- Equus Geſner quod. 404. Raii ſyn. quod. 62. Pferdt Klein quad. 4.
- Equus cauda undique ſetoſa. E. caballus. Lin. ſyſt. 100. Haeſt. Faun. ſuec. No. 47.
- Equus auriculis brevibus erectis, juba longa. Briſſon. quad. 69.
- Le Cheval. de Buffon. iv. 174. tab. I. Br. Zool. l. 1.
- Wild horſe. Leo, Afr. 339. Hakluyt's coll. voy. I. 329. Bell's trav. I. 225.
Cultivated in moſt parts of the world. In a wild ſtate, at preſent only in the Tartarian deſerts, and in S. America; the laſt from the European breed, eſcaped from the owners and turned ſavage. Horſes unknown in America before its diſcovery by the Spaniards. The moſt generous and uſeful of quadrupeds, [Page 2] docil, ſpirited yet obedient; adapted to all purpoſes the draught, the chace, the race: its voice, neighing; its arms, hoofs and teeth; its tail of the utmoſt uſe in driving off inſects in hot weather. Subject to various diſeaſes, many from our abuſe, more from our too great care of it. Its exuviae uſeful [...] the ſkin for collars and traces; the hair of the mane for wigs; of the tail, for the bottoms of chairs, and floor-cloths: Tartars feed on its fleſh, and drink the milk of mares.
- Pulcher onager. Martial Epig. xiii. 101. Oppian Cyneg. iii. 183.
- Zebra. Nieremberg. 168.
- Zecora. Ludolph. Aethiop. 56.
- Zebra. Raii ſyn. quad. 64. Klein quad. 5.
- Le Zebre on L'ane rayè. Briſſon quad. 70. De Buffon, xii. 1 tab. I. II.
- Equus Zebra. Eq. faſciis fuſci verſicolor. Lin. ſyſt. 101 Edw. 222.
- Wild Aſs. Kolben Cape goo [...] Hope, ii. 112.
H. with a ſhort erect mane: tail furniſhed with long hairs at the end: whole body beautifully ſtriped from the back to the belly, with lines of brown, on a very pale buff ground. The moſt elegant of quadrupeds.
Inhabits Africa, from Congo to the Cape of Good Hope, thence to Aethiopia. Gregarious, uſeleſs, untameable, vitious: vaſtly ſwift: moſt probably known to the Romans, being of the ſame country with the Giraffa, which had been early introduced into their ſpectacula. Martial ſeems to hint at it by his pulcher onager; Oppian particularly deſcribes the ſtripes diverging from the black liſt on the back.
- Aſinus. Geſner quad. 5. Raii ſyn. quod. 63.
- Eſel. Klein quad. 6.
- L'ane. De Buffon. iv. 377.
- Equus auriculis longis flaccidis juba brevi. Briſſon quad. 70.
- Equus aſinus. Eq. caudae extermitate ſetoſa, cruce nigra ſupra. Lin. ſyſt. 100. Aſna. Faun ſuec. No. 35. ed. 1746.
- Aſs. Br. Zool. I. ii.
Wild in * the African and Tartarian deſerts; go in ſmall herds; extremely ſwift in a ſtate of nature: miſtakenly called mules. In a tame ſtate, ſtupid, patient, laborious, obſtinate, ſlow, love mild or hot climates, ſcarce known in the cold ones. Beſt: in Arabia and the Eaſt.
- MULE. Mulus. Geſner quad. 702. ſyn. quad. 64.
- Maul eſel. Klein quad. 6.
- Le Mulet. De Buffon, iv. 401. xiv. 336. Briſſon quod. 71.
- Equus mulus. Lin. ſyſt. Faun. ſuec. No. 35. Br. Zool. I. 13.
A ſpurious offspring of the horſe and aſs, or aſs and mare: does not propagate again; Ariſtotle in that miſtaken. Is very hardy; has more the form as well as diſpoſition of the aſs than horſe. The fineſt in Spain, very large ones in Savoy.
- Bos Geſner quad. 25. Raii ſyn. quad. 70.
- Ochs. Klein quad. 9.
- Bos cornibus levibus teretibus. ſurſum reflexis. Briſſon quad 52.
- Bos Taurus. B. cornibus teretibus flexis. Lin. ſyſt. 98. Faun ſuec. No. 48.
- Le Taureau. De Buffon, iv. 437 tab. xiv.
- Br. Zool. I. 15.
Still found wild in ſmall numbers, in the marſhy foreſts of Poland and Lithuania, and the eaſtern parts of Siberia. The Urus, Bonaſus, and Biſon, of the antients; the fineſt and largeſt tame cattle in Holſtein and Poland; the ſmalleſt in Scotland: moſt uſeful animals, every part ſerviceable, the horns, hide, milk, blood, fat. More ſubject than other animals to the peſtilence. Goes nine months with young.
In a wild ſtate, the Bonaſus of Ariſtotle. hiſt. an. ix. c. 45, and Pliny lib. viii. c. 15. The Urus of Caeſar, lib. vi. c. 28. Geſner quad. 143. Et Bonaſus, p. 131, and Biſon, 140. Biſon and Urus Rzaczinſki Polon, 214.228. Bell's travels, I. 224. the Aurochs of the Germans. The antient Gauls uſed the horns [Page 5] to drink out of; in ampliſſimis epulis pro poculis utuntur ſays Caeſar: if, according to Pliny, each horn held an urna, or four gallons, it was a goodly draught. Geſner in his Icon. Anim. 34, ſays, he ſaw a horn, he ſuppoſes of an Urus, hung againſt a pillar in the cathedral of Straſbourg, which was ſix feet long.
- α GRUNTING. vacca grunniens villoſa cauda equina, Sarluk. Nov. com. Petrop. v. 339. Rubruquis voy. Harris coll. I. 571.
- Bos grunniens. B. cornibus teretibus extrorſum curvatis. vellere propendente, cauda undique jubata. Lin. ſyſt. 99.
- La vache de Tartarie. De Buffon, xv. 136.
- Le boeuf velu. Le Brun. voy. Moſcov. I. 120.
- Bubul. Bell's Travels, I. 224. Br. Muſ.
A mane on the neck: whole body covered with long hair, reaching almoſt to the ground: back hunched: tail like that of a horſe, covered with full white and long hairs: ſtrikes with its head like a goat: is very unruly: found in the country of the Calmucs, called by them Sarluk. Grunts like a hog.
In the Br. Muſeum, the tail of a cow from Tibet, covered with fine white ſilky hairs, ſix feet long, poſſibly belonging to one of this kind. Bernier * mentions this ſpecies; Rubruquis ſpeaks of the ſame kind, which he ſays are very ſtrong, and draw the houſes of the Tartars; and that they have a great averſion to red.
β. INDIAN. O. with a vaſt lump on the ſhoulders *. Differ much in ſize, and in the form of their horns. Some very large, of a reddiſh color: horns ſhort and bending cloſe to the neck: others very ſmall, with horns almoſt upright, bending a little forward. In Surat a minute kind, not bigger than a great dog, which have a fierce look, and are uſed to draw children in ſmall carts.
In Celebes a ſmall ſpecies, not larger than a middle ſized ſheep, called Anoa, very fierce and wild, of a dark aſh color, inhabiting the rocks. Mr. Loten, when in India, put ſome of them into a paddock, and in one night's time they killed 14 or 15 of his deer, by ripping open their bellies.
- [...]. Ariſt. hiſt. lib. ii. c. 1.
- Bos Indicus. Plin. lib. viii. c. 45.
- Bubalus. Geſner quad. 122. Raii ſyn. quad. 72. Klein quad. 10.
- Bull elephants. Ludolph. Aethiop. 52.
- Buffalo. Dellon voy. 72. Faunul. Sinens.
- Bos cornibus compreſſis, ſurſum reflexis, reſupinatis fronte criſpa. Briſſon quad. 54.
- Bos cornibus reſupinatis intortis antice planis. Lin. ſyſt. 99.
- Le Buffle. De Buffon xi. 284. tab. xxv. Br. Muſ. Aſhm. Muſ.
Found wild in many parts of Africa and India: but in both are domeſticated: ſerve for milking and producing cheeſe: are very common in Italy, originally brought from India, into Lombardy, in the reign of King Agilulf, who reigned from 591 to 616 *. They are ſaid to be found wild in Apuglia; and to be very common in hot weather on the ſea ſhore, between Manfredonia and Barletta; ſerve for the draught and for the ſaddle inſtead of horſes; grow to an enormous ſize, twice the bulk of our largeſt oxen, from which ſome call them Taurelephantes. A pair of horns in the Br. Muſeum, probably of this kind: one is 6 feet 6 inches ½ long, weighed 21 lb. and the hollow contained five quarts of water. Lobo mentions ſome that would hold more than ten. Dellon has ſeen ſome in India 10 feet long: they are ſometimes wrinkled, but oftner ſmooth and black: ſkin almoſt deſtitute of hair, ‖ [Page 8] and black: eyes whitiſh: very common in Italy, eſpecially the hotter parts, introduced there originally from India: are very fierce when in a ſtate of nature: fond of wallowing in the mud: love the ſides of rivers, and ſwim very well.
A. NAKED: a ſmall ſort exhibited in London ſome years ago, under the name of Bonaſus; of the ſize of a Welch runt: hair on the body briſtly, and very thin, ſo that the ſkin appeared: the rump and thighs quite bare: the firſt marked on each ſide with two duſky ſtripes pointing downward, the laſt with two tranverſe ſtripes: horns compreſſed ſideways, taper, ſharp at the point. Eaſt Indies.
- Taurus mexicanus. Hernandez. mex. 587. de Laet. 220. Purchas's Pilgrims, iv. 1561.
- Biſon ex Florida allatus. Raii ſyn. quad. 71. Klein quad. 13.
- Buffalo. Lawſon Carol. 115. Cateſby App. xxxvii. du Pratz. II. 49.
- Bos biſon. B. cornibus divaricacatis, juba longiſſima, dorſo gibboſo. Lin. ſyſt. 99.
- Le Biſon d'Amerique. Briſſon quad. 56. de Buffon, xi. 305.
- Le Boeuf de Canada. Charlevoix v. 193. Br. Muſ.
O. with horns very cloſely united at the baſe, bending inwards and downwards, and turning outwards at their points; two feet round at the baſe, and vaſtly prominent, riſing juſt on the top of the forehead; length only two feet; very ſharp at the points: head and ſhoulders of the bull covered with very long hairs, of a dark color: body naked behind: ſhoulders very high: fleſh ſcents ſtrong of muſk.
[Page 9] Common in the interior parts of N. America, in the Savanna's; fond of marſhy places: lodges amidſt the high reeds: very fierce, but capable of being tamed: will breed with the common kind: the only animal analogous to the domeſtic creatures found in America by the Europeans: weighs from 1600 to 2400 lb. M. de Buffon gives the figure of ſome horns of this ſpecies, which he thinks came from the Cape of Good Hope.
- Un moult beau petit boeuf d'Afrique. Belon voy. 119, 120.
- Bos Indicus. B. cornibus aure brevioribus, dorſo gibbo juba nulla. Lin. ſyſt. 99.
- Bekkerel waſh? Shaw's trav. 242.
O. with horns almoſt cloſe at their baſe, broad and flat at the beginning: receding in the middle, almoſt meeting at the points, and ſtanding erect: larger than a roebuck, leſs than a ſtag: compact, and well made in all its limbs: hair ſhining, of a a tawny brown: legs ſhort, neck thick, ſhoulders a little elevated: tail terminated with long hairs, twice as coarſe as thoſe of a horſe.
The horns of this animal are in the Muſeum of the royal ſociety, deſcribed by Grew. p. 26. who miſtakes the animal they belong to. M. de Buffon imagines his Zebu xi. 439. tab. xlii. to be Belon's; but that as well as Mr. Edwards's little Buffalo, plate 200, are only varieties of the Indian ox β. Perhaps the Lant or Dant deſcribed by Leo Afri [...]nus, p. 340, may be of this kind, of whoſe hide [Page 10] are made ſhields and targets, impenetrable by a bullet. He celebrates their ſwiftneſs, ſays their hair is white, hoofs black as jet.
- Ovis. Plinii. lib. viii. c. 47. Geſner quad. 771. Raii ſyn. quad. 73.
- Widder Schaaf. Klein quad. 13.
- La brebis. de Buffon, v. 1. tab. I.II.
- Aries Laniger cauda rotunda brevi. Briſſon quad. 48.
- Ovis aries. O. cornibus compreſſis lunatis. Lin. ſyſt. 97.
