THIS tincture is of uſe in a difficulty of breathing, tightneſs acroſs the breaſt, and ſhort coughs, particularly if brought on by cold north-eaſterly winds, which frequently affect the breaſt, ſides, and lungs: it allays the cough, opens the cheſt, and looſens the phlegm, ſo that it eaſily comes away; and frees the pores of the ſkin which have been ſhut up by the winds.
It may be taken as often as occaſion requires, from thirty to ſixty or eighty drops, in a little* pectoral drink or barley water, with which you ſhould dilute plentifully, drinking it of the ſame heat as you would a diſh of tea.
NEVER be too haſty in the uſe of this electary; it is often found that a purging is the means made uſe of by Nature to carry off other complaints, or to free the body from bad humours, which might in time beget diſorders; now, by ſtopping this wholeſome [Page 2] drain too ſoon, theſe bad humours may be thrown back into the blood, and produce the worſt conſequences: therefore you will ſeldom or never err, by ſuffering the purging, if not over violent, to continue two or three days, at the end of that time, ſhould you find the patient weakened by it, or that it is really a diſorder itſelf, and not a cure for other diſorders, then you may give a doſe or two of rhubarb, and afterwards proceed to the uſe of the electary: by theſe means you will cleanſe the ſtomach and bowels, and get rid of the complaint without any farther trouble.
Some of my friends who have been many years accuſtomed to the ſea, recommend the* purging apozem before the uſe of aſtringents: they ſay it cools the body, and carries off every thing which is diſagreeable to the bowels, better than rhubarb, or any other purge. After having cleanſed the ſtomach and bowels of the filth which occaſioned the diſorder, by the one or other of theſe means, you will find ipecacuanha given with the aſtringent electary in very ſmall quantities, viz. from half a grain to one or two grains, of infinite ſervice; but this ſhould be practiſed only by thoſe who have ſome little knowledge in phyſic, and they will have the ſatisfaction to find the method here recommended will ſeldom, if ever, fail of ſucceſs.
- Above 14 years — from 2 ſcruples to 1 dram.
- Between 7 and 14 — from 1 ſcruple to 2 ſcruples.
- Between 3 and 7 — from 10 grains to 20 grains.
Remember beer ſhould be forbid; and* hartſhorn drink ſupply the place of other ſmall liquors. Rice gruel is a proper food.
THE febrifuge quality of this bark, and its peculiar efficacy in curing intermittent fevers, is now univerſally known, yet a two haſty uſe of it oftentimes proves prejudicial, a† remittent or continual fever being the conſequence. You will ſeldom or never err, by giving a vomit firſt, and if the ſick be of a full habit of body, you may alſo purge with ſafety; you will act more prudently by waiting till they have had four or five ague fits before you throw in the bark, giving a ſalt of wormwood‡ draught once in ſix or eight hours, which will make the fits more regular, and prepare the blood for the bark. You ſhould begin when the fever is gone intirely off, and give at leaſt one ounce before you expect it to [Page 4] return*; half a dram, two ſcruples, or a dram may be given for a doſe, as the ſtomach will bear it, the leſs you adminiſter at a time the more frequent it muſt be repeated; for, unleſs you get the whole quantity down within the time you do nothing.
The fit being put by, a ſecond ounce ſhould be taken in the like ſmall doſes within the three following days, at the diſtance of about ſix or eight hours; the patient may now reſt ſix days, unleſs ſigns of the ague's return require the bark to be repeated ſooner, when a third ounce is to be taken in like manner, a doſe every ſix or eight hours; another week being elapſed, a fourth ounce is alſo to be adminiſtered, when you may take your leave of them, and be pretty well aſſured they will not be ſubject to a return.
The common mixture to give it in may be made of three quarters of a pint of ſpring water, and a quarter of a pint of good French brandy, ſweetened with a bit of ſugar, a teacupful of which ſhould be taken with each doſe; mix the powder in a little of it, and drink the remainder after it.
Above the age of fourteen it will require this quantity to cure the ague, under theſe years your judgment muſt direct you to decreaſe it; the manner of giving it muſt be exactly the ſame†: [Page 5] ſometimes, when the ſeaſon is unfavourable, you may meet with caſes which do not intirely give way to this treatment, if ſo, let them continue the following a fortnight or three weeks afterwards.
