The family physician: being a collection of useful family remedies. Together with plain and full directions for administering them, and properly nursing the sick, where the advice of a physician is difficult to be procured. ... By Hugh Smith, ...



TOGETHER WITH PLAIN and FULL DIRECTIONS for Adminiſtering them, and properly Nurſing the Sick, where the Advice of a PHYSICIAN is difficult to be procured.

To which is added, A SHORT ACCOUNT of thoſe CASES in which BLEEDING and BLISTERS are really ſerviceable.

BY HUGH SMITH, Apothecary, At the CHYMICAL WAREHOUSE, the upper End of Cheapſide, leading into Newgate-Street, LONDON: WHERE The MEDICINES herein recommended, are faithfully prepared in Boxes, convenient for FAMILIES to take into the Country, and for thoſe who uſe the SEA to take on Shipboard.


LONDON: Printed in the Year MDCCLXI.

[Price One Shilling.]




THE intention of the following ſheets is to direct a right uſe of thoſe medicines which are neceſſary to be kept in families, whoſe diſtance from a good practitioner, or any other circumſtance, renders an immediate application in ſudden illneſſes almoſt impoſſible, and occaſions thoſe delays in trifling complaints, which oftentimes prove of very bad conſequence. It has been found by experience, for want of proper hints and directions in reſpect to the doſes of medicines, ſeveral fatal errors have been committed, either from the ignorance of perſons themſelves, or from being obliged to have recourſe, for want of better, to the advice of nurſes, and ſuch good women, whoſe greateſt ſkill extends to the making a poſſet for a ſweat, or a plaſter for a ſore ſhin.

THOSE captains of ſhips whoſe veſſels are too ſmall to allow of carrying a ſurgeon, and gentlemen whoſe buſineſs may call them to take a long voyage in ſuch ſmall veſſels, or to travel by land through unfrequented or poor places, or thoſe who are going to ſettle in any of his Majeſty's plantations, will find a great advantage from being thus enabled to become their own phyſicians in caſes of neceſſity; and we often ſee that Nature, with a little aſſiſtance, will free the conſtitution from diſorders which are not too deeply rooted, or very malignant in the firſt attack. I would by no means be underſtood to pretend that the medicines I here recommend, are infallible in the reſpective diſorders they are preſcribed for, being for the moſt part ſuch only as are to be found in the diſpenſatory of the college of phyſicians; where I have been under a neceſſity of compounding, I have attended to the practice of the principal phyſicians in town, and aſſume no further merit to myſelf than to care of ſelecting ſuch medicines whoſe operations are the leaſt dangerous. Thus far however I will venture to aſſert, that, by following theſe directions, which are plain and eaſy, and wrote in a ſtile fitted to the meaneſt capacity, perſpicuity being always preferable to elegance in this kind of writing, the patient may, by [Page iv] applying what is neceſſary in time, prevent thoſe ills that follow from neglect, which good nurſing and a few innocent things might at firſt remove.

THOSE who have a knowledge in phyſic, and do not ſtand in need of my aſſiſtance, will in the boxes find many uſeful medicines to be kept at hand, and may extend their practice, by giving me a catalogue of ſuch others as they would chuſe to have added.

LADIES and gentlemen, who reſide in the country, will hereby be enabled to aſſiſt their poor neighbours; which many of them I doubt not would take a pleaſure in doing, did they but know what to apply.

WITH each box of medicines may be had a box of ſcales and weights; each weight marked diſtinctly, that any perſon may at once adjuſt the proper quantity for a doſe.

As many people may chuſe to keep by them what is proper for their own particular complaints, whom it may not ſuit to have the box complete, I think it neceſſary to mention, that any of the medicines here recommended may be had ſeparate, or as many of them as agreeable, packed up in leſſer boxes for the conveniency of carriage.

N. B. LADIES cloſets are alſo fitted up with the choiceſt drugs, medicines and cordials, by

Their obedient, very humble ſervant, HUGH SMITH.


  • A pound containing Twelve ounces.
  • An ounce containing Eight drams.
  • A dram containing Three ſcruples.
  • A ſcruple containing Twenty grains.




THIS tincture is of uſe in a difficulty of breathing, tightneſs acroſs the breaſt, and ſhort coughs, particularly if brought on by cold north-eaſterly winds, which frequently affect the breaſt, ſides, and lungs: it allays the cough, opens the cheſt, and looſens the phlegm, ſo that it eaſily comes away; and frees the pores of the ſkin which have been ſhut up by the winds.

It may be taken as often as occaſion requires, from thirty to ſixty or eighty drops, in a little* pectoral drink or barley water, with which you ſhould dilute plentifully, drinking it of the ſame heat as you would a diſh of tea.


NEVER be too haſty in the uſe of this electary; it is often found that a purging is the means made uſe of by Nature to carry off other complaints, or to free the body from bad humours, which might in time beget diſorders; now, by ſtopping this wholeſome [Page 2] drain too ſoon, theſe bad humours may be thrown back into the blood, and produce the worſt conſequences: therefore you will ſeldom or never err, by ſuffering the purging, if not over violent, to continue two or three days, at the end of that time, ſhould you find the patient weakened by it, or that it is really a diſorder itſelf, and not a cure for other diſorders, then you may give a doſe or two of rhubarb, and afterwards proceed to the uſe of the electary: by theſe means you will cleanſe the ſtomach and bowels, and get rid of the complaint without any farther trouble.

Fluxes, which ſeafaring people are ſubject to, are to be treated much in the ſame manner, but be very careful to cleanſe the bowels firſt.