- Far. Faun. ſuec. No. 45. Br. Zool. I. 22.
Subject to vaſt variety: its origin not certainly known. The Moufflon of M. de Buffon, to be deſcribed hereafter, approaches neareſt; but ſtill has ſome diſtinctions that makes it nearer allied to the goat and deer.
The ſheep in its nature harmleſs and timid; reſiſts by butting with its horns: threatens by ſtamping with its foot: drinks little: generally brings one at a time, ſometimes two, rarely three: goes about five months with young: is ſubject to the [...]ot; worms in its liver; the vertigo.
- β CRETAN Sh. Ovis Strepſiceros. Raii ſyn. quad. 75. Cornipus rectis carinatis flexuoſoſpiralibus. Lin. ſyſt. 98.
- Le Chevre de Crete. Briſſon quad. 48.
- Strepſicheros ou Mouton de Crete. Belon voy. 16. Geſner quad. 308. Icon. 15.
Common in many parts of England; the largeſt in Lincolnſhire, the leſt † horned ſheep in Wales.
Common in Iceland, and other parts of the North; they have uſually four horns: a kind from Spain, [Page 12] with two upright and two lateral horns: body covered with wool: forepart of the neck with yellowiſh hairs, 14 inches in length: was alive in London about three years ago: very miſchievous and pugnacious: the horns the ſame with thoſe in Grew, tab. 2.: very different from the common ſort of polyceratous ſheep. Compare the laſt with Le Belier d'Iſlande de Buffon, xi. tab. xxxi.
- ε AFRICAN. Aries guineenſis. Margrave Braſil, 134. Raii ſyn. quad. 75.
- Le Belier des Indes. de Buffon. xi. 362. tab. xxxiv. &c.
- Ovis guineenſis. O. auribus pendulis, palearibus laxis piloſis. Lin. ſyſt. 98.
- La Brebis de Guinee. Briſſon quad. 51.
- Sheep of Sahara. Shaw's travels, 241.
- Carnero or Bell wether. Della Valle trav. 91.
Meagre; very long legged and tall: ſhort horns: pendent ears, covered with hair inſtead of wool: ſhort hair: wattles on the neck. Perhaps the Adimain of Leo Africanus, 341. which he ſays furniſhes the Lybians with milk and cheeſe; is of the ſize of an aſs, ſhape of a ram, with pendent ears. Della Valle tells us, that at Goa he has ſeen a wether bridled and ſaddled, which carried a boy twelve years old.
- ζ BROAD TAILED. Ludolph. Aethiop. 53. Ovis arabica. Caii opuſc. 72. Geſner quad. Icon. 15. Faunul. Sinens.
- Ovis laticauda. Raii ſyn. quad. 74. Lin. ſyſt. 97. Briſſon quad. 50. Nov. Com. Petrop, v. 347. tab. 8.
- Le Mouton de Barbarie. de Buffon xi. 355. tab. xxxiii. Shaw's travels, 241. Ruſſel's Aleppo, 51.
- Ibex. Plinii lib. viii. c. 53.
- Bouc eſtain. Belon. obs. 14. Bouc ſauvage. Gaſton de Foix. 99. Capricorne. Munſter Coſmogr. 381.
- Ibex. Geſner quad. 303. Raii ſyn. quad. 77. Briſſon quad. 39.
- Capra Ibex. C. Cornibus ſupra nodoſis, in dorſum reclinatis, gula barbata. Lin. ſyſt. 95. Klein quad. 16.
- Le Bouquetin. de Buffon xii. 136. tab. xiii.xiv.
- Steinbock. Kram. Auſtr. 321. Ridinger kleine Thiere, No. 71. Br. Muſ. Aſhm. M.
G. with large knotted horns, reclining backwards: head very ſmall: on the chin of the male a duſky beard: the reſt of the hair tawny, mixed with aſh color: females are leſs, and have ſmaller horns, more like thoſe of a common ſhe-goat, and have few knobs on the upper ſurface; bring one young, ſeldom two at a time *. Inhabit the higheſt Alps of the Griſons country, and the Vallais; are alſo found in Crete: are very wild and difficult to be ſhot, as they always keep on the higheſt points. Their chace very dangerous: being very ſtrong, they often tumble [Page 14] the incautious huntſman down the precipices, except he has time to lie down, and let the animals paſs over him. Its blood much eſteemed in pleuriſies; are ſaid, not to be long lived.
- α DOMESTIC. Capra, Geſner quad. 266. Raii ſyn. quad. 77. C. Hircus. C. cornibus carinatis arcuatis. Lin. ſyſt. 94.
- Get. Faun. ſuec. No. 44.
- Siegen bock. Siege. Klein quad. 1 [...]
- Le bouc, La Chevre. Briſſon qua [...] 38. de Buffon v. 59. tab. viii.
- Goat Br. Zool. l. 29.
The former is the ſtock from whence the tame ſpecies ſprung; the horns of theſe are ſmoother and freer from knots, and have a curvature outwards towards their ends. The colors of the tame goats vary; the hair in ſome is long, and quite trails on the ground: others are ſmooth.
In Alpine countries is the ſubſtitute of the ſheep; its fleſh, milk and cheeſe the food of the inhabitants: cannot bear exceſſive cold: loves temperate and warm climates: is very lively, wanton, active: very libidinous: ſhort lived: its ſkin uſeful in many manufactures: the hair for making wigs: the milk reſtorative in conſumptive caſes: brouzes more than it grazes: deſtructive to trees: goes with young four months and a half: generally brings two at a time, ſometimes three, rarely four.
Found only near Angora, Beibazar and Cougna in Aſiatic Turkey *. Thoſe of the laſt place brown or black; and the two firſt of a ſilky fineneſs and ſilvery whiteneſs, in curled locks of eight or nine inches in length; the baſis of our fine camblets; the hair imported here in form of thread, for the Turks will not ſuffer it to be exported raw, as the ſpinning gives employ to multitudes of poor. This variety is confined to a diſtrict of two or three days journey in extent; if they change climate, the hair grows coarſer. The Goat-herds are very attentive to them, perpetually combing and waſhing them; are ſhorter than our goats and their horns leſs. Whether Strabo meant this kind? as M. Tournefort conjectures, when he mentions thoſe on the banks of the Halys; very ſcarce, ſays he, in other places. The word Strabo uſes is [...], which ſignifies roebucks, not goats **.
- γ SYRIAN. Capra mambrina ſeu ſyriaca. Geſner quad. 153. Raii ſyn. quad. 81. C. cornibus reclinatis, auribus pendulis, gula barbata. Lin. ſyſt. 95. Briſſon quad. 47.
- Proſper Alp. hiſt. Aegypt. I. 229. Rauwolff's travels, II. 71. Ruſſel's Aleppo, 62.
Plentifull in the Eaſt: ſupply Aleppo with milk: their ears of a vaſt length, hanging down like thoſe [Page 16] of hounds: are from one to two feet long: ſometimes they are ſo troubleſome, that the owners cut off one to enable the animal to feed with more eaſe. The horns are black and ſhort.
- δ AFRICAN. Capra depreſſa. C. cornibus erectis apice recurvis. Lin. ſyſt. 95.
- Le bouc d'Afrique. de Buffon, xiii. 154. tab. xviii.xix.
A dwarf variety, found in Africa. The male covered with rough hair, and beneath the chin hang two long hairy wattles: the horns ſhort, very thick, and triangular, and lie ſo cloſe to the ſcull as almoſt to penetrate it: the horns of the female are much leſs, neither has it wattles: its hair is ſmooth.
- ε WHIDAW. Capra reverſa. C. cornibus depreſſis incurvis minimis cranio incumbentibus, gula barbata. Lin. ſyſt. 95.
- Le bouc de Juda. de Buffon, xii. 154. tab. xx.xxi.
From Juda or Whidaw, in Africa. A ſmall kind: the horns ſhort, ſmooth, and turn a little forwards. Linnaeus ſays, that this and the preceding came from America; but certainly before its diſcovery by the Spaniards, the goat and every other domeſtic animal was unknown there.
- Rupicapra, Plinii, lib. viii. c. 15. Geſner quad. 290. Raii ſyn. quad. 78. Scheuzhzer. It. Alp. I. 155, &c. capra rupicapra. C. cornibus erectis uncinatis. Lin. ſyſt. 95.
- Chamois ou Yſard. Belon. obſ. 54.
- Yſarus ou Sarris. Gaſton de Foix, 99*. Briſſon quad. 41. de Buffon, xii. 136. tab. xvi.
- Gemſe, Klein quad. 18. Ridinger Kleine Thiere, No. 72. wild. Thiere, 25.
- Antilope rupicapra. Pallas miſcel. 4. Spicil. 7. Br Muſ.
G. with ſlender black upright horns, hooked at the end: behind each a large orifice in the ſkin: forehead white: along the cheeks a duſky bar: reſt of the body deep brown: tail ſhort: hoofs long, and much divided.
Inhabits the Alps of Dauphiné, Suitzerland, and Italy; the Pyroenean mountains, Greece, and Crete: does not dwell ſo high in the hills as the Ibex, and is found in greater numbers. They feed before ſunriſe and after ſun-ſet: during winter lodge in hollows of the rocks to avoid the falls of the Avelenches: during that ſeaſon eat the ſlender twigs of trees, or the roots of plants, or herbs which they find beneath the ſnow: are very timid and wa [...]hfull: each herd has its leader, who keeps centry on ſome high place while the reſt are at food; and if it ſees an enemy, gives a ſharp ſort of a hiſs by way of ſignal, when they inſtantly take to flight. They have a moſt piercing eye, and quick ear and ſcent: are exceſſively ſwift and active: are hunted during winter for their ſkins, which are very uſeful in manufactures, and for the fleſh, which is very well [Page 18] taſted. The chaſe is a laborious employ: they muſt be got at by ſurprize, and are ſhot with riffl'd-ba [...]l'd guns: in their ſtomach is often a hairy ball covered with a hard cruſt of an oblong form: are ſaid to be long lived: bring two, ſeldom three young at a time.
- Muſimon, Plinii, lib. viii. c. 49. [...]on, Lib. xxviii. c. 9. xxx. [...].
- [...] [...]phus, Belon obſ. 54. Raii ſ [...] quad. 82. Klein quad. 20.
- Muſmon ſeu Muſimon, Geſner quad. 823.
- Capra Ammon, Lin. ſyſt. 97.
- Le Chamois de Siberie, Briſſon quad. 42. & la chevre du Levant, 46.
- Le Mouffion, de Buffon, xi. 352. tab. xxix.
- Rupicapra cornubus arietinis. Argali, Nov. com. Petrop. iv. 49. 388. tab. 8.
- Fiſhtall, Lerwee, Shaw's trav. 243. Br. Muſ.
G. with large horns bending back, cloſe at their baſe, diſtant at their points, with circular rugae. Theſe animals vary in ſize and color: the ſkin of one the Britiſh Muſeum did me the favor of accepting was covered with pale ferruginous hair: on the ſides ſhort. on the top of the neck longer, and a little erect: along the lower ſide of the neck, and on the ſhoulders, the hair was 14 inches long: beneath the hair was a ſhort wool: on the knees a bare ſpot, as if by kneeling to lie down: tail very ſhort: horns 25 inches long, 11 in girth in the thickeſt place, one foot ſeven inches diſtant from point to point. I think this ſkin came from one of the iſles of the Eaſt Indies.
[Page 19] Inhabit the north-eaſt parts of Aſia; Barbary, Sardinia, Corſica, and Greece: live amidſt the mountains, and run with vaſt ſwiftneſs among the rocks. Thoſe of Kamtchatka are ſo ſtrong that ten men can ſcarce hold one, and the horns are ſo large as ſometimes to weigh 30 lb. and ſo capacious that young foxes often ſhelter themſelves in the hollow of ſuch as by accident fall off in the deſerts: grow to the ſize of a young ſtag: propagate in autumn: bring one young at a time, ſometimes two.
Belon very judiciouſly ſtyles this ſpecies the Tragelaphus, from the mixture it ſeems to have of the goat and deer. Suppoſed by M. de Buffon to be the ſheep in a wild ſtate: doubted by myſelf, ſince opportunity has been had of ſeeing ſome of theſe animals from Sardinia and Corſica.
- Camelopardalis Plinii lib. viii. c. 18. Dion Caſſius, lib. 43. Proeneſt. pavem. apud Shaw ſuppl. 88. Oppian cyneg. iii. 466.
- La Giraffe que les Arabes nomment Zurnapa. Belon obſ. 118.119. Leo Afr. 337. Geſner quad. 160. Raii ſyn. quad. 90. Briſſon quad. 37. De Buffon, xiii. 1.