TAKE of bark, groſsly powdered, two ounces, the yellow peel of two Seville oranges, and one nutmeg grated; pour three pints of old rough red port upon theſe ingredients; let them ſtand by a gentle fire, in a large bottle, for three or four days, ſhaking it frequently; then pour off a wine-glaſsful of the clear liquor at the time you take it, which ſhould be morning, noon, and night; when you have taken one half, another pint of wine may be added, and kept upon the ingredients till the whole is taken, at leaſt for ten days or a fortnight. A few drops of elixir of vitriol two or three times a day with the wine, or mixed in a glaſs of water, may be alſo ſerviceable.
TAKE two table-ſpoonfuls of pearl barley, waſh it, and boil it in half a pint of water for two or three minutes; pour away this water which will be coloured, and add about three pints of boiling water; let it ſimmer till one pint is conſumed. This is a common and good drink in fevers and every other complaint when a ſoft diluting liquor is adviſeable.
THIS mixture is warm and comfortable to the ſtomach and bowels, ſomewhat opening, proper in colic complaints, and for the wind, particularly if after meals; it is likewiſe ſerviceable for pains in the ſtomach.[Page 6]
THIS mixture is good in all gravelly complaints, and for the dropſy, heat of urine, pains in the loins, and ſtoppage of water. One large ſpoonful, or two upon an emergency, may be given for a doſe, every ſix or eight hours, or night and morning as the caſe requires, mixed in half a pint of marſhmallow drink, if you can procure it, if not, barley water. But obſerve, if the pain is violent, you will do right firſt to give the purging apozem to promote ſtools, and let them drink plentifully of thin water gruel, which will cleanſe the bowels and urinary paſſages, and greatly aſſiſt the intention of this mixture. Remember the body ſhould always be kept open; and thoſe who are ſubject to theſe complaints, ſhould accuſtom themſelves to drink very plentifully of ſmall liquors at all times*, which will often of themſelves perform a perfect cure.
- Above 14 years — from 20 to 30 drops.
- Between 7 and 14 — from 10 to 20.
- Under that age — from 5 to 7 or 8.
WHEN the ſkin is hot and parched, the tongue white, and other common ſigns of a fever, which every one is acquainted with, ſuch as thirſt, wearineſs, &c. put them to bed, and give a doſe of the fever powder every ſix or eight hours; let them drink freely of pectoral drink, barley water, or the like ſmall liquors, to dilute the blood, and encourage a breathing ſweat; if you find them mend under this management, and the fever to diſappear in a day or two, before you quit them, give the purging apozem, which will ſecure their health and add to your reputation. When they are young and very full of blood, and the pulſe throbbing with great violence, it is a ſtrong indication to bleed, to ſatisfy you more particularly in this point refer to the article Bleeding.
It will be frequently neceſſary under the above ſymptoms, particularly if coſtive, to give the purging apozem before the powder, thereby you cleanſe the bowels and cool the body, but here your obſervation can alone direct you.
- Above 14 years — from 12 to 30 grains.
- Between 7 and 14 — from 8 to 20.
- Between 1 and 7 — from 4 to 12.
On the contrary, ſhould the diſorder not give way, unleſs you have ſome knowledge in phyſic, it will be moſt prudent, if you can have advice, to commit them to the care of ſome gentleman of the faculty, as you may conclude it is that kind of fever which will not yield to this ſimple method.
Should I attempt to deſcribe the various kinds of fevers, it would only puzzle the unſkilful, therefore the above directions are ſufficient for thoſe who ſtand in need of any aſſiſtance, to enable them frequently to render ſervice, and prevent their ever doing any injury.
THESE drops are very good againſt fits in general, for grown perſons as well as children; but they are particularly ſerviceable to the latter, more eſpecially in thoſe fits which attend the cutting their teeth.
THE reputation of this powder, ſo long eſtabliſhed, renders it almoſt unneceſſary to ſay any thing about its efficacy; its uſe among children is very common, to correct gripings, prevent acidities, and remove little feveriſh heats; it is frequently, and with great propriety, joined with a few grains of rhubarb.