Some of my friends who have been many years accuſtomed to the ſea, recommend the* purging apozem before the uſe of aſtringents: they ſay it cools the body, and carries off every thing which is diſagreeable to the bowels, better than rhubarb, or any other purge. After having cleanſed the ſtomach and bowels of the filth which occaſioned the diſorder, by the one or other of theſe means, you will find ipecacuanha given with the aſtringent electary in very ſmall quantities, viz. from half a grain to one or two grains, of infinite ſervice; but this ſhould be practiſed only by thoſe who have ſome little knowledge in phyſic, and they will have the ſatisfaction to find the method here recommended will ſeldom, if ever, fail of ſucceſs.

1.2.1. ITS DOSE.

  • Above 14 years — from 2 ſcruples to 1 dram.
  • Between 7 and 14 — from 1 ſcruple to 2 ſcruples.
  • Between 3 and 7 — from 10 grains to 20 grains.

Under three years old decreaſe the quantity in proportion.

This may be given once in ſix or eight hours, or night and morning, as the caſe requires; either ſwallowed whole, or diſſolved in a little hartſhorn drink.

[Page 3]

Remember beer ſhould be forbid; and* hartſhorn drink ſupply the place of other ſmall liquors. Rice gruel is a proper food.

Should this or any other of the electaries grow dry, they may be ſoftened with a little ſyrup, or a ſpoonful of white wine.


Is good in all tickling coughs, ſoreneſs at the breaſt, inward bruiſes, and ſuch like complaints.

The quantity of a nutmeg may be taken night and morning, and once or twice in the day beſides, with a large draught of pectoral drink made hot after it.

If coſtive, take a little of the opening electary, or a few ſpoonfuls of the purging apozem, as you judge moſt proper,

1.4. BARK.

THE febrifuge quality of this bark, and its peculiar efficacy in curing intermittent fevers, is now univerſally known, yet a two haſty uſe of it oftentimes proves prejudicial, a remittent or continual fever being the conſequence. You will ſeldom or never err, by giving a vomit firſt, and if the ſick be of a full habit of body, you may alſo purge with ſafety; you will act more prudently by waiting till they have had four or five ague fits before you throw in the bark, giving a ſalt of wormwood draught once in ſix or eight hours, which will make the fits more regular, and prepare the blood for the bark. You ſhould begin when the fever is gone intirely off, and give at leaſt one ounce before you expect it to [Page 4] return*; half a dram, two ſcruples, or a dram may be given for a doſe, as the ſtomach will bear it, the leſs you adminiſter at a time the more frequent it muſt be repeated; for, unleſs you get the whole quantity down within the time you do nothing.

The fit being put by, a ſecond ounce ſhould be taken in the like ſmall doſes within the three following days, at the diſtance of about ſix or eight hours; the patient may now reſt ſix days, unleſs ſigns of the ague's return require the bark to be repeated ſooner, when a third ounce is to be taken in like manner, a doſe every ſix or eight hours; another week being elapſed, a fourth ounce is alſo to be adminiſtered, when you may take your leave of them, and be pretty well aſſured they will not be ſubject to a return.

The common mixture to give it in may be made of three quarters of a pint of ſpring water, and a quarter of a pint of good French brandy, ſweetened with a bit of ſugar, a teacupful of which ſhould be taken with each doſe; mix the powder in a little of it, and drink the remainder after it.

If it purges, which is oftentimes the caſe, it ſhould be given in a little cinnamon tea; ſhould that not anſwer, two, three, or four drops of laudanum muſt be added to each doſe.

If, on the contrary, the bark ſhould bind, a few grains of rhubarb may be given with each doſe as long as you ſee neceſſary.

Above the age of fourteen it will require this quantity to cure the ague, under theſe years your judgment muſt direct you to decreaſe it; the manner of giving it muſt be exactly the ſame: [Page 5] ſometimes, when the ſeaſon is unfavourable, you may meet with caſes which do not intirely give way to this treatment, if ſo, let them continue the following a fortnight or three weeks afterwards.


TAKE of bark, groſsly powdered, two ounces, the yellow peel of two Seville oranges, and one nutmeg grated; pour three pints of old rough red port upon theſe ingredients; let them ſtand by a gentle fire, in a large bottle, for three or four days, ſhaking it frequently; then pour off a wine-glaſsful of the clear liquor at the time you take it, which ſhould be morning, noon, and night; when you have taken one half, another pint of wine may be added, and kept upon the ingredients till the whole is taken, at leaſt for ten days or a fortnight. A few drops of elixir of vitriol two or three times a day with the wine, or mixed in a glaſs of water, may be alſo ſerviceable.


TAKE two table-ſpoonfuls of pearl barley, waſh it, and boil it in half a pint of water for two or three minutes; pour away this water which will be coloured, and add about three pints of boiling water; let it ſimmer till one pint is conſumed. This is a common and good drink in fevers and every other complaint when a ſoft diluting liquor is adviſeable.


THIS mixture is warm and comfortable to the ſtomach and bowels, ſomewhat opening, proper in colic complaints, and for the wind, particularly if after meals; it is likewiſe ſerviceable for pains in the ſtomach.

Two or three table-ſpoonfuls may be taken at a time.

[Page 6]

But if the pain is very violent, and ſtools are much wanting, give of the purging apozem freely, or the opening electary.

If there are too many ſtools, firſt give a little rhubarb, then uſe the aſtringent electary, which ſee.


THE uſe of this plaſter is well known in ſlight cuts, or other little accidents; it ſhould be ſpread with a warm knife upon a piece of fine rag or an old glove.


THIS mixture is good in all gravelly complaints, and for the dropſy, heat of urine, pains in the loins, and ſtoppage of water. One large ſpoonful, or two upon an emergency, may be given for a doſe, every ſix or eight hours, or night and morning as the caſe requires, mixed in half a pint of marſhmallow drink, if you can procure it, if not, barley water. But obſerve, if the pain is violent, you will do right firſt to give the purging apozem to promote ſtools, and let them drink plentifully of thin water gruel, which will cleanſe the bowels and urinary paſſages, and greatly aſſiſt the intention of this mixture. Remember the body ſhould always be kept open; and thoſe who are ſubject to theſe complaints, ſhould accuſtom themſelves to drink very plentifully of ſmall liquors at all times*, which will often of themſelves perform a perfect cure.