- Cervus camelopardalis. C. cornibus ſimplicibus, pedibus anticis longiſſimis. Lin. ſyſt. 92.
- Tragus Giraffa. Klein quad. 22.
G. with ſhort ſtrait horns covered with hair, and truncated at the end and tufted with hair: in the forehead a tubercle about two inches high reſembling a third horn: height from the crown of the head to the ſoles of the fore feet 17 feet: that from the top of the rump to the bottom of the hind feet only nine: length of the neck ſeven: from the withers to the loins only ſix: the fore legs not longer than the hind legs; but the ſhoulders of a vaſt length, which gives the diſproportionate height between the fore and hind parts: horns ſix inches: head like that of a ſtag: neck ſlender and elegant, and on the upper ſide is a ſhort mane: ears large: tail long, with ſtrong hairs at the end: color of the whole animal a dirty white marked with large broad ruſty ſpots.
Inhabits the foreſts of Aethiopia and other interior parts of Africa, is very timid, but not ſwift: from the ſtrange length of its fore legs, cannot graze without dividing them to a vaſt diſtance; it therefore [Page 21] lives by brouzing the leaves of trees: kneels like a camel when it would lie down; is a gentle animal, and is very ſcarce. I ſaw the ſkin of a young one at Leyden well ſtuffed, and preſerved; otherwiſe might poſſibly have entertained doubts in reſpect to the exiſtence of ſo extraordinary a quadruped. Belon's figure very good.
Known to the Romans in early times; appears among the figures in the aſſemblage of eaſtern animals on the celebrated Praeneſtine Pavement, made by the direction of Sylla, repreſented both grazing and brouzing in its natural attitudes: exhibited at Rome by the popular Caeſar among other animals in the Circaean games. Finely and juſtly deſcribed by Oppian.
The ſeveral ſpecies that compoſe this genus, two or three excepted, inhabit the hotteſt part of the globe; or at leſt thoſe parts of the temperate zone that lie ſo near the tropics as to form a doubtfull climate.
None therefore, except the Saiga *, are to be met with in Europe; and, notwithſtanding the warmth of South America, is ſuited to their nature, yet not a ſingle ſpecies has ever been diſcovered in any part of the new world. Their proper climates ſeems therefore to be thoſe of Aſia and Africa, where the ſpecies are very numerous.
As there appears a general agreement in the nature of the ſpecies that form this great genus, it will prevent a needleſs repetition to obſerve here, that the ANTELOPES are animals of a moſt elegant and active make; of a reſtleſs and timid diſpoſition; extremely watchfull; of great vivacity; remarkably ſwift; remarkably agile; and moſt of their boundings ſo light, ſo elaſtic, as to ſtrike the ſpectator with aſtoniſhment. What is very ſingular, they will ſtop in the midſt of their courſe, for a moment gaze at their purſuers, and then reſume their flight **.
[Page 23] As the chace of theſe animals is a favorite diverſion with the eaſtern nations, from that may be collected proofs of the rapid ſpeed of the ANTELOPE tribe. The Grehound, the fleeteſt of dogs, is unequal in the courſe; and the ſportſman is obliged to call in the aid of the Falcon, trained to the work, to ſeize on the animal and impede its motions, to give the dogs opportunity of overtaking it. In India, and in Perſia, a ſort of Leopard is made uſe of in the chace: this is an animal that takes its prey not by ſwiftneſs of foot, but by the greatneſs of its ſprings, by motions ſimilar to that of the ANTELOPE; but ſhould the Leopard fail in its firſt eſſay, the game eſcapes *.
The fleetneſs of this animal was proverbial in the country it inhabited even in the earlieſt times: the ſpeed of Aſahel ** is beautifully compared to that of the † Tzebi; and the Gadites were ſaid to be as ſwift as the Roes upon the mountains. The inſpired writers took their ſimilies from ſuch objects that were before the eyes of the people they addreſſed themſelves to. There is another inſtance drawn from the ſame ſubject: the diſciple raiſed to life at Joppa was ſuppoſed to have been called Tabitha, i. e. Dorcas, or the ANTELOPE, from the beauty of her eyes; and this is ſtill a common compariſon in the Eaſt: Aine el Czazel, or "You have eyes of an ANTELOPE," is the greateſt compliment that can be to paid a fine woman ‡.
[Page 24] Some ſpecies of the ANTELOPES form herds of two or three thouſands, while others keep in ſmall troops of five or ſix. They generally reſide in hilly countries; tho' ſome inhabit plains: they often brouze like the goat, and feed on the tender ſhoots of trees, which gives their fleſh an excellent flavor. This is to be underſtood of thoſe that are taken in the chace; for thoſe that are fattened in houſes are far leſs delicious. The fleſh of ſome ſpecies are ſaid to taſte of muſk, which perhaps depends on the qualities of the plants they feed on.
This preface was thought neceſſary to point out the difference in nature between this and the Goat kind, with which moſt of the ſyſtematic writers have claſſed this animal: but the ANTELOPE forms an intermediate genus, a link between the Goat and the Deer. They agree with the firſt, in the texture of the horns, which have a core in them: and they never caſt them: with the laſt, in the elegance of their form, and great ſwiftneſs.
A. with ſharp-pointed, taper, arcuated horns bending backwards, marked with twenty prominent rings, but ſmooth towards their points, twenty inches long: ears ſharp-pointed, above nine inches in length: larger than a buck: color, when alive, a fine blue; when dead, changes to a bluiſh grey, with a mixture [Page 25] of white: hairs long: beneath each eye a large white mark: belly white: tail ſeven inches long; the hairs at the end ſix inches. From a ſkin bought at Amſterdam, brought from the Cape of Good Hope; where they are found, but far up the country. This is the ſpecies which, from the length of its hair and form of the horns, connects this genus with that of the Goat.
- Gazella indica cornibus rectis longiſſimis nigris prope caput tantum annulatis. Raii ſyn. quad. 79.
- Capra Gazella. C. cornibus teretibus rectiſſimis longiſſimis annulatis. Lin. ſyſt. 96.
- La Gazelle des Indes. Briſſon quad. 43.
- Le Paſan. De Buffon, xii. 213. tab. xxxiii. fig. 3. xv. 190.
- Ell [...] Kolben, II. 110. Br. Muſ. Aſhm. Muſ.
A. with ſtrait ſlender horns, near three feet long, annulated; at their baſe a triangular black ſpot, bounded on each ſide with white: a black line extends from the neck to the loins: neck, back and ſides, dark grey: breaſt and belly white: tail about two feet long, terminated with black hairs: length of the whole ſkin ſix feet.
- Pasén, caprieerva. Kamfer. Amaen. exot. 398.
- Cornu ignotum. Geſner quad. 309.
- La Gazelle. Belon obſ. 120. Alpin. hiſt. Aegypt. I. 232. tab. xiv.
- Animal bezoarticum. Raii ſyn. quad. 80.
- La Gazelle du Bezoar. Briſſon quad. 44.
- Algazel. De Buffon, xii. 211. tab. xxxiii. fig. 1, 2.
- Capra bezoartica. C. cornibus arcuatis totis annulatis, gula barbata. Lin. ſyſt. 96. Br. Muſ. Aſhm. Muſ.
Inhabits the inhoſpitable and rough mountains of Laar in Perſia: very ſwift and timid: never deſcends into the plains: is one of the animals which produce the Bezoar *, celebrated by the Orientaliſts as an alexipharmic. Found alſo in Aegypt.
- Le Coudous. De Buffon, xii. 357. tab. 47.
- Antilope oryx. Pallas Miſcel. 9. Spicil. 15.
- Nilgaux or gray oxen? Bermer, iv. 47.
- Pacaſſe. Voy. Congo. Churchill's Coll. I. 623. Br. Muſ. Aſhm. Muſ.
A. with thick ſtrait horns, marked with two prominent ſpiral ribs near two-thirds of their length, ſmooth towards their end; ſome are above two feet long: thoſe at the Britiſh Muſeum, with part of the ſkin adhering, are black: the color of the hair on [Page 27] the fragment of the head is of a reddiſh brown, bounded on the cheeks by a duſky line; beneath, of a pale brown. If this animal is the ſame with the Pacaſſe of Congo, and the Nilgaux of India, they vary in color; the firſt being white, ſpotted with black and red; the laſt, grey. They grow to a large ſize.
A. with ſtrait horns nine inches long pointing backwards, with two ſpiral ribs: ears broad: color a deep tawny: beneath each eye a white ſpot: ſides moſt ſingularly marked with two tranſverſe bands of white, croſſed by two others from the back to the belly: the rump with three white lines pointing downwards on each ſide: the thighs ſpotted with white: tail ten inches long, covered with long rough hairs.
- Capra ſylveſtris Africana Grimm [...] Raii ſyn. quad. 80. Klein quad 19.
- M [...]ſchus Grimmia. M. capite [...] culo tophoſo. Lin. ſyſt. 92.
- Le Grimme. De Buffon, xii. 307. tab. xli.
- Le Chevrotain d'Afrique. Briſſon quad. 67. S [...]b. Muſ. I. tab. 43. C. D.
- Antilope Grimmia. Pallas Miſcel. 10. tab. I. Spicil. 38. tab. III.
A. with ſtrait black horns, ſlender and ſharp-pointed, not three inches long, ſlightly annulated [Page 28] at the baſe: height about 18 inches: moſt elegant form: ears large: eyes duſky; below them a large cavity, into which exuded a ſtrong-ſcented oily liquid: between the horns a tuft of black hairs: the color of the neck and body brown, mixed with cinerous, and a tinge of yellow: belly white: tail ſhort; white beneath, black above.
I examined this animal a few years ago, in company with Doctor Pallas, at the Prince of Orange's menagery, near the Hague. Several had been brought over from Guinea; but, except this, all died. Dr. Pallas ſaid that the females were hornleſs: it ſeems, therefore, that Dr. Grimm, who firſt deſcribed this ſpecies, never ſaw any but the female.
- King of the harts. Boſman's voy. 236.
- Petite biche. Des Marchais, I. 312.
- Cervula parvula Africana. Seb. Muſ. I. 70. tab. xliii. Adanſon's voy. 207.
- Le Chevrotain de Guinea. De Buffon, xii. 315. tab. xliii. fig. 2. its horn.
A. with very ſhort ſtrait horns, black and ſhining as jet: ſcarce two inches long: ears broad: height not above nine inches: legs not thicker than a gooſe quil: color a reddiſh brown: the females want horns.
Inhabits Senegal and the hotteſt parts of Africa, Called in Guinea, Guevei: are very agile, will bound over a wall twelve feet high: are very tame, but ſo tender as not to endure tranſportation into our climate.
- Quadruped from Bengal. Ph. Tr. No. 476. Abridg. xi. 398. tab. vi. Biggel. Mandelſloe's voy. Harris's coll. I. 775.
- Antilope Tragocamelus. Pallas Miſcel. 5. Spicil. 9.
A. with horns ſeven inches long bending forward: eyes black and lively: neck ſtrong, bending forward like that of a camel; along the top a ſhort mane: on the ſhoulders a large lump, reſembling that of the Indian ox, tufted with hair: hind parts like thoſe of an aſs: tail 22 inches long, terminated with long hairs: legs ſlender: on the lower part of the breaſt the ſkin hangs like that of a cow: hair ſhort and ſmooth, of a light aſh-color, in ſome parts duſky: beneath the breaſt, and under the tail, white: on the forehead is a black rhomboidal ſpot. The height of this animal, to the top of the lump on its ſhoulders, was 12 hands.
Inhabits the moſt diſtant parts of the Mogul's dominions; chews the cud; lies down and riſes like a camel: its voice a ſort of croaking, or like the rattle of deer in rutting time. Doctor Parſons, to whom we are of late years obliged for the beſt zoologic papers in the Ph. Tr. is the only writer who has deſcribed this animal.
A. with ſhort horns bending a little forward: ears large, marked with two black ſtripes: a ſmall black mane on the neck and half way down the back: a tuft of long black hairs on the fore part of the neck; above that a large ſpot of white; another [Page 30] between the fore-legs on the cheſt: one white ſpot on each fore foot; two on each hind foot: tail long, tufted with black hairs: height to the top of the ſhoulders about four feet: color a dark grey.
- Dama. Plinii, lib. xi. c. 37.
- Cemas. Aelian. An. lib. xiv. c. 14.
- Le Nanguer. De Buffon, xii. 213. tab. xxxiv.
- Antilope dama. Pallas Miſcel. 5. Spicil. 8.