TAKE half a pint of pectoral drink, two ſpoonfuls of virgin honey, and a like quantity of the beſt white wine vinegar; let the throat be gargled frequently with this, as hot as you can bear it. If the glands are much ſwelled, ſo as to render it difficult to ſwallow, and the patient is very hot and feveriſh, with a full quick pulſe, refer to the article Bleeding, and give the purging apozem to open the body three or four times, then let him take the fever powder, and dilute very plentifully with pectoral drink, or the like.[Page 10]
From ten years old its doſe is from half an ounce to one ounce, with an equal quantity of manna (ſome people add a double quantity of manna) diſſolved in a little water, water gruel, or ſena tea, but the beſt form is the purging apozem, which ſee.
POUR three pints of water on each paper of hartſhorn and gum, let it boil till you can ſtrain off a quart, which ſhould be poured through piece of a fine rag, or a lawn ſieve, juſt before you take it from the fire, you may add a cruſt of bread and a bit of cinnamon, if agreeable; it may be ſweetened to your palate. This is the proper drink to be uſed in common for purgings, after a little rhubarb or ſomething of that kind has been given.
THIS mixture may be taken from a tea-ſpoonful to a table-ſpoonful, which is the proper doſe for a grown perſon, in any hyſterical complaint; it ſhould be mixed with a little water, or with a cup of hyſteric and pennyroyal water, being too ſtrong to take alone.
WHERE it has not been preceded by the colic, nor is attended with a fever or bleedings, it is moſt likely to proceed from a ſluggiſh, viſcid bile; in which caſe the cure is eaſy, and may be effected in the following manner: the ſymptoms every one knows are a yellowneſs of the ſkin and upon the whites of the eyes, high-coloured urine and white ſtools, an inactivity, wearineſs, oppreſſion of the ſpirits, and loſs of appetite.[Page 12]
Firſt give a gentle vomit of ipecacuanha, the following morning let them be purged four or five times with the purging apozem, which ſhould be repeated every fourth or fifth day; on the intermediate days of purging give them the quantity of a nutmeg of this electary, night and morning, with a ſalt of wormwood draught after it; let them dilute plentifully with lemonade, and live upon light food. This method will quickly reſtore their colour, ſtrength and ſpirits.
IS a gentle vomit, and may, where there is occaſion, be ſafely given to children. I am afraid it is in general rather over-doſed, whereby the patient is ſometimes injured by ſtraining more violently than their ſtomach and conſtitution will bear. I am convinced from experience, that a few grains will operate on many people far better than large doſes. The beſt way of adminiſtering it to children, and indeed to every body, is to give three, four, five, or ſix grains, mixed in a little water or chamomile tea; and, if it does not take effect in ten minutes or a quarter of an hour, repeat the ſame quantity. This method will certainly prevent the bad conſequences ſometimes attending violent vomits, and make the operation more eaſy and pleaſant.
AN ointment made of one third part of flowers of ſulphur, and two thirds hog's-lard rubbed in night and morning where it appears, is a ſafe and certain cure, though perhaps not ſo expeditious [Page 13] as mercurial preparations, but they have no place here*
I HAVE directed the uſe of this with the bark; a few drops may alſo be joined with the aſtringent electary, if the purging is obſtinate, and does not readily give way: it is likewiſe proper in many other caſes; but I would not have the unexperienced be too free with it, therefore ſhall ſay no more.
It corrects acidities in the ſtomach more powerfully than chalk, oyſter-ſhells, pearls, coral, crabs eyes, or the like teſtaceous powders; and, joined to this, it has a gentle purgative property, and is the only one of an alkaline nature at preſent made uſe of; it is alſo ſerviceable in the heart-burn.
IS a gentle purge, which affects only the ſtomach and bowels; it is in much eſteem for children, and given from one or two drams [Page 14] to one ounce; grown people may take one ounce and a half or two ounces, without ſtirring them, for which reaſon it is quickened with Glauber's ſalts, which ſee.
TAKE a quarter of a pound of marſhmallow roots waſhed very clean, and boil them in three quarts of water until one is conſumed, remove it from the fire, and, when cold, decant off the liquor; if you do not think the thickneſs diſagreeable, it will be more efficacious by preſſing the roots; it may be ſweetened with virgin honey. This may be drank at pleaſure, and is recommended in all caſes where a ſoft lubricating regimen is proper; it is much eſteemed for the gravel and heat of urine.