THIS is eſteemed good to ſtrengthen the ſtomach and bowels, to create an appetite and brace up the ſolids.

1.10.1. ITS DOSE.

[Page 7]
  • Above 14 years — from 20 to 30 drops.
  • Between 7 and 14 — from 10 to 20.
  • Under that age — from 5 to 7 or 8.

It may be given in a little water, or wine and water; but where the patient can be brought to take it, a cup of chamomile tea is preferable to any other liquid whatever.

The proper times for taking it are in a morning faſting, an hour before dinner, and two hours after dinner.

When joined with the tincture of bark, it will be found to add conſiderably to the efficacy of that noble medicine.


WHEN the ſkin is hot and parched, the tongue white, and other common ſigns of a fever, which every one is acquainted with, ſuch as thirſt, wearineſs, &c. put them to bed, and give a doſe of the fever powder every ſix or eight hours; let them drink freely of pectoral drink, barley water, or the like ſmall liquors, to dilute the blood, and encourage a breathing ſweat; if you find them mend under this management, and the fever to diſappear in a day or two, before you quit them, give the purging apozem, which will ſecure their health and add to your reputation. When they are young and very full of blood, and the pulſe throbbing with great violence, it is a ſtrong indication to bleed, to ſatisfy you more particularly in this point refer to the article Bleeding.

It will be frequently neceſſary under the above ſymptoms, particularly if coſtive, to give the purging apozem before the powder, thereby you cleanſe the bowels and cool the body, but here your obſervation can alone direct you.

1.11.1. ITS DOSE.

[Page 8]
  • Above 14 years — from 12 to 30 grains.
  • Between 7 and 14 — from 8 to 20.
  • Between 1 and 7 — from 4 to 12.

Within the months as your judgment directs.

On the contrary, ſhould the diſorder not give way, unleſs you have ſome knowledge in phyſic, it will be moſt prudent, if you can have advice, to commit them to the care of ſome gentleman of the faculty, as you may conclude it is that kind of fever which will not yield to this ſimple method.

Should I attempt to deſcribe the various kinds of fevers, it would only puzzle the unſkilful, therefore the above directions are ſufficient for thoſe who ſtand in need of any aſſiſtance, to enable them frequently to render ſervice, and prevent their ever doing any injury.


THESE drops are very good againſt fits in general, for grown perſons as well as children; but they are particularly ſerviceable to the latter, more eſpecially in thoſe fits which attend the cutting their teeth.

From three to ten drops may be given for a doſe to children under twelve months old, above that age increaſe the number as you think fit; grown people may take a large tea-ſpoonful for a doſe.

They may be given in black cherry water, or any other liquor, and repeated as often as neceſſity requires.


[Page 9]

IS applied to freſh wounds, and is eſteemed good to ſtop bleeding; be careful not to uſe it to old ſores, as it frequently proves prejudicial.

It is given internally, from ten to ſixty drops, in a little powdered ſugar or a glaſs of water, in inward decays, bleedings or bruiſes, alſo in coughs and hoarſeneſs.


THE reputation of this powder, ſo long eſtabliſhed, renders it almoſt unneceſſary to ſay any thing about its efficacy; its uſe among children is very common, to correct gripings, prevent acidities, and remove little feveriſh heats; it is frequently, and with great propriety, joined with a few grains of rhubarb.

A child within the month may take from 1 to 4 grains.

  • Between 1 and 12 months — from 4 to 8.
  • Between 1 and 5 years — from 8 to 12.

Thoſe who are more advanced in life from 10 to 30.

It may be taken every ſix or eight hours, us you ſee neceſſary.


TAKE half a pint of pectoral drink, two ſpoonfuls of virgin honey, and a like quantity of the beſt white wine vinegar; let the throat be gargled frequently with this, as hot as you can bear it. If the glands are much ſwelled, ſo as to render it difficult to ſwallow, and the patient is very hot and feveriſh, with a full quick pulſe, refer to the article Bleeding, and give the purging apozem to open the body three or four times, then let him take the fever powder, and dilute very plentifully with pectoral drink, or the like.

[Page 10]

If, on the contrary, there is a ſmall fluttering pulſe (ſometimes rather quick) with ſpecks in the throat, and it looks diſcoloured, give wine and cordial things.


THIS ſalt is ſeldom taken alone, except by common people who cannot afford to join manna with it, which not only makes it more palatable, but prevents the roughneſs of its operation.

From ten years old its doſe is from half an ounce to one ounce, with an equal quantity of manna (ſome people add a double quantity of manna) diſſolved in a little water, water gruel, or ſena tea, but the beſt form is the purging apozem, which ſee.


ARE given in faintings, and eſteemed good to thin the blood, its known uſe renders a more minute detail unneceſſary.

The doſe is from ten to ſixty drops, in any liquid you pleaſe.


POUR three pints of water on each paper of hartſhorn and gum, let it boil till you can ſtrain off a quart, which ſhould be poured through piece of a fine rag, or a lawn ſieve, juſt before you take it from the fire, you may add a cruſt of bread and a bit of cinnamon, if agreeable; it may be ſweetened to your palate. This is the proper drink to be uſed in common for purgings, after a little rhubarb or ſomething of that kind has been given.


[Page 11]

ONE of them may be kept in the mouth as often as agreeable; if coſtive a few grains of rhubarb ſhould be taken, or a little magneſia alba.


IS a warm phyſic, good for diſorders in the ſtomach, and particularly in female complaints.

Its doſe from one table ſpoonful to four, at bed time or in a morning.