A. with round horns eight inches long reverting at their ends: length of the animal three feet ten inches; height, two feet eight inches: general color tawny: belly, lower part of the ſides, rump, and thighs, white: on the fore part of the neck a white ſpot: but this ſpecies varies in color.
A. with horns five inches and an half long; one or two ſlight rings at the baſe: length, four feet; height, two feet three inches: ears five inches long: hairs ſtiff and bright: in all parts of a reddiſh color.
- Strepſiceros. Caii opuſc. 56. Geſner quad. 309. Icon. 31.
- Le Condoma. De Buffon, xii. 301. tab. xxxix. vol. xv. 142.
- Antilope Strepſiceros. Pallas Miſcel. 9. Spicil. 17.
- Cerf du Cap de Bonne eſperance. Hiſt. et Com. Acad. Palatin. tom. I. 487. Br. Muſ. Aſhm. Muſ.
A. with ſmooth horns twiſted ſpirally, compreſſed ſideways, with a ridge on one ſide following the wreaths, conſiſt of three bends, are three feet nine inches long, of a pale brown color, cloſe at the baſe; two feet ſeven inches and an half diſtant at the points, which are round and ſharp: in the upper jaw a hard horny ſubſtance diſpoſed in ridges: length of the animal nine feet; height, four: body long and ſlender: legs ſlender: face brown, marked with two white lines proceeding from the corner of each eye and uniting above the noſe: the color in general of a reddiſh caſt mixed with grey: from the tail, along the top of the back, to the ſhoulders, is a white ſtripe: from this are ſeven others, four pointing towards the thighs, and three towards the belly: on the upper part of the neck is a ſhort mane: beneath the neck, from the throat to the breaſt, are ſome long hairs hanging down: the breaſt and belly are grey: tail two feet long, brown above, white beneath, black at the end.
- Strepſiceros et Addax? Plinii lib. viii. c. 54. xi. c. 37.
- Gazella Africana, the Antilope. Raii, ſyn. quad. 79.
- Tragus Strepſiceros. Klein. quad. 18.
- Capra Cervicapra. C. cornibus teretibus, dimidiato - annulatis, flexuoſis contortis. Lin. ſyſt. 96 L'Antelope. De Buffon, xii. 215 tab. xxxv.xxxvi.
- La Gazelle. Briſſon. quad. 44.
- Antilope cervicapra. Pallas Miſcel. 9. Spicil. 18. tab. I.II. Br. Muſ. Aſhm. Muſ.
A. with upright horns, twiſted ſpirally, ſurrounded almoſt to the top with prominent rings; about ſixteen inches long, twelve inches diſtance between point and point: in ſize, rather leſs than the fallow deer or buck: color, brown mixed with red, and duſky: the belly and inſide of the thighs white: tail ſhort, black above, white beneath. The females want horns.
Inhabits Barbary. The form of theſe horns, when on the ſcull, not unlike that of the antient Lyre, to which Pliny compares thoſe of his Strepsiceros. The Brachia, or ſides of that inſtrument, were frequently made of the horns of animals, as appears from antient gems. Monfaucon has engraven ſeveral. Suppl. Antiq. III. tab. 75.
Leſs than a Roebuck: horns like thoſe of the laſt: face, back and ſides of a very deep brown, the laſt bordered with tawny: belly and inſide of the legs white: above each hoof a black ſpot: tail black above, white beneath. Inhabits Bengal: poſſibly alſo Barbary, being nearer the ſize of the Lidmee than any other.
In my cabinet is a pair of horns twiſted like thoſe of the preceding, but quite ſmooth and black: they are joined together in a parallel direction, the points turned different ways: when thus mounted they are carried by the Faquirs in India, by way of weapon.
- Gazella Africana cornibus bre [...]oribus, ab imo ad ſummum [...]ere annulatis, et circum melium inflexis. Raii ſyn. quad. [...]0.
- La Gazelle. De Buffon, xii. 201. tab. xxiii.
- La Gazelle d'Afrique. Briſſon. quad. 45.
- Capra Dorcas. Lin. ſyſt. 96.
- Antilope Dorcas. Pallas. Spicil. I. 11.
A. with horns twelve inches long, round, inclining firſt backwards, bending in the middle, and then reverting forwards at their ends, and annulated with about thirteen rings on their lower part: upper ſide of the body reddiſh brown; lower part and buttocks white: along the ſides the two colors are ſeparated from each other by a ſtrong duſky line: on each knee a tuft of hair: the Dorcas of Aelian, [...]ib. xiv. c. 14.
A. with horns ſhaped like thoſe of the laſt, bu [...] flatted on their ſides; the rings more numerous from fourteen to eighteen: the ſize equal to a ſmal [...] roebuck: in colors and marks reſembles the preceding.
A. with horns like thoſe of the Kevel, fourtee [...] inches and an half long: ſize ſuperior to a commo [...] Buck: ears ſeven inches long: face of a pur [...] white: cheeks and neck of a fine bright bay [...] back, of a cinereous brown daſhed with red: along the middle a dark liſt: ſides, flanks and ſhoulders a deep brown; ſeparated from the belly by a darke ſhade: belly and rump white: trunk of the tai [...] ſeven inches long: hairs black, which reached fou [...] inches beyond the end: hoofs ſhort.
From a ſkin bought at Amſterdam. From the Cape not the Tzeiran of M. de Buffon, as Dr. Palla [...] imagines; for the horn which the former has figure [...] as belonging to that animal, is the horn of th [...] Blue Antelope, No. 13.
- Ah [...], Tzeiran Olearius's Trav. 226. Kaempfer amaen. exot. 403.
- Caprea campeſtris gutturoſa. Nov. Com. Petrop. v. 347. tab. ix.
- Le Tzeiran de Buffon, xii. 207.
- Yellow Goat? Du Halde china. II. 253, 278, 290.
- Antilope Bell's travels. I. 311.319.
A. with ſlender horns, bending a little in the middle, reverting towards the end; annulated on their lower part, ſmooth and very black at their ends: ſize of a roebuck, of the ſame color, and has the ſame actions.
Inhabits the vaſt plains beyond the lake Baikal: the natives eat the fleſh, and uſe the ſkins for cloathing: the horns are much eſteemed by the Chineſe, who give a large price for them. Theſe animals love the banks of rivers, and will readily take the water to paſs from ſide to ſide.
- Colus Geſner quad. 361.
- Suhak. Rzaczinſki hiſt. Polon. 224.
- Ibex imberbis Nov. Com. Petrop. v. tab. xix.vii. 39.
- Sayga Phil. Tr. 1767. p. 344▪ Bell's travels I. 43.
- Capra Tatarica. C. cornibus teretibus rectiuſculis perfecté annulatis apice diaphanis gula imberbi. Lin. ſyſt. 97.
- Le Saiga. de Buffon, xii. 198. tab. xxii. fig. 2.
- Antilope ſcythica. Pallas ſpicil. 9. Faunul. ſinens.
A. with horns a foot long, bending a little in the middle, the points inclining inward, the ends ſmooth; the other part ſurrounded with very prominent annuli; of a pale yellow color, and the greateſt part ſemipellucid. Length, four feet nine inches and a quarter: height before, two feet ſix inches and a half; behind, two feet ſeven inches and a half: tail three inches: head like that of a ſheep: noſe very large, and arched; marked the whole length with [Page 36] a ſmall line, cauſed by the elevation of the ſeptum narium: the noſtrils tubular and large: the upper lip hangs over the under: the noſe is formed of a muſcular ſubſtance mixed with fat: the cutting teeth are placed ſo looſe in their ſockets as to move with the leſt touch. The male is covered with rough hair like the he goat, and has a very ſtrong ſmell. The female is ſmoother: the hair on the bottom of the ſides and the throat is long, and reſembles wool: that on the ſides of the head and neck is hoary: the back and ſides of a dirty white: the breaſt, belly and inſide of the thighs, of a ſhining white. The females hornleſs and timid: if attacked by wolves or dogs, the males place them in a circle, and ſtand round them, with their heads towards the enemy, and will defend them ſtoutly: bleat like ſheep: their common pace a trot: when they go faſter it is by leaps: are ſwifter than roebucks: feed by lifting up the upper mandible and going backward. The ſkin is ſoft, and excellent for gloves, belts, &c. Their beſt ſeaſon is September: at other times, the ſkins are penetrated by worms. The fat reſembles that of mutton; in taſte, like that of a buck: the head is reckoned the moſt delicate part. Found between the Tanais and Boriſthenes, and as far as Aſtrachan, in flocks of 6 or 10,000; and ſeem to be the ſame with thoſe called by Le Brun *, wild Sheep or Ablavos, which are met with among the Burattes, near lake Baikal, in herds of thouſands. The young are eaſily tamed, and will readily return to their maſter, tho' turned out on the Step, or deſert **.
A. with very ſlender horns ſix inches long, ſurrounded with circular rugae: leſs than a roebuck: each ſide the face a white line: neck, body and flanks, tawny: belly and inſide of the thighs white: ſeparated from the ſides by a dark line: on the knees is a tuft of hair. Some are irregularly ſpotted with white. Perhaps theſe are the ſpotted goats of Kolben, II. 115.
- B [...]b [...]lus Plinii lib. viii. c. 15.
- [...]? Oppian Cyneg. II. Li [...]. 300.
- Bu [...]ula cervina Caii opuſc. 63.
- Buſclaphus Geſner quad. 121.
- Vache de Barbarie, Memoire de L'acad. I. 205.
- Le Bubale de Buffon xii. 294. tab. xxxvii.xxxviii.
- Antilope Bubalis Pallas ſpicil. 12.
A. with horns bending outward and backward, almoſt cloſe at their baſe, and diſtant at their points; twiſted and annulated; very ſtrong and black; ſome are above twenty inches long, and above eleven in girth at the baſe: head large, and like that of an ox: eyes placed very high and near the horns: the form of the body a mixture of the ſtag and heifer: [...]he ſize of the firſt: the tail rather more than a foot [...]ong, terminated with a tuft of hair: color, a red [...]iſh brown.
Inhabits Barbary. This the Bubalus of the an [...]ients, not the Buffalo, as later writers have ſup [...]oſed. Pliny remarks an error of the ſame kind in [...]s days, ſpeaking of the Urus, ſays, Uros, quibus [Page 38] imperitum vulgus bubulorum nomen imponit, cum id gignat Africa, vituli potius cervive quadam ſimilitudine.
- Le Koba de Buffon xil. 210.267. tab. xxxii. fig. 2.
- Cert qu'on nomment Temamaçama Seb. Muſ. I. 69. tab. xlii fig. 4. Aſh. Muſ.
A. with horns almoſt cloſe at the baſe, a little above bending out greatly; then approach again towards the ends, and recede from each other towards the points, which bend backwards; the diſtance in the middle ſix inches and a half; above that four inches; at the points ſix; length, ſeventeen inches; circumference at the bottom eight; ſurrounded with fifteen prominent rings; the ends ſmooth and ſharp: head large and clumſy, eighteen inches long: ears ſeven: head and body of a light reddiſh brown: down the hind part of the neck a narrow black liſt: rump, a dirty white: on each knee, and above the fetlock, a duſky mark: hoofs ſmall: tail a foot long, covered with coarſe black hairs, which hang far beyond the end. Length of the whole ſkin which I bought at Amſterdam, ſeven feet.
A. with horns thirteen inches long, five inches and a half round at the bottom, very diſtant in the middle, and pretty cloſe at the baſe and points; ſurrounded with eight or nine rings; ſmooth at their upper part.
- Alce, machlis, Plinii, lib. viii. c. 15. Geſner quad. I. 3. Munſter Coſmog. 883.
- Cervus palmatus, Alce, Elant. Klein quad. 24. Ridinger wild. Thiere. 36.
- Elk, Raii ſyn. quad. 86. Scheffer Lapl. 133. Bell's trav. I. 5, 215, 322.
- Cervus Alces. C. cornibus acaullibus palmatis, caruncula gutturali, Lin. ſyſt. 92. Aelg. Faun. Suec. No. 39. Los, Rzacz [...]nſki Polon. 212.
- C. cornibus ab imo ad ſummum palmatis, Briſſon quad. 6. Faunul. Sinens.
- L'Elan, de Buffon. xii. 79. tab. vii.viii. Br. Muſ. Aſh. Muſ.
They live amidſt the foreſts for the conveniency of browzing the boughs of trees, for the great length of their legs and the ſhortneſs of their neck prevents them from grazing with any ſort of eaſe; they often feed on water plants, which they can readily get at by wading; and M. Sarraſin * ſays, they are ſo fond of the Anagyris foetida, or ſtinking b [...]n trefoil, as to dig for it with their feet, when covered with ſnow.