NERVOUS complaints are too common in England to need a particular deſcription, in all kinds of them this tincture is very ſerviceable; it is likewiſe proper in lowneſs of ſpirits, faintings, and hyſterical caſes, giving ſtrength and chearfulneſs, and raiſing the depreſſed ſpirits. The doſe is from one to two tea-ſpoonfuls, two or three times a day, in a glaſs of wine and water, or valerian tea.
TAKE four large ſpoonfuls of oil of almonds, half a pint of cold barley water, two drams of fine ſugar, in powder, and ſixty drops of ſpirit of hartſhorn; ſhake them well together, and the whole immediately becomes a white emulſion; two ſpoonfuls of cinnamon water being added, will make it very palatable.
IN all caſes where a heavineſs hangs upon the ſpirits, with a drowſineſs, dizzineſs, or ſwimming of the head, theſe drops are equally ſerviceable as in the palſy; all theſe complaints proceeding from the ſame bad diſpoſition of the blood.
THIS liniment is good in all paralytic complaints, likewiſe where a ſtiffneſs and numbneſs remain after the rheumatiſm; it will remove thoſe acute rheumatic pains which ſeize the limbs on taking cold, and oftentimes proves a cure for the ſciatica or hip gout: its warm ſtimulating quality puts the part rubbed with it into a glow, frees the pores of the ſkin, and, by quickening the circulation, removes thoſe obſtructions which were the cauſe of pain.
It ſhould be applied, night and morning, with a warm hand, if before the fire the better, and the part afterwards covered with a piece of warm flannel; where the diſorder does not give way, let the palſy drops be taken alſo.
TAKE two table-ſpoonfuls of pearl barley, boil it two or three minutes in half a pint of water, pour away that water, and add a quart and half a pint of freſh water to the barley, let it boil ten minutes; then add twenty ſtoned raiſins, and one fig cut into ſlices, alſo a bit of ſtick liquorice as long as your finger; let theſe boil together a few minutes, and ſtrain off a quart of the pectoral drink.[Page 17]
TAKE the quantity of a nutmeg of this electary night and morning, ſo as to keep the body gently open; avoid pepper and all heating things, little or no wine ſhould be drank, and your food muſt be of the lighter and vegitable kind.
IF the piles are external, apply a little of this liniment upon a piece of fine rag very frequently, which will cool the part, and procure eaſe. Setting over the ſteam of warm water is frequently ſerviceable, eſpecially if an handful or two of marſhmallow leaves and a little bran be added.
Under ſeven years old decreaſe the quantity as your judgment directs; let it be taken at bed-time, with a large draught of white wine whey, or ſomething of that kind, and, if very hard to ſweat, twenty or thirty drops of ſpirits of hartſhorn or ſal volatile in it; but obſerve, if there is any fever, the fever powder is moſt proper.
POUR a pint of boiling water upon one ounce of Glauber's ſalts, one ounce of manna, and one dram of bruiſed caraway ſeeds; ſtir them a little to diſſolve the manna and ſalts, cover the veſſel, and let it ſtand to cool; you may, if you pleaſe, add a little ſlice of Seville orange peel to the above.
Of the ſtrained liquor a draught may be taken in the morning, and repeated once in half an hour or an hour, as the ſtomach will bear it, till it purges ſufficiently. The age of the perſon muſt be conſidered; and, as you know the ſtrength of the apozem, it will be eaſy to adjuſt the doſe.
IN many caſes, ſuch as dropſical and groſs habits of body, foulneſs of ſtomach (when a vomit is ſometimes previouſly to be taken) and for people of ſtrong conſtitutions, who live much upon a fleſh diet and ſalt proviſions, where you think manna and ſalts are not powerful enough; and even to younger perſons whom you want to purge very briſkly, this purging powder is recommended, and may be given in a little of any liquor.
THIS powder may be given night and morning, from one to two ſcruples, with twenty or thirty drops of ſal volatile, in white wine whey, ſage tea,* or any ſmall liquor.
ALL phyſicians agree in the excellency of this root; it is a good purge in many complaints, and ſtrengthens the ſtomach and bowels; it is particularly recommended for children, more eſpecially for the worms, as it purges off thoſe crudities in which they breed.