THIS mixture may be taken from a tea-ſpoonful to a table-ſpoonful, which is the proper doſe for a grown perſon, in any hyſterical complaint; it ſhould be mixed with a little water, or with a cup of hyſteric and pennyroyal water, being too ſtrong to take alone.


WHERE it has not been preceded by the colic, nor is attended with a fever or bleedings, it is moſt likely to proceed from a ſluggiſh, viſcid bile; in which caſe the cure is eaſy, and may be effected in the following manner: the ſymptoms every one knows are a yellowneſs of the ſkin and upon the whites of the eyes, high-coloured urine and white ſtools, an inactivity, wearineſs, oppreſſion of the ſpirits, and loſs of appetite.

[Page 12]

Firſt give a gentle vomit of ipecacuanha, the following morning let them be purged four or five times with the purging apozem, which ſhould be repeated every fourth or fifth day; on the intermediate days of purging give them the quantity of a nutmeg of this electary, night and morning, with a ſalt of wormwood draught after it; let them dilute plentifully with lemonade, and live upon light food. This method will quickly reſtore their colour, ſtrength and ſpirits.


IS a gentle vomit, and may, where there is occaſion, be ſafely given to children. I am afraid it is in general rather over-doſed, whereby the patient is ſometimes injured by ſtraining more violently than their ſtomach and conſtitution will bear. I am convinced from experience, that a few grains will operate on many people far better than large doſes. The beſt way of adminiſtering it to children, and indeed to every body, is to give three, four, five, or ſix grains, mixed in a little water or chamomile tea; and, if it does not take effect in ten minutes or a quarter of an hour, repeat the ſame quantity. This method will certainly prevent the bad conſequences ſometimes attending violent vomits, and make the operation more eaſy and pleaſant.

Let them drink thin water gruel, chamomile tea, or the like, to work it off.


AN ointment made of one third part of flowers of ſulphur, and two thirds hog's-lard rubbed in night and morning where it appears, is a ſafe and certain cure, though perhaps not ſo expeditious [Page 13] as mercurial preparations, but they have no place here*


I HAVE directed the uſe of this with the bark; a few drops may alſo be joined with the aſtringent electary, if the purging is obſtinate, and does not readily give way: it is likewiſe proper in many other caſes; but I would not have the unexperienced be too free with it, therefore ſhall ſay no more.


IS a medicine ſtrongly recommended by many writers, particularly for young children.

It corrects acidities in the ſtomach more powerfully than chalk, oyſter-ſhells, pearls, coral, crabs eyes, or the like teſtaceous powders; and, joined to this, it has a gentle purgative property, and is the only one of an alkaline nature at preſent made uſe of; it is alſo ſerviceable in the heart-burn.

It may be given to children from twenty grains to a dram, or even two drams in a day, a little at a time, mixed in their food; grown people may take it more freely.

1.27. MANNA

IS a gentle purge, which affects only the ſtomach and bowels; it is in much eſteem for children, and given from one or two drams [Page 14] to one ounce; grown people may take one ounce and a half or two ounces, without ſtirring them, for which reaſon it is quickened with Glauber's ſalts, which ſee.


TAKE a quarter of a pound of marſhmallow roots waſhed very clean, and boil them in three quarts of water until one is conſumed, remove it from the fire, and, when cold, decant off the liquor; if you do not think the thickneſs diſagreeable, it will be more efficacious by preſſing the roots; it may be ſweetened with virgin honey. This may be drank at pleaſure, and is recommended in all caſes where a ſoft lubricating regimen is proper; it is much eſteemed for the gravel and heat of urine.


NERVOUS complaints are too common in England to need a particular deſcription, in all kinds of them this tincture is very ſerviceable; it is likewiſe proper in lowneſs of ſpirits, faintings, and hyſterical caſes, giving ſtrength and chearfulneſs, and raiſing the depreſſed ſpirits. The doſe is from one to two tea-ſpoonfuls, two or three times a day, in a glaſs of wine and water, or valerian tea.


THIS is an excellent outward remedy for all parts in a ſtate of inflammation, eſpecially when attended with great pain; in which caſe it is alſo proper to refer to Bleeding, and the purging apozem.

The method of applying it is by rubbing it in with a warm hand.


[Page 15]

TAKE four large ſpoonfuls of oil of almonds, half a pint of cold barley water, two drams of fine ſugar, in powder, and ſixty drops of ſpirit of hartſhorn; ſhake them well together, and the whole immediately becomes a white emulſion; two ſpoonfuls of cinnamon water being added, will make it very palatable.

It is good in ſtitches and pleuritic pains in the ſide and breaſt, hoarſeneſs, coughs, &c.

A tea-cupful may be taken frequently.


THIS electary gently relaxes the belly, without cauſing ſickneſs or gripings, which quick purges are apt to do.

When intended only to open the body, for a grown perſon, the doſe is the quantity of a nutmeg at bed-time; if deſigned to purge more briſk, repeat the doſe in the morning.

It may be given to children in a proportionably leſs degree and proves a good phyſic, particularly where they are troubled with phlegm.

If more agreeable in a liquid form, you may diſſolve it in a ſmall quantity of any weak drink.


IS very ſerviceable in bruiſes or ſtrains; it ſhould be rubbed in with the warm hand three or four times a day.


[Page 16]

IN all caſes where a heavineſs hangs upon the ſpirits, with a drowſineſs, dizzineſs, or ſwimming of the head, theſe drops are equally ſerviceable as in the palſy; all theſe complaints proceeding from the ſame bad diſpoſition of the blood.

The doſe is from one to two tea ſpoonfuls, two or three times a day, in a glaſs of wine and water, or valerian tea.


THIS liniment is good in all paralytic complaints, likewiſe where a ſtiffneſs and numbneſs remain after the rheumatiſm; it will remove thoſe acute rheumatic pains which ſeize the limbs on taking cold, and oftentimes proves a cure for the ſciatica or hip gout: its warm ſtimulating quality puts the part rubbed with it into a glow, frees the pores of the ſkin, and, by quickening the circulation, removes thoſe obſtructions which were the cauſe of pain.