They have a ſingular gait; their pace is a high ſhambling trot, but they go with vaſt ſwiftneſs; in old times theſe animals were made uſe of in Sueden to draw ſledges; but as they were frequently acceſſary to the eſcape of murderers and other criminals, the uſe was prohibited under great penalties. In paſſing thro' thick woods, they carry their heads horizontally, to prevent their horns being entangled in the branches. In their common walk they raiſe their fore feet very high; that which I ſaw ſtepped over a rail near a yard high with great eaſe.
They are very inoffenſive animals except when wounded, or in the rutting ſeaſon, when they become very furious, and at that time ſwim from iſle to iſle, in purſuit of the females. They ſtrike with both horns and hoofs; are hunted in Canada during winter [Page 44] when they ſink ſo deep in the ſnow as to become an eaſy prey: the fleſh is much commended for being light and nouriſhing, but the noſe is reckoned the greateſt delicacy in all Canada: the tongues are excellent, and are frequently brought here from Ruſſia: the ſkin makes excellent buff leather*: Linnaeus ſays it will turn a muſket ball: the hair which is on the neck, withers and hams, of the full grown Elk, is of great length and very elaſtic, is uſed to make matreſſes: the hoofs were ſuppoſed to have great virtues in curing epilepſics. It was pretended, that the Elk being ſubject to that diſeaſe, cured itſelf by ſcratching its ear with its hoof.
The Elk was known to the Romans by the name of Alce and Machlis: they believed that it had no joints in its legs; and, from the great ſize of the upper lip, imagined it could not feed without going backward as it grazed.
Before I quit this ſubject it will be proper to take ſome notice of the enormous horns that are ſo often found foſſil in Ireland, and which have always been attributed to the Mooſe Deer: I mean the Mooſe Deer of Joſſelyn; for no other animal could poſſibly be ſuppoſed to carry ſo gigantic a head. Theſe horns differ very much from thoſe of the European or American Elk; the beam, or part between the baſe and the palm, is vaſtly longer: each is furniſhed with a large and palmated brow antler, and the ſnags on the upper palms are longer. The meaſurements of a pair of theſe horns are as follow: [Page 45] from the inſertion to the tips, 5 feet 5 inches; the brow antlers 11 inches; the broadeſt part of the palm, 18; diſtance between tip and tip, 7 feet 9: but theſe are ſmall in compariſon of others that have been found in the ſame kingdom. Mr. Wright, in his Louthiana, tab. xxii. Book III. gives the figure of one that was eight feet long, and fourteen between point and point. Theſe horns are frequent in our Muſeums, and at gentlemen's houſes in Ireland: but the Zoologiſt is ſtill at a loſs for the recent animal. I have been informed by a gentleman long reſident in Hudſon's Bay, that the Indians ſpeak of a beaſt of the Mooſe kind *, but far ſuperior in ſize to the common one, which they ſay is found 7 or 800 miles S. W. of York Fort. If ſuch an animal exiſts, with horns of the dimenſions juſt mentioned, and of proportionable dimenſions in other parts, there is a chance of ſeeing Joſſelyn's account verified: for if our largeſt elks of ſeventeen hands high carry horns of ſcarce three feet in length, we may very well allow the animal to be thirty-three hands high which is to ſupport horns of 3 or 400 lb. weight.
- Tarandus? Plinii lib. viii. c. 34.
- Le Rangier ou Ranglier. Gaſton de Foix apud du Fouilloux 98.
- Tarandus, Rangifer Geſner quad. 839, 840. Icon. quad. 57, 58.
- Cervus mirabilis, Jonſton quad. Munſter Coſmog. 1054.
- Macarib, Caribo, Pohano. Joſſelin's New England rarities, 20.
- Cervus rangifer Raii ſyn. quad. 88.
- Rennthier Klein quad. 23. Ridinger wild. Thiere. 35.
- C. Tarandus. C. cornibus ramoſis recurvatis teretibus, ſummitatibus palmatis. Lin. ſyſt. 93.
- Rhen. Faun. Suec. No. 41. Amaen. Acad. iv. 144.
- Le Renne de Buffon, xii. 79. tab x.xi.xii. Briſſon quad. 63.
- Reindeer Scheffer Supl. 82.12. Le Brun's travels, I. 10.11. Oeuvres de Maufertuis, III. 198. Voyage d'Outhier 141. Hiſt. Kamtchatka, 228. Bell's travels, I. 213. Martin's Spitzberg, 99. Crantz Greenl. I. 70. Egede Greenl. 60 Dobb's Hudſon's bay. 20.22. voy Hudſ. bay. II. 17.18.
- Le Caribou. Charlevoix hiſt. no [...] France, v. 190. Br. Muſ. Aſh [...] Muſ.
D. with large but ſlender horns bending forwards, the top palmated, with brow antlers broad and palmated: horns on both ſex; thoſe of the female leſs, and with fewer branches. A pair from Greenland was 3 feet 9 inches long, 2 — 6 from tip to tip; weighed 9 lb. 12 oz. height of a full grown Rein, 4 feet 6; ſpace round the eyes always black; when it firſt ſheds its coat, the hairs are of a browniſh aſh color; after that changes to white; the hairs are very cloſely ſet together; along the fore part of the neck are very long and pendent: hoofs large: tail ſhort. Inhabits the fartheſt north of any hoofed quadruped; in America, Spitzbergen, and Greenland, but not further ſouth than Canada. In Europe, Samoidea, Lapland, Norway; in Aſia, the north coaſt, as far as Kamtzchatka, and the inland parts as low as Siberia; found in all theſe places in a ſtate of nature; is domeſticated only by the Laplanders. Samoides and Kamtzchatkans; is to the firſt the ſubſtitute of the horſe, the cow, the goat and the [Page 47] ſheep; and is their only wealth; the milk of the Rein affords them cheeſe; the fleſh, food; the ſkin, cloathing; the tendons, bowſtrings; and when ſplit, thread; the horns, glue; the bones, ſpoons. During the winter it ſupplies the want of a horſe, and draws their ſledges with amazing ſwiftneſs over the frozen lakes and rivers; or over the ſnow, which at that ſeaſon covers the whole country. A rich Laplander is poſſeſſed of a herd of a thouſand Reins. In autumn they ſeek the higheſt hills to avoid the Lapland Gadfly *, which at that time depoſits its eggs in their ſkin; it is the peſt of theſe animals, and numbers die that are thus viſited. The moment a ſingle fly appears, the whole herd inſtantly perceives it, they fling up their heads, toſs about their horns, and at once attempt to fly for ſhelter amidſt the ſnows on the loftieſt Alps. In ſummer they feed on ſeveral plants; but during winter, on the rein-liverwort **, which lies far beneath the ſnow; which they remove with their feet and palmated brow antlers, in order to get at their beloved food. They live only ſixteen years.
Horns vary in ſize, and a little in form: one at Mr. John Hunter's, with two broad four-furcated branches over the brow antlers, bending a little inwards: the whole was ſtronger and broader, in proportion to the length, than common, and of a dul [...] deep yellow color.
- [...]. Ariſtot. hiſt. An. lib. II. c. 14.
- Platyceros Plinii lib. xi. c. 38. Oppian Cyneg. lib. II. lin. 293.
- Platogna. Belon obſ. 55.
- Dama vulgaris ſive recentiorum Geſner quad. 307.
- Daniel. Rzaczinſki Polon. 217.
- Cervus Platyceros, Fallow Deer. Raii ſyn. quad. 85.
- Cervus palmatus, Dam-tanhirſch Klein quad. 25.
- Cervus dama. C. cornibus ramoſis recurvatis compreſſis: ſummitate palmata Lin. ſyſt. 93. Hoſſelquiſt. itin. 290.
- Dof, Dofhiort Faun. ſuec. No. 42.
- Le Dain de Buffon vi. 161. tab. xxvii. Briſſon quad. 62.
- Buck. Br. Zool. I. 34. Pontet. Norway. II. 9. Du Halde Chi [...]s I. 315. Faunul. ſinens.
D. with horns palmated at their ends and pointing a little forward, and branched on the hinder ſide; two ſharp and ſlender brow antlers, and above them two ſmall ſlender branches. Color of this deer various, reddiſh, deep brown, white, ſpotted. Not ſo univerſal as the ſtag; rare in France and Germany. Found in Greece, the Holy Land, and the North of China. In great abundance in England; but, except on a few chaſes, at preſent confined in parks. M. de Buffon ſays, that the fallow deer of Spain are almoſt as large as ſtags. None originally in America. What are improperly called by that name will be deſcribed hereafter. Are eaſily tamed: during rutting time, will conteſt with each other for their miſtreſs; but are leſs fierce than the ſtag: during that ſeaſon, will form a hole in the ground, make the female lie down in it, and then often walk round and ſmell at her. Moore ſpeaks of a ſpecies found on the banks of the Gambia, in the interior parts of Africa, near Barracunda, called Toncong, which he ſays differed not in form from the Engliſh fallow deer; only that its ſize was equal to that of a ſmall horſe, and [Page 49] weighed 300 lb. it had alſo on its neck an erect black mane four or five inches long *.
- Cervus Plinii lib. viii. c. 32. Geſner quad. 326.
- Jelen. Rzaczinſki Polon. 216.
- Red Deer, Stag, or Hart. Raii ſyn. quad. 84.
- Cervus nobilis. Hirſch. Klein quad. 23.
- C Elaphus. C. cornibus ramotis teretibus recurvatis. Lin. ſyſt. 93. Hiort, Kron-hiort. Faun. ſuec. No. 4.
- Le Cerf de Buffon, vi. 63. tab. ix.x. Briſſon quad. 58.
- Stag, or Red Deer. Br. Zool. I. 34. Shaw's travels, 243.
- Cateſby Carolin. App. xxxviii. Lawſon Carolin. 123. Faunul. ſinens.
D. with long upright horns, much branched: ſlender and ſharp brow antlers. Color of the ſtag generally a reddiſh brown, with ſome black about the face, and a black liſt down the hind part of the neck and between the ſhoulders. Grows to a large ſize: one killed in the county of Aberdeen weighed 18 ſtone Scots, or 314 lb. horns of the American ſtags ſometimes weigh 30 lb. and are above four feet high.
Common to Europe, Barbary, North of Aſia and North America. Lives in herds: one male generally ſupreme in each herd. Furious and dangerous in rutting time. Seeks the female with a violent braying. Rutting ſeaſon in Auguſt. Begins to ſhed its horns the latter end of February, or beginning of March: recovers them entirely by July. Fond of the ſound of the pipe; will ſtand and liſten attentively. [Page 50] The account of the Cervina Senectus *, or vaſt longevity of the Stag, fabulous. Hinds go with young above eight months, bring one at a time, ſeldom two: ſecure the young from the ſtag, who would deſtroy it. Fleſh of theſe animals coarſe and rank: ſkin uſeful for many purpoſes: from the horns is extracted the celebrated ſpirit of hartſhorn; but the horns of all other deer yield the ſame ſalt. The Hippelaphus ** of the antients, only a large race of ſtags, with longer hair on the neck, giving it the appearance of a mane. This is diſtinguiſhed by the French with the title of Cerf d'Ardenne: by the Germans, with that of Brandhirtz. Under the ſame variety may be alſo brought the Tragelaphus; ſo called from being more hairy than common †.
Le Cerf de Corſe of M. de Buffon, vi. is the leſt ſpecies, of a deep brown color. Vide p. 95. tab. xi. This may be the ſame as the ſmall kind of ſtag, rather larger than the fallow deer, which Dr. Shaw ſays is found in Barbary, whoſe female the Moors call in deriſion Fortaſs, or Scald head, from having no horns ‡. In Ceylon, (as I have been informed by Mr. Loten) are two varieties of ſtags; one of the common ſize, the other 14 hands high, and are called there Elks.
- Fallow deer Lawſon Carol. 123. Cateſby App. xxxviii. du Pratz, II. 50.
- Dama virginiana Raii ſyn. quad. 86. Ph. Tr. Abridg. ix. 86. Br. Muſ. Aſhm. Muſ.
D. with ſlender horns, bending very much forward: have numerous branches on the interior ſides; no brow antlers: about the ſize of the Engliſh fallow deer: of a light color, a cinereous brown: tail longer than that of the Engliſh Buck: a quite diſtinct ſpecies, and peculiar to America. Are found in vaſt herds. Thoſe near the ſhores are lean and bad, and ſubject to worms in their heads and throats. Are very reſtleſs; always in motion: not fierce: their fleſh dry; but of the utmoſt importance to the Indians, who dry it for their winter proviſion. The ſkins a great article of commerce, vaſt numbers annually imported from our colonies. Feed during hard winters on the moſs which hangs in long ſtrings from the American trees, in the northern parts.
