryllus Biguttulus Plate 79 Fig. 2.
- Locuſta Varia Plate ib. Fig. 1.
- Cicada Cornuta Plate 83 Fig. 1. 2. 3.
- [Page] Notonecta Glauca. Common Boat Beetle Plate 75
- Nepa Linearis. Linear Water Scorpion Plate 105 Fig. 1. 2.
- Cimex Quadripunctatus* Plate 101 Fig. 1. 2. 3.
- —Palleſcens* Plate ib. Fig. 5. 6.
- —Ditto Larva * Plate 102
- —Feſtivus Plate 101 Fig. 4.
- —Luridus Plate 98 Fig. 1. 2.
- Papilio Lathonia, Queen of Spain Butterfly Plate 73
- —Antiopa. Camberwell Beauty Plate 89
- Sphinx Euphorbiae. Beautiful Elephant Sphinx Plate 92
- —Ditto Larva Plate 91
- —Fuciformis Plate 87
- Phalaena Vinula. Puſs Moth Plate 85
- —Quercus. Egger Moth Plate 104 Fig. 1. 2.
- —Ditto Larva. Eggs, Pupa Plate 103
- —Neuſtria. Lackey Moth Plate 95
- —Caeruleocephala. Figure Eight Moth Plate 100
- —Fuliginoſa. Ruby-Tiger Moth Plate 80
- —Funalis *. Feſtoon Moth Plate 76
- —Lucidata *. Dartford Emerald Moth Plate 97
- —Uſtularia *. Early Thorn Moth Plate 82
- —Criſtalana *. Dark Button Moth Plate 77 Fig. 1. 2.
- —Emargana. Notch Wing Plate 106
- —Zoëgana Plate ib.
- —Quercana Plate ib.
- —Loeflingiana Plate 90
- —Panzerella * Plate 106 Fig. 4.
- —Radiatella * Plate 77 Fig. 3. 4.
- Acervorum, Apis, Black Bee Plate 108 Fig. 1.
- Aenea, Cantharis Plate 96 Fig. 2.
- Antiopa, Papilio, Camberwell Beauty Butterfly Plate 89
- Aquatica, Leptura Plate 86 Fig. 3.
- Argentatus, Curculio Plate 107 Fig. 1. 2.
- Arcuata, Leptura Plate 86 Fig. 1.
- Betulae, Curculio Plate 74
- Bifaciatum, Rhagium Plate 94 Fig. 1.
- Biguttulus, Gryllus Plate 79 Fig. 2.
- Biliturata, Chryſomela Plate 99 Fig. 1. 2. 3.
- Boleti, Chryſomela Plate 78 Fig. 1. 2.
- Ceruina, Chryſomela Plate ib. Fig. 3. 4.
- Caeruleocephala, Phalaena, Figure Eight Moth Plate 100
- Circumflexus, Ichneumon Plate 93 Fig. 2.
- Cornuta, Cicada Plate 83 Fig. 1. 2. 3.
- Criſtalana, Phalaena, Dark Button Moth * Plate 77 Fig. 1. 2.
- Cyanocephalus, Carabus Plate 86 Fig. 1. 2. 3.
- Depreſſa, Libellula Plate 81
- Emargana, Phalaena, Notch Wing Plate 106
- Elongata, Leptura Plate 86 Fig. 4.
- Euphorbiae, Caterpillar, Beautiful Elephant Plate 91
- — Sphinx Plate 92
- Feſtivus, Cimex Plate 101 Fig. 4.
- Fuciformis, Sphinx Plate 87
- Fuliginoſa, Phalaena, Ruby-Tiger Moth Plate 80
- Funalis, Phalaena, Feſtoon Moth * Plate 76
- [Page] Glauca, Notonecta. Boat Beetle Plate 75
- Lapidaria, Apis, large Plate 108 Fig. 2.
- — ſmall Plate 88 Fig. 2.
- Lathonia, Papilio. Queen of Spain Butterfly Plate 73
- Linearis, Nepa. Linear Water Scorpion Plate 105 Fig. 1. 2.
- Laeflingiana, Phalaena Plate 90
- Lucidata, Phalaena. Dartford Emerald Moth * Plate 97
- Luridus, Cimex Plate 98 Fig. 1. 2.
- Maxilloſus, Staphylinus Plate 96 Fig. 3.
- Moſchatus, Cerambyx. Muſk Cerambyx Plate 94 Fig. 2.
- Myſtica, Leptura Plate 86 Fig. 3.
- Neuſtria, Phalaena. Lackey Moth Plate 95
- Palleſcens, Cimex * Plate 101 Fig. 5. 6.
- Panzerella, Phalaena * Plate 106 Fig. 4.
- Polygoni, Chryſomela Plate 96 Fig. 1.
- Quadripunctatus, Cimex * Plate 101 Fig. 1. 2. 3.
- Quercana, Phalaena Plate 106
- Quercus, Phalaena. Egger Moth Plate 104 Fig. 1. 2.
- — Larva, &c. Plate 103
- Radiatella, Phalaena * Plate 77 Fig. 3. 4.
- Sabuloſa, Sphex Plate 93 Fig. 1.
- Sputator, Elater Plate 96 Fig. 4.
- Terreſtris, Apis Plate 88 Fig. 1.
- Vinula, Phalaena. Puſs Moth Plate 85
- Vitellinae, Tenthredo Plate 88 Fig. 3.
- Varia, Locuſta Plate 79 Fig. 1.
- Uſtularia, Phalaena. Early Thorn Moth * Plate 82
- Zoëgana, Phalaena Plate 106