It ſhould be applied, night and morning, with a warm hand, if before the fire the better, and the part afterwards covered with a piece of warm flannel; where the diſorder does not give way, let the palſy drops be taken alſo.


TAKE two table-ſpoonfuls of pearl barley, boil it two or three minutes in half a pint of water, pour away that water, and add a quart and half a pint of freſh water to the barley, let it boil ten minutes; then add twenty ſtoned raiſins, and one fig cut into ſlices, alſo a bit of ſtick liquorice as long as your finger; let theſe boil together a few minutes, and ſtrain off a quart of the pectoral drink.

[Page 17]

This is an agreeable ſoft liquor, good in any caſe where the intention is to dilute; but more eſpecially in coughs, colds, oppreſſions of the breaſt, and ſuch like complaints.


TAKE the quantity of a nutmeg of this electary night and morning, ſo as to keep the body gently open; avoid pepper and all heating things, little or no wine ſhould be drank, and your food muſt be of the lighter and vegitable kind.


IF the piles are external, apply a little of this liniment upon a piece of fine rag very frequently, which will cool the part, and procure eaſe. Setting over the ſteam of warm water is frequently ſerviceable, eſpecially if an handful or two of marſhmallow leaves and a little bran be added.


INEED not point out the particular circumſtances in which this is neceſſary, every one being ſenſible how much it is of ſervice in colds, achs, and pains in the bones, and the like complaints.

1.39.1. ITS DOSE.

Above the age of 14 — from 20 to 30 grains.
Between 7 and 14 years — from 10 to 20

Under ſeven years old decreaſe the quantity as your judgment directs; let it be taken at bed-time, with a large draught of white wine whey, or ſomething of that kind, and, if very hard to ſweat, twenty or thirty drops of ſpirits of hartſhorn or ſal volatile in it; but obſerve, if there is any fever, the fever powder is moſt proper.


[Page 18]

POUR a pint of boiling water upon one ounce of Glauber's ſalts, one ounce of manna, and one dram of bruiſed caraway ſeeds; ſtir them a little to diſſolve the manna and ſalts, cover the veſſel, and let it ſtand to cool; you may, if you pleaſe, add a little ſlice of Seville orange peel to the above.

This is the beſt method I know of diſguiſing the ſalts, and making them ſit eaſy upon the ſtomach.

Of the ſtrained liquor a draught may be taken in the morning, and repeated once in half an hour or an hour, as the ſtomach will bear it, till it purges ſufficiently. The age of the perſon muſt be conſidered; and, as you know the ſtrength of the apozem, it will be eaſy to adjuſt the doſe.

If intended only to relax the body, a few ſpoonfuls taken at bedtime, or in the morning, will have the deſired effect.

A leſs quantity may at any time be prepared as you find occaſion for it.


IN many caſes, ſuch as dropſical and groſs habits of body, foulneſs of ſtomach (when a vomit is ſometimes previouſly to be taken) and for people of ſtrong conſtitutions, who live much upon a fleſh diet and ſalt proviſions, where you think manna and ſalts are not powerful enough; and even to younger perſons whom you want to purge very briſkly, this purging powder is recommended, and may be given in a little of any liquor.

1.41.1. ITS DOSE.

Above the age of 14 — from 25 grains to 2 ſcruples.
Between 7 and 14 — from 15 grains to half a dram.
Between 3 and 7 — from 6 grains to 1 ſcruple.


[Page 19]

THIS powder may be given night and morning, from one to two ſcruples, with twenty or thirty drops of ſal volatile, in white wine whey, ſage tea,* or any ſmall liquor.

The doſe ſhould be increaſed or diminiſhed, ſo as to keep the body open; if the pains are very violent, and the pores of the ſkin ſhut up by preceding colds, let the paralytic liniment be uſed.


ALL phyſicians agree in the excellency of this root; it is a good purge in many complaints, and ſtrengthens the ſtomach and bowels; it is particularly recommended for children, more eſpecially for the worms, as it purges off thoſe crudities in which they breed.

1.43.1. ITS DOSE.

Above 14 years — from 15 to 30 grains.
Between 7 and 14 — from 10 to 20 grains.
Between 1 and 7 — from 5 to 15 grains.
Within the months — from 1 to 5 grains.

1.44. SALOP

[Page 20]

Is of late years brought into much eſteem in England; it is of a reſtorative and ſtrengthening quality*; many ladies, whom I have had the honour to recommend it to, of tender conſtitutions, where tea has been found to prey over-much upon a week ſtomach and where more nouriſhment has been neceſſary than they received from their ordinary food, eat it in a morning for breakfaſt; and I muſt confeſs it would much pleaſe me to ſee it more univerſally received, particularly by thoſe who are ſubject to nervous complaints, being in its own nature very ſtrengthening, eaſy of digeſtion, and, in the manner here recommended, affords a great deal of nouriſhment in an impoveriſhed ſtate of blood; therefore the propereſt food that can be received after a ſevere fit of ſickneſs, whereby the patint is much weakened.

The common way of preparing it is with water, and a glaſs of wine added to it, but the method I think far preferable is this:

Boil half a pint of milk with as much water, while it is in a boiling ſtate, let two tea-ſpoonfuls of the powder of ſalop, firſt mixed in a baſon with a ſpoonful or two of cold water, be thrown into it; after it has ſimmered a minute or two, ſtirring it the while, you will find the whole of a ſmooth creamy conſiſtence; a bit of ſugar, and a little nutmeg may be added to make it palatable. Thoſe whom milk is apt to render coſtive, ſhould mix the ſalop with the water alone as above directed, and add the milk to it after it is taken from the fire.