- Axis Plinii lib. viii. c. 21. Belon obſ 119. (faem.) Raii ſyn. quad. 89. ſpeckled deer Nieuhoff voy. 262.
- L'Axis de Buffon, xi. 397. tab. xxxviii.xxxix.
D. with ſlender trifurcated horns; the firſt branch near the baſe; the ſecond near the top; each pointing upwards: ſize of the fallow deer: of a light red color: the body beautifully marked with white ſpots: along the lower part of the ſides next the belly is a line of white: the tail long as that of a fallow deer; red above, white beneath.
[Page 52] Common on the banks of the Ganges, and in the iſles of Ceylon and Java: will bear our climate: breed in the Prince of Orange's menagery near the Hague: are very tame: have the ſenſe of ſmelling: very exquiſite: readily eat bread, but will refuſe a piece that has been breathed on.
In the Britiſh Muſeum is a pair of large horns, of the ſame ſhape with the former, and, like them, trifurcated; are very thick ſtrong, and rugged; of a whitiſh color; two feet nine inches long; two feet four inches between tip and tip. There is not in any of the catalogues the leſt hint of the place they come from; or any hiſtory relating to them. From their general appearance, ſeem to be of a ſpecies different from the former.
D. with ſlender trifurcated horns thirteen inches long; ſix inches diſtant at the baſe: head ten inches and a half long: body, from the tip of the noſe to the tail, three feet ſix inches: height, from the ſhoulders to the hoof, two feet two inches; and about two inches higher behind: length of the tail eight inches: body thick and clumſy: legs fine and ſlender: color on the upper part of the neck, body and ſides, brown; belly and rump, of a lighter color.
- C [...]prea Plinii lib. xi. c. 3 [...].
- C [...]prea. capreolus, Dorcas Geſ [...]er quad. 2 [...]6.
- Sarn Rzacz [...]nſki Polon. 27.
- Cervus minimus Klein quad. 24.
- Fau [...]ul. ſinens.
- C [...]s capreolus. C. cornibus [...]oſis teretibus erectis, ſummitate bifida Lin. ſyſt. 94. Radjur.
- Faun. ſuec. No. 43.
- Le Chevreuil de Buffon, vi. 289. tab. xxxii. xxxiii. Briſſon quad. 61. Charlevoix N. France, v. 195.
- Roebuck Br. Zool. I. 139. Bell's Trav. I. 200. Br. Muſ. Aſh. Muſ.
D. with ſtrong upright rugged trifurcated horns from ſix to eight inches long: length, from noſe to tail, three feet nine inches: height before, two feet three inches: behind, two feet ſeven inches: tail, one inch: weight of a full grown buck near 60 lb. hair in ſummer very ſhort and ſmooth; ends of the hairs deep red, bottoms dark grey: in winter, very long and hoary at the tips, except on the back, where it is often very dark: the legs ſlender; and below the firſt joint of the hind legs is a tuft of long hair: rump, and underſide of the tail, white.
Inhabits moſt parts of Europe, as far north as Norway: found in Tartary and China; not in Africa. Uncertain whether this kind is found in N. America, notwithſtanding it is mentioned by Charlevoix: unnoticed by Lawſon and Cateſby. Frequent in the highlands of Scotland, but in no other part of Great Britain.
Fond of mountainous wooded countries, brouzes very much, and during winter eats the young ſhoots of fir and beech: is very active; lives in ſmall families: brings two young at a time; conceals them from the buck: the fleſh delicate, but never fat.
- Teutlalmaçame Hernandez An. Mexic 324.
- Cuguaca-apara? Mar [...]grave Braſil, 235. Piſo Braſil, 97.
- Baieu Bancro [...]t Guiana, 122.
- Cervus major, corniculis breviſſimis. Biche des bois. Barrere France Aequin. 151.
- Chevreuil d'Amerique. de Buffon, vi. 210, 243. tab. xxxvii.
- Le Cariacou? de Buffon, xii. 321.347. tab. xliv.
D. with ſtrong thick rugged horns, bending forward; ten inches long; nine between point and point; trifurcated in the upper part; one erect ſnag about two inches above the baſe: by accident ſubject to vary in the number of branches: head large: neck thick: eyes large, and bright: about the ſize of the European Roe: color of the hair reddiſh; when young, ſpotted with white.
Inhabits Mexico, Guiana, and Braſil; not only the internal parts of the country, but even the borders of the plantations: the fleſh inferior to that of European veniſon. A ſpecies very diſtinct from the Roe of the old continent. An accurate account of the hoofed quadrupeds, of the new continent, among the deſiderata of the Zoologist.
In the Muſeum of the Royal Society is a pair of horns of ſome animal of the Roebuck kind, ſtyled by Grew * horns of the Indian Roebuck: they are ſixteen inches long, and the ſame between tip and tip; are very thick, ſtrong and rugged; near the baſe of each is an upright forked branch; the ends bend forward, divide into two branches, each furniſhed with numerous ſnags.
Size of a cat; of a grey color: between the ears a line of black: a large black ſpot above the eyes: on each ſide the throat a line of the ſame color pointing downwards: the middle of the breaſt black: the fore legs and ſides of the belly, as far as the hams, marked with black: ears rather long: under ſide of the tail black.
- Capreolus Moſchi. Geſner quad. 695.
- Animal Moſchiferum Raii ſyn. quad. 127. Schrockius hiſt. Moſchi, 1. tab. 1.
- Animal Moſchiferum, Kabarga. Nov. com. Petrop. iv. 393.
- Muſk animal. Tavermer's trav. II. 153. Le Brun's Trav. I. 116. Bell's Trav. I. 249. II. 88. Strahtenberg, 339.
- Du Halde China, I. 63.324. Gre [...]. Muſeum, 21.
- Moſchus Moſchiferus. M. folliculo umbilicali Lin. ſyſt. 91.
- Tragulus, ſp. 5. Le Muſc Br [...]on quad. 67. Klein quad. 18.
- Le Muſc de Buffon xii. 361. Faunul. [...]inens.
M. of the form of a roebuck: length three feet three inches, from the top of the ſhoulders to the ſoles of the feet, two feet three inches. From the top of the haunches to thoſe of the hind feet, two feet nine inches.
Inhabits the kingdom of Tibet, the province of Mohang Meng in China, Tonquin, and Bontan; about the lake Baikal, and near the rivers Jeneſea, and Argun. Found from Lat. 60 to 44 or 45; but never wanders ſo far ſouth, except when forced thro' hunger by great falls or ſnow, when they migrate ſouth to feed on corn and new-grown rice. Inhabit naturally the mountains that are covered with pines: love ſolitude: avoid mankind. If purſued ſeek the higheſt ſummits, inacceſſible to m [...]n or dogs.
That noted drug the muſk is produced from the male. It is found in a bag or tumor of the ſize of a hen's egg on the belly of that ſex only. It is furniſhed with two ſmall orifices; the largeſt is oblong, the other round; the one is naked, the other covered with long hairs. The muſk is contained in this, for Mr. Gmelin tells us, that on ſqueezing the tumor, the muſk was forced thro' the apertures in form of a fat brown matter. The hunters cut of [...] the bag and tie it up for ſale; but are very apt to adulterate the contents, by mixing other matter with it to encreaſe the weight. Theſe animals muſt be found in great plenty, for Tavernier ſays, that he bought in one journey 7673 muſk bags. The muſk of Tibet is far ſuperior to that of other places, and of courſe much dearer. The fleſh of the males is much infected with this drug, but is eaten by the [Page 58] Ruſſians and Tartars. It is ſtrongeſt in rutting time.
- Cuguacu-ete. Margrave Braſil. 235. Piſo Braſil. 97.
- Biche de Guiane. des Marchais. III. 295.
- Wirrebocerra. Bancroft Guiana. 123.
- Cervula ſurinamenſis, ſubru [...]r albis maculis notata. Seb. Muſ. [...] 71. tab. xliv. Klein quad. 22 Briſſon quad. 67.
M. about the ſize of a roebuck: ears four inches long: the veins very aparent: eye large and black; noſtrils wide: ſpace about the mouth black: the hind legs longer than the fore legs: tail ſhort: hair on the whole body ſhort and ſmooth: on the head and neck brown: the throat and lower part of the neck white: body and legs tawny: hoofs black.
Inhabits Guiana and Braſil; are exceſſively timid, and moſt remarkably active, and ſwift; like goats they can ſtand with all their four legs placed together on the point of a rock. They are frequently ſeen ſwimming the rivers, and at that time are eaſily taken. The Indians hunt them, and their fleſh is eſteemed very delicate. The French of Guiana call them Biches or Does, becauſe notwithſtanding their likeneſs to deer, both ſexes are without horns▪ M. de Buffon accuſes Seba of an error, in placing this animal in Surinam; but the laſt is vindicated by ſeveral authorities, who have had ocular proof of its exiſtence in Guiana, &c.
- Le C [...]vrota [...] des Indes. de Buff [...]n. xii. 315.341. tab. xiii. xliii.
- Tragu [...]as Guineenſis. Briſſon quad. 66. Tr. indicus. 63. Klein quad. 21.
- Moſchus pygmaeus Lin. ſyſt. 92.
M. nine inches ½ long: head, legs, and whole upper part of the body tawny: belly white: no ſpurious hoofs: two very broad cutting teeth in the lower jaw: on each ſide of them, three others very ſlender: in the upper jaw two ſmall tuſks: ears large: tail an inch long. In poſſeſſion of Mr. Guy of York Buildings, who ſaid it came from Guinea, M. de Buffon ſays it is found in the Eaſt-Indies. The horns which Linnaeus ſays are ſold as belonging to this animal are thoſe of the Royal Antelope, p. 28.
- [...] Ariſt. hiſt. An. lib. II. c. 1.
- Camelus Arabicus Plinii lib. viii. c. 18.
- Camel called Hugiun Leo Afr. 338.
- Camelus Dromas Geſner quad. 159. Pr. Alp. hiſt. Aegypt. I. 223.
- Camelus unico in dorſo gibbo, ſeu Dromedarius. Camel, or Dromedary. Raii ſyn. quad. 143. Klein quad. 42.
- Camelus Dromedarius. C. topho dorſi unico. Lin. ſyſt. 90.
- Le Dromedaire de Buffon, xii. 211. tab. ix. Briſſon quad. 33.
- Camel with one bunch. Poce [...] trav. I. 207. Shaw's trav. 239. Ruſſel's hiſt. Aleppo. 56.57. Pla [...] ſted's journal, 82.
C. with a bunch on the back: head ſmall: ears ſhort: neck long, ſlender and bending: height to the top of the bunch ſix feet ſix inches: hair ſoft: longeſt about the neck, under the throat, and about the bunch: color of that on the protuberance duſky: on the other parts a reddiſh aſh color: tail long: the hair on the middle ſoft: on the ſides coarſe, black and long: hoofs ſmall: feet flat, divided above, but not thro': the bottom exceſſively tough yet pliant: has ſix calloſities on the legs, one on each knee, one on the inſide of each foreleg, on the upper joint; one on the inſide of the hind leg, at the bottom of the thigh, another on the lower part of the breaſt, the places that the animal reſts on when it lies down.
The riches of Arabia, from the time of Job to the preſent, the patriarch reckoned 6000 camels [Page 61] among his paſtoral treaſures; the moderns eſtimate their wealth by the numbers of theſe uſeful animals; without them great part of Aſia and Africa would be wretched; by them the ſole commerce is carried thro' arid and burning tracts, impaſſible but by beaſts which providence formed expreſsly for the ſcorched deſerts. Their ſoles are adapted to the ſands they are to paſs over, their toughneſs and ſpungy ſoftneſs preventing them from cracking. Their great powers of ſuſtaining abſtinence from drinking, enables them to paſs over unwatered tracts for ſeven or eight days without requiring the leſt liquid; Leo Africanus ſays for fifteen. They can diſcover water by their ſcent at half a league's diſtance, and after a long abſtinence will haſten towards it, long before their drivers perceive where it lies.
Their patience under hunger is ſuch, that they will travel many days fed only with a few dates, or ſome ſmall balls of bean or barley-meal; or on the miſerable thorny plants they meet with in the deſerts.