Is of late years brought into much eſteem in England; it is of a reſtorative and ſtrengthening quality*; many ladies, whom I have had the honour to recommend it to, of tender conſtitutions, where tea has been found to prey over-much upon a week ſtomach and where more nouriſhment has been neceſſary than they received from their ordinary food, eat it in a morning for breakfaſt; and I muſt confeſs it would much pleaſe me to ſee it more univerſally received, particularly by thoſe who are ſubject to nervous complaints, being in its own nature very ſtrengthening, eaſy of digeſtion, and, in the manner here recommended, affords a great deal of nouriſhment in an impoveriſhed ſtate of blood; therefore the propereſt food that can be received after a ſevere fit of ſickneſs, whereby the patint is much weakened.
Boil half a pint of milk with as much water, while it is in a boiling ſtate, let two tea-ſpoonfuls of the powder of ſalop, firſt mixed in a baſon with a ſpoonful or two of cold water, be thrown into it; after it has ſimmered a minute or two, ſtirring it the while, you will find the whole of a ſmooth creamy conſiſtence; a bit of ſugar, and a little nutmeg may be added to make it palatable. Thoſe whom milk is apt to render coſtive, ſhould mix the ſalop with the water alone as above directed, and add the milk to it after it is taken from the fire.[Page 21]
TAKE a ſcruple of ſalt of wormwood, pour upon it by little and little freſh lemon juice, till it has done fermenting and taſtes quite inſipid, about one large ſpoonful is ſufficient; then add a little fine ſugar to make it palatable, about a wine-glaſs of ſpring or barley water, and a pap-ſpoonful of cinnamon water, makes a moſt pleaſant draught.
Above the age of fourteen, it may be given once in ſix or eight hours, in any little feveriſh complaints, ſickneſs at ſtomach, watchings, parched dryneſs of the mouth, and ſuch-like ills, and is often preferable to the fever powder. From ſeven to fourteen years, half a draught is ſufficient; under that age ſtill decreaſe the quantity.
THIS preparation is in an eſpecial manner devoted to the relief of ſcorbutic diſorders. It is of a ſcouring nature, breaks and divides all obſtructions of the glands proceeding from a more than ordinary thickneſs of the blood, and, by reſtoring the maſs to a due ſtate of fluidity, prevents thoſe feveriſh diſpoſitions which naturally ariſe from any hindrance in the neceſſary ſecretions, ſuch as urine, ſtool, &c. It is a great promoter of urine, and a great quickener of the motions of the fluids; it may be likewiſe ſerviceable in an [Page 22] unwieldy habit from ſluggiſh humours, and help to throw off a dropſy. From fifteen drops to two tea-ſpoonfuls may betaken to or three times a day, in a draught of ſage tea or any other liquor, and continued for ſome time.
THE uſual method of preparing this, is, by putting as much of the ſena leaves as your thumb and two fingers will contain into a teapot, and pouring upon it a gill of boiling water; when cold, pour out the liquor, which will be ſtrong enough to give a grown perſon a ſtool or two.
THIS ſnuff may be ſafely uſed in all complaints of the head. It is prepared from herbs which have a particular efficacy in thoſe caſes, as is manifeſt from the infinite ſervice received from it, in old and ſettled pains of the head.
Take of ſperma ceti one ſcruple, of fever powder ten grains, make theſe into a bolus with a ſufficient quantity of ſyrup, to be taken once in ſix or eight hours, with a little penny-royal and hyſteric water, in lying in caſes and miſcarriages, in either of which where the pains are violent you may add three, four, or five drops of Laudanum to each bolus; remember alſo to prevent coſtiveneſs either by gentle clyſters, a little ſena tea, or ſome other mild purgative.
TAKE two drams of the powder of ſperma ceti, rub it in a marble mortar, with a quarter part of the yolk of one egg, till it is a ſmooth pulp; then add two drams of fine ſugar in powder, mix them well together, and by little and little pour on half a pint of cold barley water; ſtrain it through a fine hair or coarſe lawn ſieve, which will keep back the undiſſolved part of the ſperma ceti, and render the emulſion ſmooth and even; to the whole you may add two ſpoonfuls of cinnamon water.