[Page 21]

We all know how ſerviceable a milk diet is in many caſes; by this method it will agree with them, upon whoſe ſtomach it other-ways turns ſour and curdles.


TAKE a ſcruple of ſalt of wormwood, pour upon it by little and little freſh lemon juice, till it has done fermenting and taſtes quite inſipid, about one large ſpoonful is ſufficient; then add a little fine ſugar to make it palatable, about a wine-glaſs of ſpring or barley water, and a pap-ſpoonful of cinnamon water, makes a moſt pleaſant draught.

Above the age of fourteen, it may be given once in ſix or eight hours, in any little feveriſh complaints, ſickneſs at ſtomach, watchings, parched dryneſs of the mouth, and ſuch-like ills, and is often preferable to the fever powder. From ſeven to fourteen years, half a draught is ſufficient; under that age ſtill decreaſe the quantity.


THE uſe of theſe drops is ſo common and well known for raiſing the ſpirits, that I need only take notice of its doſe, which is from ten to ſixty drops, in a glaſs of water, or what you pleaſe.


THIS preparation is in an eſpecial manner devoted to the relief of ſcorbutic diſorders. It is of a ſcouring nature, breaks and divides all obſtructions of the glands proceeding from a more than ordinary thickneſs of the blood, and, by reſtoring the maſs to a due ſtate of fluidity, prevents thoſe feveriſh diſpoſitions which naturally ariſe from any hindrance in the neceſſary ſecretions, ſuch as urine, ſtool, &c. It is a great promoter of urine, and a great quickener of the motions of the fluids; it may be likewiſe ſerviceable in an [Page 22] unwieldy habit from ſluggiſh humours, and help to throw off a dropſy. From fifteen drops to two tea-ſpoonfuls may betaken to or three times a day, in a draught of ſage tea or any other liquor, and continued for ſome time.

1.48. SENA TEA.

THE uſual method of preparing this, is, by putting as much of the ſena leaves as your thumb and two fingers will contain into a teapot, and pouring upon it a gill of boiling water; when cold, pour out the liquor, which will be ſtrong enough to give a grown perſon a ſtool or two.

A little manna and ſalts may be diſſolved in this ſena tea, which makes it operate briſker.


THIS ſnuff may be ſafely uſed in all complaints of the head. It is prepared from herbs which have a particular efficacy in thoſe caſes, as is manifeſt from the infinite ſervice received from it, in old and ſettled pains of the head.

It may be taken as freely as you pleaſe.


Take of ſperma ceti one ſcruple, of fever powder ten grains, make theſe into a bolus with a ſufficient quantity of ſyrup, to be taken once in ſix or eight hours, with a little penny-royal and hyſteric water, in lying in caſes and miſcarriages, in either of which where the pains are violent you may add three, four, or five drops of Laudanum to each bolus; remember alſo to prevent coſtiveneſs either by gentle clyſters, a little ſena tea, or ſome other mild purgative.


[Page 23]

TAKE two drams of the powder of ſperma ceti, rub it in a marble mortar, with a quarter part of the yolk of one egg, till it is a ſmooth pulp; then add two drams of fine ſugar in powder, mix them well together, and by little and little pour on half a pint of cold barley water; ſtrain it through a fine hair or coarſe lawn ſieve, which will keep back the undiſſolved part of the ſperma ceti, and render the emulſion ſmooth and even; to the whole you may add two ſpoonfuls of cinnamon water.

A wine-glaſs may be taken as often as agreeable, in coughs, hoarſeneſs, when troubled with flegm, or any of the like complaints; alſo in the hooping cough, when, if they are feveriſh, you ſhould join a little fever powder with it, and purge them with rhubarb or the quick purging powder once in four or five days; you may likewiſe give the ſtomach tincture between breakfaſt and dinner and between dinner and ſupper: gentle vomits are oftentimes alſo ſerviceable.


THIS may be taken at pleaſure, when troubled with a cough or hoarſeneſs, difficulty of breathing, or with phlegm; it is often of ſome ſervice, and ſo innocent, it can do no harm even to young children.


IS uſed in lowneſs of ſpirits as a cordial; it is alſo given in faintings and pains in the head; and may be taken frequently, from ten to ſixty drops, on a lump of ſugar, in wine and water, or any other liquor.


[Page 24]

IN female obſtructions this electary may be given, from half a dram to one dram, night and morning, in the form of a bolus, or made into pills, as is moſt agreeable, drinking a cup of cold chamomile flower tea, or a little penny-royal and hyſteric water; if you have reaſon to think phyſic is proper, give a doſe of hiera picra; at bed-time, let the feet be bathed in warm water for ten minutes, then wipe them very dry, and, if the weather is cold, wrap them up in a piece of flannel.


THIS tincture is highly proper in a weakneſs of the ſtomach, loſs of appetite, or bad digeſtion; as a bitter, it frequently contributes to the deſtroying of worms; and not only excites the ſenſe of hunger, but, by its warm aromatic property, at the ſame time that it gives a grateful ſenſation, ſtrengthens the coats of the ſtomach, which by any cauſe may have been weakened, and renders it more able to break and digeſt the food taken in for the nouriſhment of the body.

The doſe for a grown perſon is from one to two tea-ſpoonfuls, an hour before dinner, and three hours after dinner, in a glaſs of water; thoſe who are accuſtomed to drink wine, may add an equal quantity to the water.

When given to children for the worms, it ſhould be taken the firſt thing in the morning, and laſt at bed-time, in a little water or chamomile flower tea.

A child of ſeven years old may take a tea-ſpoonful for a doſe; under that age decreaſe the quantity as your judgment directs.

[Page 25]

If you have reaſon to imagine the ſtomach is foul, let a gentle puke of ipecacuanha be taken before the uſe of this tincture.