The largeſt kind will carry a load of 1000 or 1200lb. weight. They kneel down to be loaded; but riſe the moment they find the burthen equal to their ſtrength: they will not permit an ounce more to be put on: are moſt mild and gentle, at all times, but when they are in heat: during that period, are ſeized with a ſort of madneſs, that it is unſafe to approach them: are not prevailed on to quicken their pace by blows; but go freely if gent [...]y treated, and ſeem enlivened by the pipe, or any [Page 62] muſick. In winter they are covered with long hair, which falls off in the ſpring, and is carefully gathered, being wove into ſtuffs, and alſo cloths to cover tents. In ſummer their hair is ſhort. Before the great heats the owners ſmear their bodies, to keep off the flies. The Arabs are very fond of the fleſh * of young camels. The milk of theſe animals is their principal ſubſiſtence; and the dung of camels is the fuel uſed by the Caravans in the travels over the deſerts.
There are varieties among the camels. The Turkman is the largeſt and ſtrongeſt. The Arabian is hardy. What is called the Dromedary, Maihary, and Raguahl, is very ſwift. The common ſort travel about 30 miles a day. The laſt, which has a leſs bunch, and more delicate ſhape, and alſo much inferior in ſize, never carries burdens; but is uſed to ride on. In Arabia, they are trained for running matches: and in many places, for carrying couriers, who can go above 100 miles a day, on them; and that for nine days together,** over burning deſerts unhabitable by any living creature. The Chineſe call theſe ſwift camels, expreſſively, Fo [...]g Kyo to, or camels with feet of the wind. The African camels are the moſt hardy, having more diſtant and more dreadfull deſerts to paſs over than any of the others, from Numidia to the kingdom of Aethiopia. She Chin, a Chineſe phyſician, ſays, tha [...] camels are found wild N. W. of his country†.
- [...] Ariſt. hiſt. An. II. c. 1.
- Camelus Bactrianus Plinii lib. viii. c. 18.
- Camel called Becheti Leo Afr. 338.
- Camelus Geſner quad. 150. Pr. A [...]p. hiſt. Aegypt. I. 223. tab. 13.
- Camelus duobus in dorſo tuberibus, ſeu Bactrianus. Raii ſyn. quad. 145.
- Camelus Bactrianus. C. dorſi tophis duobus Lin. ſyſt. 90. Klein quad. 41.
- Le Chameau de Buffon xi. 211. tab. xxii. Briſſon quad. 32.
- Perſian camel Ruſſel's hiſt. Aleppo, 57.
It is found only in Aſia, and even there is rare, the breed being almoſt confined to ſome parts of Perſia and the ſouthern parts of Tartary. They do not differ in their nature or manners from the other kind.
Camels have been introduced into Jamaica and Barbadoes; but, for want of knowlege of their diet and treatment, have in general been of very little ſervice †.
- Ovis Peruana Hernandez An. Mex. 660. Marcgrave Braſil, 243.
- Huanucu-Llama, de Laet. 328.
- Allo-camelus Scaligeri. Ovis Indica Geſner quad. 149.
- Llama. Ovalle chile. Churchill's Coll. 44, 45. Guanaco ibid. Cieza's Travels, 232.233. Frezier's voy. 154. Feuillèe obſ. Peru, 23. Ullca's voy. I. 478.
- Wood's voyage in Dampier's, iv. [...].
- Camelus Glama. C. corpore la. vi, topho pectorali. Lin. ſyſt. c.
- Camelus Peruvianus Glama dict [...]s Raii ſyn. quad. 145.
- Le Lama de Buffon xiii. 16.
- Camelus pilis breviſſimis. Le Chameau de Perou. Briſſon quad. 34.
- Camelus ſpurius Klein quad. 42.
C. with an almoſt even back, ſmall head, fine black eyes, and very long neck, bending much, and very protuberant * near the junction with the body: in a tame ſtate, with ſmooth ſhort hair; in a wild ſtate, with long coarſe hair**; white, grey and ruſſet, diſpoſed in ſpots. According to Hernandez, yellowiſh, with a black line from the head along the top of the back to the tail, and belly white. The ſpotted may poſſibly be the tame; the laſt, the wild Llamas. The tail ſhort: the height from four to four feet and a half: length, from the neck to the tail, ſix feet. The carcaſs, diveſted of ſkin and offals, according to the editor of Mr. Biron's voyage, weighed 200lb. in general the ſhape exactly reſembles a camel, only it wanted the dorſal bunch.
It is the camel of Peru and Chili; and before the arrival of the Spaniards, was the only beaſt of burthen known to the Indians. It is as mild, as gentle, and as tractable. We find, that before the introduction [Page 65] of mules *, they were uſed by the Indians to plow the land; that at preſent they ſerve to carry burthens of about 100lb. that they go with great gravity, and, like their Spaniſh maſters, nothing can prevale on them to change their pace. They lie down to be loaden; and when wearied, no blows can provoke them to go on. Feuillée ſays, they are ſo capricious, that if ſtruck, they inſtantly ſquat down, and nothing but careſſes can induce them to riſe. When angry, have no other method of revenging injuries than by ſpitting, and they can ejaculate their ſaliva to the diſtance of ten paces; if it falls on the ſkin, it raiſes an itching and a reddiſh ſpot. Their fleſh is eaten, and ſaid to be as good as mutton. The wool has a ſtrong diſagreeable ſcent. They are very ſure-footed; therefore uſed to carry the Peruvian ores over the ruggedeſt hills and narroweſt paths of the Andes. They inhabit that vaſt chain of mountains, their whole length, to the ſtraits of Magellan; but, except where thoſe hills approach the ſea, as in Patagonia, never appear on the coaſts. Like the camel, they have powers of abſtaining long from drink, ſometimes for four or five days: like that animal's, their food is coarſe and trifling.
As every domeſtic animal has, or had its ſtock or origin in a wild ſtate, we believe the Llama and the Guanaco to be the ſame. The Llama is deſcribed as the largeſt of the two domeſtic animals the Peruvians have; for, except that, they knew no [Page 66] other than the congenerous Pacos. We find two animals ſimilar to theſe, wild; the larger, or Guanico, may be ſuppoſed to be a ſavage Llama; the leſſer, or Vicunna, to be the Pacos in a ſtate of nature: the brief deſcriptions we have left us of each, give us little room to doubt but that the difference of color and hair ariſes only from culture.
In a wild ſtate they keep in great herds in the higheſt and ſteepeſt parts of the hills; and while they are feeding, one keeps centry on the pinnacle of ſome rock: if it perceives the approach of any one, it neighs; the herd takes the alarm, and goes off with incredible ſpeed. They out-run all dogs; ſo there is no other way of killing them but with a gun. They are killed for the ſake of their fleſh and their hair; for the Indians weave the laſt into cloth*. From the form of the parts of generation, in both ſexes, no animal copulates with ſuch difficulty: it is often the labor of a day, Antequam actum ipſum venereum incipiant, et abſolvant. [Note: Hernandez, 662.].
- Pacos Hernandez, 663. Paco, vicunna de Laet. 328.329. Cieza. 233.
- Ovis chilenſis. Marcgrave 244.
- Wood's voy. Dampier, iv. 95.
- Narborough's voy. 32.
- Vicunna, Alpaques. Frezier's voy. 153, 154. Ulloa's voy. I. 479.
- Camelus ſeu Camelo congener Peruvianum lanigerum, F [...] dictum. Raii ſyn. quad. 147.
- Camelus laniger. Klein. quad. 42
- Le Paco. de Buffon xiii. 16.
- Camelus pilis prolixis toto corpor [...] veſtitus. Le vigogne. Briſſon quad. 35.
- Camelus Pacos. C. tophis nullis corpore lanato. Lin. ſyſt. 91.
C. with the body covered with long and very fine wool, of the color of dried roſes, or a dull purple: the belly white: in a tame ſtate: varies in color: [Page 67] ſhaped like the former, but much leſs: the leg of one I ſaw was about the ſize of that of a buck.
Are of the ſame nature with the preceding: ininhabit the ſame places, but are more capable of ſupporting the rigor of froſt and ſnow: they live in vaſt herds; are very timid, and exceſſively ſwift: ſometimes the Guanacoes aſſociate with them. The Indians take the Pacos in a ſtrange manner: they tie cords with bits of wool or cloth hanging to them, above 3 or 4 feet from the ground, croſs the narrow paſſes of the mountains, then drive thoſe animals towards them, which are ſo terrified by the flutter of the rags as not to dare to paſs, but huddling together, give the hunters opportunity to kill with their ſlings as many as they pleaſe. The tame ones will carry* from 50 to 75lb.
Theſe animals yield a Bezoar: Wafer ** ſays he has taken thirteen out of the ſtomach of a ſingle beaſt: they were ragged and of ſeveral forms, ſome round, ſome oval, others long: they were green at firſt, but changed to aſh color.
- (Wild). Sus fera, aper Plinii lib. viii. c 51. Geſner quad. 918.
- Sus agreſtis ſive aper, wild boar or ſwine. Raii ſyn. quad. 96.
- Wieprz leſny, Dzik. Rzaczynſki Polon. 213.
- Wild Schwein. Klein quad. 25.
- Le Sangher. de Buffon v. 99. tab. xiv.
- Sus caudatus, auriculis Brevibus, ſubrotundis, cauda piloſa. Briſſon quad. 75.
- Sus aper. Lin. ſyſt. 102.
- (Tame). Sus. Geſner quad. 8 [...]. Rau ſyn. quad. 92.
- Schwein. Klein quad. 25.
- Le Cochon. de Buffon v. 99. Le verrat. tab. xvi.
- Sus caudatus, auriculis oblongi [...] ▪ acutis, cauda piloſa. Briſſon quad. 74.
- Sus ſcrofa. S. dorſo anticè [...]et [...]o, cauda piloſa. Lin. ſyſt. 102. Swi [...]. Faun. ſu [...]c. No. 21. Br. Zool. I. 41.
H. with the body covered with briſtles: two large tuſks above and below: in a wild ſtate, of a dark brinded color, and beneath the briſtles is a ſoft curled ſhort hair: the ears ſhort, and a little rounded. TAME: the ears long, ſharp pointed, and ſlouching: the color generally white, ſometimes mixed with other colors.
In a tame ſtate, univerſal, except in the frigid zones, and Kamtſchatka *, and ſuch places where the cold is very ſevere. Since its introduction into America, by the Europeans, abounds to exceſs in the hot and temperate parts. Found wild in moſt part of Europe, except the Britiſh iſles, and the countries N. of the Baltic: in Aſia, from Syria to the borders of the lake Baikal **: in Africa, on the coaſt of Barbary. In the foreſts of S. America † are vaſt droves, which derive their origin from the European [Page 69] kind relapſed into a ſtate of nature, and are what Mr. Bancroft, in his hiſtory of Guiana, 126, deſcribes as a particular ſpecies, by the name of Warree. Cannot bear exceſſive cold: inhabit wooded countries: very ſwift: a ſtupid, inactive, drowſy animal, fond of wallowing in the mud to cool its ſurfeited body: greedy, voracious, but not indiſcriminate in the choice of its food; has been found to eat 72 ſpecies of plants, reject 171; very fond of various roots: ſo brutal as to eat its own offſpring. Uſefull in America, by clearing the country of rattle-ſnakes, which it devours with ſafety: reſtleſs in high winds: has a natural diſpoſition to grow fat: is very prolific, brings ſometime 20 young at a time: its fleſh of vaſt uſe, takes ſalt the beſt of any; furniſhes our table with various delicacies; [...]rawn, peculiar to the Engliſh. The Romans made a diſh
Of the ſwelling unctuous PapsOf a fat praegnant Sow, newly cut off.
- *GUIN [...]A. Porcus guineenſis. Maregrave Braſil. 230. Raii ſyn. quad. 96.
- S [...] porcus. S. dorſo poſticè ſetoſo, cauda longitudine pedunt Lin. ſyſt. 103.
- Le Cochon de Guinea de Buffon xv. 146. Briſſon quad. 76.
H. with a leſſer head than the common kind: very long, ſlender, and ſharp pointed ears: tail hanging down to the heels, without hairs: the body covered with ſhort red ſhining hairs, but about the neck and lower part of the back a little longer: no briſties: a domeſtic variety of the common kind.
- β CHINESE. Sus chinenſis. Lin. ſyſt. 102. Briſſon quad. 75.
- Le cochon de Siam. de Buffon v. 99. tab. xv.
- Javan Hog. Kolben Cape I. 117.
- Engalla. Sorrento's voy. in Churchhill. I. 667. Barbot. 487. Dampier's voy? I. 320.
- African wild boar. Adanſon's voy. 139. Deſ [...]andes Martyns mem. Acad. v. 386.