A wine-glaſs may be taken as often as agreeable, in coughs, hoarſeneſs, when troubled with flegm, or any of the like complaints; alſo in the hooping cough, when, if they are feveriſh, you ſhould join a little fever powder with it, and purge them with rhubarb or the quick purging powder once in four or five days; you may likewiſe give the ſtomach tincture between breakfaſt and dinner and between dinner and ſupper: gentle vomits are oftentimes alſo ſerviceable.
THIS may be taken at pleaſure, when troubled with a cough or hoarſeneſs, difficulty of breathing, or with phlegm; it is often of ſome ſervice, and ſo innocent, it can do no harm even to young children.
IS uſed in lowneſs of ſpirits as a cordial; it is alſo given in faintings and pains in the head; and may be taken frequently, from ten to ſixty drops, on a lump of ſugar, in wine and water, or any other liquor.
IN female obſtructions this electary may be given, from half a dram to one dram, night and morning, in the form of a bolus, or made into pills, as is moſt agreeable, drinking a cup of cold chamomile flower tea, or a little penny-royal and hyſteric water; if you have reaſon to think phyſic is proper, give a doſe of hiera picra; at bed-time, let the feet be bathed in warm water for ten minutes, then wipe them very dry, and, if the weather is cold, wrap them up in a piece of flannel.
THIS tincture is highly proper in a weakneſs of the ſtomach, loſs of appetite, or bad digeſtion; as a bitter, it frequently contributes to the deſtroying of worms; and not only excites the ſenſe of hunger, but, by its warm aromatic property, at the ſame time that it gives a grateful ſenſation, ſtrengthens the coats of the ſtomach, which by any cauſe may have been weakened, and renders it more able to break and digeſt the food taken in for the nouriſhment of the body.
The doſe for a grown perſon is from one to two tea-ſpoonfuls, an hour before dinner, and three hours after dinner, in a glaſs of water; thoſe who are accuſtomed to drink wine, may add an equal quantity to the water.[Page 25]
DISSOLVE a pound of ſugar in half a pint of water, over a gentle fire, in an earthen pipkin; let it ſimmer one minute or two, take off the ſcum, and preſerve the ſyrup, which is proper to ſoften the electaries when they grow dry, to make up pills or boluſſes, and to give children their powders in.
THIS is ſerviceable in many complaints, in weak and relaxed habits of body, fluſhings and hectic heats; it checks profuſe ſweats, and braces up the ſolids; it is highly proper in all kinds of bleedings, but more efficacious when joined with a fourth part of elixir of vitriol.
IS of late years come into great eſteem in all nervous diſorders; of the bruiſed root they make a tea in the ſame manner as ſena tea, and drink it three or four times a day, which is a proper thing to take the nervous tincture in, being of itſelf I am afraid not effectual, as the quantity of the root given in this manner, or in the tincture prepared from it, is too trifling to have any great dependence upon.
IF you intend to reap benefit from it, you muſt take it in pretty large quantities. It is uſually given from half a dram to one dram, in a little liquor of any kind, and ſhould be repeated once in ſix or eight hours.
THIS powder ſhould be taken the very firſt thing early in the morning, and the laſt at bed-time, at leaſt one hour after ſupper, mixed in a little honey, currant jelly, or ſomewhat of the like [Page 27] nature, and where it is not a ſpoiled child, let a cupful of cold camomile tea, or water with a tea-ſpoonful of the ſtomach tincture, be drank after it. This will keep them open; nevertheleſs, in moſt caſes you ſhould purge once in four or five days; for very young children rhubarb is proper; ſhould that not prove ſtrong enough, the quick purging powder may be given; but where they are older and will take it, cleanſe their bowels with the purging apozem.
IRATHER chuſe to mention the complaints in which bleeding is adviſeable under this general head, than with the medicines for the reſpective diſorders, becauſe it may naturally be ſuppoſed they cannot always procure the aſſiſtance; for which reaſon, directing to bleed before the uſe of the medicines, in caſes where it might prove ſerviceable, may be a means of preventing their adminiſtering thoſe remedies, which, taken in time, will frequently alone remove the complaints. Beſides, I would not wiſh the unſkilful to be too free with the lancet, as an injudicious evacuation of blood may be ſucceeded with very bad conſequences; and my intention through the whole, as I obſerved in the preface, being no other than to ſupply families with a few uſeful remedies for ſlight indiſpoſitions, by which they may frequently prevent tedious illneſſes, but not to put the unexperienced upon trifling with themſelves when they are really ill, and can have proper advice.