If inclined to be coſtive, now and then at bed-time take a doſe of the opening electary, or a few grains of rhubarb.


A PIECE of this plaſter may be applied in any wrench or ſtrain, weakneſs of the loins, or other parts.


DISSOLVE a pound of ſugar in half a pint of water, over a gentle fire, in an earthen pipkin; let it ſimmer one minute or two, take off the ſcum, and preſerve the ſyrup, which is proper to ſoften the electaries when they grow dry, to make up pills or boluſſes, and to give children their powders in.


THIS is ſerviceable in many complaints, in weak and relaxed habits of body, fluſhings and hectic heats; it checks profuſe ſweats, and braces up the ſolids; it is highly proper in all kinds of bleedings, but more efficacious when joined with a fourth part of elixir of vitriol.

It may be given on any emergency; when taken for a conſtancy, the proper hours are the ſame as for elixir of vitriol, which ſee.

The doſe is from one to two tea-ſpoonfuls in any liquor.


THIS powder eleanſes and preſerves the teeth and gums, takes off ſcales and all kind of filth without injuring the enamel, which gritty powders are apt to do.

[Page 26]

It ſhould be uſed with a piece of ſpunge, every thing which is hard or rough being prejudicial, as they deſtroy the enamel, when the teeth muſt neceſſarily decay.


IS commonly uſed for burns, cuts, ſcalds, bruiſes, chilblains, and other little complaints where the ſkin is worn off, and is ſo well known I need not be more particular.


IS of late years come into great eſteem in all nervous diſorders; of the bruiſed root they make a tea in the ſame manner as ſena tea, and drink it three or four times a day, which is a proper thing to take the nervous tincture in, being of itſelf I am afraid not effectual, as the quantity of the root given in this manner, or in the tincture prepared from it, is too trifling to have any great dependence upon.


IF you intend to reap benefit from it, you muſt take it in pretty large quantities. It is uſually given from half a dram to one dram, in a little liquor of any kind, and ſhould be repeated once in ſix or eight hours.


IS made uſe of in caſes which require more diſcharge than the Turner's cerate will promote, but in a great meaſure applied for the ſame intention.


THIS powder ſhould be taken the very firſt thing early in the morning, and the laſt at bed-time, at leaſt one hour after ſupper, mixed in a little honey, currant jelly, or ſomewhat of the like [Page 27] nature, and where it is not a ſpoiled child, let a cupful of cold camomile tea, or water with a tea-ſpoonful of the ſtomach tincture, be drank after it. This will keep them open; nevertheleſs, in moſt caſes you ſhould purge once in four or five days; for very young children rhubarb is proper; ſhould that not prove ſtrong enough, the quick purging powder may be given; but where they are older and will take it, cleanſe their bowels with the purging apozem.

1.64.1. ITS DOSE.

  • Above 14 years — from 25 grains to 2 ſcruples.
  • Between 7 and 14 — from 1 ſcruple to half a dram.
  • Between 3 and 7 — from 12 grains to 1 ſcruple.
  • Between 1 and 3 — from 6 to 12 grains.