Blood ſhould be taken away in the beginning of fevers, when there is a ſtrong, quick pulſe, the eyes red and fiery, with great heat and thirſt; but never when they are in the decline, as, from being inflammatory, they are often at this period degenerated into the nevous kind, when the chief of the affair is to be managed by the frequent application of bliſters.[Page 29]
For the piles it is ſometimes ſerviceable; as likewiſe in female obſtructions, and frequently in rheumatic complaints; in apoplectic diſorders, a dyſentery or bloody flux, and irkſome heat of the bowels; for the hooping cough, particularly if of a full habit of body, and the phlegm which is brought up appears ſtreaked with blood; in all of which caſes, the quantity taken away muſt be proportioned to the age of the patient, and the violence of the complaint.
Bleeding again ought to be directed in large abſceſſes or ſwellings, where the heat and pain is immoderate; for in theſe caſes, by drawing blood, the matter is more eaſily and ſpeedily brought to ripen, and by that means the body more effectually freed from its diſtempers.
In a word, wherever prevail ſore eyes, ſciatica or hip gout, a dry huſky cough, an head-ach, pains of the womb or of the bladder, dry gripes, ſtrangury, gravel, pain from the ſtone, violent bleedings of the noſe, ears, or other parts, an inveterate ſcorbutical itch, and the like, opening a vein is of peculiar ſervice; but in dropſies, a jaundice, the gout, and all illneſſes occaſioned by a relaxed ſtate of body, an impoveriſhed blood, or too great weakneſs of the veſſels, you muſt ſeek relief from the medicines recommended in this little manual, and not, by an abrupt and prepoſterous uſe of bleeding, increaſe the diſorder, and ruin the health of the patient and your own reputation.
The moſt excellent remedy may be proſtituted by an inconſiderate, raſh, and fooliſh practice; which, it is plain, oftentimes happens with regard to bliſters, by ordering them indiſcriminately in all ſevers, and without diſtinction in any time of the diſtemper, which can only be the effect of ignorance.
Therefore, before we reſolve on an expedient of this nature, it would be convenient to conſider whether the fever be of the inflammatory or nervous kind; if of the former, inſtead of bliſtering the lancet ought to be uſed, and a mild cooling regimen ſet on ſoot, as already directed; this will moderate the heat of the blood, and by degrees reſtore it to its due temper. On the other hand, in fevers of the nervous claſs, where the ſymptoms are quite different, the pulſe being low and weak, the ſpirits almoſt ſpent, and the eyes, inſtead of appearing ſparkling, red and fiery, grown quite dim, we ought by all means to make uſe of bliſters, and that freely.
They are oftentimes proper in paralytic and nervous complaints, as likewiſe in rheumatic pains and pleuriſies, in which caſes a bliſter applied immediately upon the part affected frequently affords great relief; and, and in a variety of other caſes they are of infinite [Page 31] ſervice; but then regard muſt be paid to the ſtate of the patient's blood, for if a full, quick pulſe, great heat, thirſt, and the other ſymptoms of an inflammatory fever attend upon the diſorders, the fever muſt firſt be conquered, and afterwards, if neceſſity requires it, let bliſters be applied. Should they cauſe a ſtrangury, which will ſometimes be the caſe, give the patient plentifully of marſhmallow drink, or barley water with a little gum arabic diſſolved in it; or if there is a purging, which you would wiſh to be ſtopped, of the hartſhorn drink, and this inconvenience will ſoon be remedied.
In regard to the management of them, the plaſter ſhould be ſpread upon a piece of an old glove, and bound on to the part intended; after twenty-four hours, the ſtrength of the flies being pretty well ſpent, you may remove the bliſter, and, if you cannot procure the proper dreſſings, a little Turner's cerate ſpread upon a piece of fine rag may ſupply its place.
Should any bliſters appear unbroke, ſnip them with a pair of ſciſſars; if they give violent pain, this may be done when the plaſter has been applied only twelve hours; when, by diſcharging the water, and laying it ſmooth on again, you eaſe the patient, and give the bliſter an opportunity of acting more.