  • AGUE — See Bark page 3, bark wine 5
  • Acidities at the ſtomach See Gaſcoigne's powder 9, magneſia alba 13
  • Aſthma See Aſthmatic tincture 1
  • Appetite, to create See Elixir of vitriol 6, ſtomach tincture 24, tincture of bark 25
  • Bleeding, outward See Fryar's balſam 9
  • Bleeding, inward See Elixir of vitriol 6, Fryar's balſam 9, tincture of bark 25
  • Blood, to thin See Hartſhorn drops 10
  • Bones, aches and pains in See Powder for ſweats 17
  • Breaſt, tightneſs and pain acroſs See Aſthmatic tincture 1, oily emulſion 15
  • Breaſt, Soreneſs at See Balſamic electary 3
  • Breathing, difficulty in See Sperma ceti and ſugar candy 23
  • Bruiſes See Opodeldoc 15, Turner's cerate 26
  • Bruiſes, inward See Balſamic electary 3, Fryar's balſam 9
  • Burns See Turner's cerate 26, yellow baſilicon 26
  • Chilblains See Diachylon plaſter 16, Turner's cerate 26, yellow baſilicon 26
  • Colic See Colic mixture 5
  • Colic, with ſtools See Aſtringent electary 1, colic mixture 5
  • Cough See Aſthmatic tincture 1, balſamic electary 3, pectoral drink 16. ſperma ceti emulſion 23, ſperma ceti and ſugar candy 23
  • Cough, hooping See Sperma ceti emulſion 23
  • Cuts See Diachylon plaſter 6, Turner's cerate 26, yellow baſilicon 26
[Page 34]
  • Digeſtion, bad See Stomach tincture, page 24
  • Dilute, liquors proper See Barley water 5, pectoral drink 16
  • Dizzineſs See Palſy drops 16
  • Dropſy See Diuretic mixture 6, quick purging powder 18, ſcorbutic elixir 21
  • Drowſineſs See Palſy drop 16
  • Faintings See Hartſhorn drops 10, nervous tincture 14, ſal volatile 21, ſpirit of lavender 23
  • Fever See Fever powder 7, Gaſcoign's powder 9, ſalt of wormwood draught 21
  • Fever, intermittent See Bark 3, bark wine 5
  • Fever, upon the ſpirits See As above in faintings
  • Fits See Fit drops for children 8
  • Food eaſy of digeſtion See Salop 20
  • Flux See Aſtringent electary 1
  • Gravel See Diuretic mixture 6, marſhmallow drink 14
  • Gripings See Colic mixture 5, Gaſcoign's powder 9
  • Head-ach See Nervous tincture 14, palſy drops 16, ſnuff for the head-ach 22
  • Heart-burn See Heart-burn-lozenges 11, magneſia alba 13
  • Hoarſeneſs See Aſthmatic tincture 1, Fryar's balſam 9, oily emulſion 15, ſperma ceti emulſion 23
  • Hyſterics See Hyſteric mixture 11, fit drops for children 8
[Page 35]
  • Jaundice See Jaundice electary, page 11
  • Itch See Page 12
  • Inflamed parts See Oil of roſes 14
  • Loins, pain in See Diuretic mixture 6, ſtrengthening plaſter 25
  • Lyings in See Sperma ceti bolus 22
  • Nervous complaints See Nervous tincture 14, valerian root 26
  • Nouriſhment proper for weak ſtomachs See Salop 20
  • Obſtructions, female See Steel electary 24
  • Palſy See Palſy drops 16, and liniment 16
  • Phlegm See Aſthmatic tincture 1, ſperma ceti emulſion 23, ſperma ceti and ſugar candy 23
  • Piles See Pile electary 17, and liniment 17
  • Pleuriſy See Oily emulſion 15
  • Purges, various kinds of See Glauber's ſalts 10, magneſia alba 13, manna 13, opening electary 15, purging apozem 18, quick purging powder 18, rhubarb 19, ſena tea 22
  • Purgings, to ſtop See Aſtringent electary 1, laudanum 13
  • Rheumatiſm See Palſy liniment 16, rheumatic powder 19
  • Scalds See Turner's cerate 26, yellow baſilicon 26
  • Scurvy See Scorbutic elixir 21, tooth powder 25
  • Side, ſtitches in See Oily emulſion, page 15
  • Solids, to brace up See Elixir of vitriol 6, tincture of bark 25
  • Spirits, lowneſs of ſee Nervous tincture 14, ſal volatile 21, ſpirit of lavender 23
  • Stomach-ach See Colic mixture 5
  • Stomach-ach, foulneſs of See Ipecacuanha 12, quick purging powder 18
  • Stomach-ach, ſickneſs at See Salt of wormwood draught 21
  • Stomach-ach ſtrengtheners See Elixir of vitriol 6, rhubarb 19, ſtomach tincture 24, tincture of bark 25
  • Stomach-ach, weakneſs of See Stomach tincture 24
  • Strains See Opodeldoc 15, ſtrengthening plaſter 25
  • Sweats, to promote See Powder for ſweats 17
  • Sweats, to prevent See Elixir of vitriol 6, tincture of bark 25
  • Swellings See Oil of roſes 14
  • Throat, ſore See Gargle for a ſore throat 9
  • Urine, heat of See Diuretic mixture 6, marſhmallow drink 14
  • Vomits See Ipecacuanha 12
  • Water, ſtoppage of See Diuretic mixture 6
  • Wind, to expel See Colic mixture 5
  • Worms See Rhubarb 19 ſtomach tincture 24, Worm powder 26
  • Wounds, freſh See Diachylon plaſter 6, Fryar's balſam 9
  • Wounds, old See Turner's cerate 26, yellow baſilicon 26
  • Wrench See Opodeldoc 15, ſtrengthening plaſter 25
See Page 15.
See p. 17.
See hartſhorn and gum, p. 10.
A remittent fever is when at certain periods the fever is more violent than at others, but the patient never intirely free from it.
See p. 19.
In low fenny countries, where the atmoſphere is moiſt and foggy, it is ſometimes neceſſary to give one ounce and a half of bark between the fits, but in general an ounce is ſufficient.
We frequently, and with ſucceſs, for children, and thoſe of dellcate conſtitutions, boil the bark a long while in water, and give the ſtrained liquor inſtead of the powder in ſubſtance; the proportion is, an ounce in two or three pints of water, till you can pour off one.
By ſmall liquors, I would be underſtood to mean any liquor between water and twelve ſhilling table beer.
I have not put up any thing for the itch, and ſome other complaints that need no immediate aſſiſtance, or require more experience than the generality of my readers are acquainted with, ſuch as the ſmall pox, meaſles, &c. in which the conſtitution and ſymptoms muſt vary the practice. Particular medicines in theſe complaints, ſetting the almoſt impoſſibility of giving clear directions aſide, would ſwell the box too large and anſwer little or no end; my greateſt care through the whole being to prevent miſchief in improperly adminiſtering medicines, and I ſhould be fearful in theſe caſes the bold unſkilful practitioner might oftentimes be puzzled, to the detriment of his patient; and thoſe who are capable of rendering ſervice, will find medicines in the box to anſwer their intention in moſt diſorders.
I muſt not omit noticing an egregious and common error in making theſe herb teas for a ſick perſon, that is, the putting ſuch a large quantity of leaves and ſtalks into a pot and letting water ſtand upon it three or four hours, which is the general method uſed by nurſes and attendants; it not only makes the drink nauſeous, but, in many inflammatory caſes, it proves very prejudicial, for inſtead of being the cooling draught which is adviſeable, it is become ſo hot by the pungency of the herbs, that it abſolutely adds fuel to the fire. Put from 10 to 20 leaves, according to the ſtrength of different herbs into a pot, and pour upon them a quart of boiling water, after ſtanding three or four minutes (juſt as you manage your green tea) pour it out into a baſon to cool, by this means you have the fine flavour of the plant, and, I am convinced, many people will find herbs which our own climate produces, ſuch as ſage, mint, balm, ground-ivy, &c. thus properly managed, produce a more grateful liquor than that tea ſo commonly uſed in England, and for which we pay ſo extravagant a price.
Salop, like moſt other things for which there is a large demand, to enable the trader to ſell cheap, is very frequently much adulterated. I am afraid the greateſt part of what is commonly ſold for powder of ſalop, will be found to have in it a conſiderable quantity of ſtarch and gum arabic, which ought to put people upon their guard where they purchaſe it; for, although the virtues of the true are undeniable, the adulterated muſt fall ſhort of its excellency, and the falſe in appearance, if artfully managed, will deceive very good judges.