- Sus Aethiopicus, Hardlooper. Pallas miſcel. zool. 16. tab. 11. ſpecil faſc. II. 1. tab. I. Flacourt hiſt. Madagaſcar. 511.
- Sus Aethiopicus. S. ſacculo molii ſub oculis. Lin. ſyſt. App. Tom. III. 223.
- Sanglier du cap vert. de Buffon xiv. 409. xv. 148. Aſhm. Muſ.
H. with ſmall tuſks in the lower jaws; very large ones in the upper; in old boars bending up towards the forehead, in form of a ſemicircle; no foreteeth: noſe broad, depreſſed, and almoſt of a horny hardneſs: head very large and broad: beneath each eye a hollow, formed of looſe ſkin, very ſoft, and wrinkled; under theſe a great lobe or wattle, lying almoſt horizontal, broad, flat, and rounded at the end, placed ſo as to intercept the view of any thing below from the animal.
Between theſe and the mouth on each ſide a hard callous protuberance: mouth ſmall: ſkin duſky: [Page 71] briſtles diſpoſed in faſciculi, of about five each; longeſt between the ears, and on the beginning of the back, and but thinly diſperſed on the reſt of the back.
I ſaw this animal, 1765, at the Prince of Orange's menagery near the Hague; it was young, and probably had not its full number of teeth; I imagine ſo, as the head of a boar from Cape Verd, deſcribed by M. de Buffon; and jaws of another preſerved in the Aſhmolean Muſeum, at Oxford, evidently of the ſame ſpecies with this, had in the upper jaw two cutting teeth; and in the lower ſix; and in each were ſix grinders, the fartheſt of them very large.
Theſe animals inhabit the hotteſt parts of Africa, from Senegal to Congo, alſo the iſland of Madagaſcar *. We know little of their nature, but they are repreſented as very fierce and ſwift; and that they will not breed either with the domeſtic or Chineſe ſow, for that at the Hague killed one of the laſt, and treated the other very roughly, which for experiment were turned to it **.
- Quauhtla coymatl. Quapizotl. aper mexicanus Hernandez an. mex. 637.
- Hogs with navels on their backs. Purchas's Pilgr. III. 868.966.
- Tajacu. Piſo Braſil 98. Barrere France oequin. 161.
- Tajacu, Caaigora. Mar [...]grave Braſil. 229. Ovalle chile Churchhill. III. 2.
- Tajacu ſeu aper mexicanus moſchiſorus. Raii ſyn. quad. 77.
- Mexican muſk hog. Ph. Tr. abr. II. 876.
- Pecary. Wafer's voy. Damp [...]r II 328. iv. 48. Roger's voy. 343. Des Marchais voy. III. 312. Gum [...] la oren [...]que II. 6. Bancroft Gu [...] 124. de Buffon x. 21. tab. iii. [...] Seb. muſ. I. 177.
- Javaris Rochſort Antilles I. 285.
- Sus ecaudatus, folliculum ich [...] roſum in dorſo gerens. Br [...] quad. 77.
- Sus dorſo cyſtifero, cauda nul. S. Tajacu. Lin. ſyſt. 103.
H. with four cutting teeth above, ſix below; tw [...] tuſks in each jaw; thoſe in the upper jaw pointin [...] down, and little apparent when the mouth is ſhort the others hid: length from noſe to the end of th [...] rump about three feet: head not ſo taper as in common ſwine: ears ſhort and erect: body covere [...] with briſtles, ſtronger than thoſe of the Europea [...] kind, and more like thoſe of a hedge-hog; they ar [...] duſky, ſurrounded with rings of white; thoſe o [...] the top of the neck and back are near five inche [...] long, grow ſhorter on the ſides; the belly almoſ [...] naked: from the ſhoulders to the breaſt is a band o [...] white: no tail: on the lower part of the back is [...] gland, open at the top, diſcharging a foetid ichorous liquor; this has been miſtakenly called a navel.
Inhabits the hotteſt parts of S. America, and ſome of the Antilles: lives in the foreſts on the mountains: not fond of mire or marſhy places leſs [...]at than the common hog: goes in great droves: are very fierce: will fight ſtoutly with the beaſts of [Page 73] prey: the Jaguar, or American leopard is its mortal enemy; often the body of that animal is found with ſeveral of theſe hogs ſlain in combat. Dogs will ſcarce attack it: if wounded will turn on the hunter. Feeds on fruits and roots, on toads, and all manner of ſerpents, and holding them with the fore-feet, ſkins them with great dexterity. Is reckoned very good food; but all writers agree that the dorſal gland muſt be cut out as ſoon as the animal is killed, or the fleſh will become ſo infected as not to be eatable. The Indian name of this ſpecies is Paquiras *, from whence ſeems to be derived that of Pecary.
- Aper in India &c. Plinii lib. viii. [...]52.
- [...]. Aelian an. lib. [...]ii. c. 10.
- Baby-ro [...]ſſa. Bontius India. 61. [...]ew's Muſeum. 27. Raii ſyn. quad. [...]. Klein quad. 25. Seb. Muſ. I. [...]. tab. 50. Valentyn Amboin. III. [...].
- S [...]nge hog. Purchas's Pilgr. II. 1693. v. 560. Nieuhoff's voy. 195.
- Sus dentibus duobus caninis fronti innatis. S. Babyruſſa: Lin ſyſt. 104.
- Sus caudatus, dentibus caninis ſuperioribus, ab origine ſurſum verſis, arcuatis, cauda floccoſa. Briſſon quad. 76.
- Le Babirouſſa. de Buffon xii. 3 [...]9. tab. XLVIII. Br. muſ. Aſhm. muſ.
H. with four cutting teeth in the upper, ſix in the lower jaw; ten grinders to each jaw; in the lower jaw two tuſks pointing towards the eyes, and ſtanding near eight inches out of their ſockets; from two ſockets on the outſide of the upper jaw, two other teeth, twelve inches long, bending like horns, their ends almoſt touching the forehead: ears ſmall, erect, ſharp pointed: along the back are ſome weak [Page 74] briſtles: on the reſt of the body only a ſort of wool, ſuch as is on lambs: the tail long, ends in a tuft, and is often twiſted: the body plump and ſquare; not of the elegant form that Bontius and Nieuhoff give it; as appears by an original drawing Mr. Loten favored me with.
Inhabits Buero, a ſmall iſle near Amboina: it is alſo found in Celebes, but neither on the continent of Aſia, or Africa; what M. de Buffon takes for it, is the Aethiopian boar. Is ſometimes kept tame in the Indian iſles: live in herds: have a very quick ſcent: live on herbs and leaves of trees; never ravage gardens like other ſwine: their fleſh well-taſted: when purſued and driven to extremities, ruſh into the ſea, ſwim very well, and even dive, and paſs thus from iſle to iſle: in the foreſts often reſt their head, by hooking their upper tuſks on ſome bough*. The tuſks, from their form, uſeleſs in fight.
- Rhinoceros. Plinii lib. viii. c. 20. Geſner quad. 842. Raii ſyn. quad. 122. Klein quad. 26. Grew's muſeum, 20. Worm muſ. 336. de Buffon, xi. 174. tab. vii. Briſſon quad. 78. FF. Tr. Abr. ix. 93. Kolben II. 101.
- Rhinoceros or Abbados. Linſecttan Itin. 56. Purchas's Pilgr. II. 1001. 1773. Bontius India. 50. Borri hiſt. Cochin-China. 797. Voy. Congo Churchill I. 668. Du Halde China. I. 120. Faunul Sinens.
- Rhinoceros unicornis. Lin. ſyſt. 104. Edw. 221. Br. muſ. Aſhm. muſ.
- [...]. Two horned. Urſus cornu aemino. Martial ſpectac. ep. 22. P [...]. Tr. Abr. ix. 100. xi. 910. P [...]. Tr. vol. LVI. 32. tab. 2. Flacourt hiſt. Madag. 395. de Buffon xi. 186. Lobo Abiſs. 230.
- Rhinoceros bicornis. Lin. ſyſt. 104. Br. muſ.
Rh. with a ſingle horn, placed near the end of the noſe, ſometimes three feet and a half long, black, and ſmooth: the upper lip long, hangs over the lower, ends in a point, is very pliable, and ſerves to collect its food, and deliver it into the mouth: the noſtrils placed tranſverſely: the ears large, erect, pointed: eyes ſmall and dull: the ſkin naked, rough, or tuberculated, lying about the neck in vaſt folds; there is another fold from the ſhoulders to the forelegs; another from the hind part of the back to the thighs: the ſkin ſo thick and ſo ſtrong as to turn the edge of a ſcymeter, and reſiſt a muſket ball: ſlender, flatted at the end, covered on the ſides with very ſtiff thick black hairs: the belly hangs low: the legs ſhort, ſtrong and thick: the hoofs divided into three parts, each pointing forward.
[Page 76] Thoſe which have been brought to Europe have been young and ſmall: Bontius ſays, that in reſpect to bulk of body, they equal the elephant, but are lower on account of the ſhortneſs of the legs.
Inhabits Bengal, Siam, Cochin-China, Quangſi in China, the iſles of Java, and Sumatra, Congo, Angola, Aethiopia, and the country as low as the Cape▪ loves ſhady foreſts, the neighbourhood of rivers, and marſhy places: fond of wallowing in mire like the hog; is ſaid by that means to give ſhelter in the folds of its ſkin to ſcorpions, centipes, and other inſects. Is a ſolitary animal: brings one young at a time, very ſollicitous about it: quiet and inoffenſive; but provoked, furious: very ſwift, and very dangerous: I knew a gentleman who had his belly ripped up by one, but ſurvived the wound. Is dull of ſight; but has a moſt exquiſite ſcent: feeds on vegetables, particularly ſhrubs, broom, and thiſtles: grunts like a hog: is ſaid to conſort with the tiger; a fable, founded on their common attachment to the ſides of rivers, and on that account are ſometimes found near each other. Are ſaid when it has flung down a man, to lick the fleſh quite from the bone with its rough tongue; this very doubtfull; that which wounded the gentleman retired inſtantly after the ſtroke.
Its fleſh is eaten; Kolben ſays it is very good: the ſkin, the fleſh, hoofs, teeth, and very dung, uſed in India medicinally; the horn is in great repute as an antidote againſt poiſon*, eſpecially that of a [Page 77] virgin Abbada; cups are made of them. Found ſometimes with * double horns: Martial alludes to a variety of this kind by his Urſus cornu gemino.
Is the unicorn of HOLY WRIT, and of the antients; the Oryx and Indian aſs of Ariſtotle **, who ſays it has but one horn; his informers might well compare the clumſy ſhape of the Rhinoceros to that of an aſs, ſo that the philoſopher might eaſily be induced to pronounce it a whole footed animal. This was alſo the bos unicornis and fera monoceros of Pliny †; both were of India, the ſame country with this animal; and in his account of the monoceros, he exactly deſcribes the great black horn and the hog-like tail. The unicorn of HOLY WRIT has all the properties of the Rhinoceros, rage, untameableneſs, great ſwiftneſs, and great ſtrength.
It was known to the Romans in very early times: its figure is among the animals of the Praeneſtine pavement. Auguſtus introduced one into the ſhews ‡, on his triumph over Cleopatra; and there is extant a coin of Domitian, with a double-horned Rhinoceros on it §.
- [...] Ariſtot. hiſt. An. lib. II. c. 7.
- Hippopotamus Plinii, lib. viii. c. 26.
- Belon obſ. 104. des Poiſſons 19, 20. Geſner quad. 493. Radzivil iter Hieroſol. 142. Raii ſyn. quad. 123. River horſe, or Hippopotamus, Grew's Muſeum, 14. tab. I. Ludolph. Aethiop. 60.
- Cheropotamus et Hippopotamus Proſp. Alp. hiſt. Aegypt, I. 245.
- Sea horſe Leo Afr. 344. Sea oxe ibid. Lobo Abiſſ. 105. Kolben. Cape. II. 129.
- Hippopotamus, or Behemoth. Shaw's Trav. Suppl. 87.
- Sea horſe Dampier's Voy. II. 104 Adanſon's Voy. 133. Moore's ſ [...]y Gambia, 105, 188, 216. River Paard. Houttuyn Nat. hiſt. III 405. tab. 28.
- Water Elephants. Barbot [...]y. Guinea, 113, 73.
- Hippopotamus pedibus quadrilobis. H. amphibius. Lin. ſyſt. 101. Haſſelquiſt iter, 201. Klein quad. 34.
- L'Hippopotame de Buffon, XII. 22. tab. 111. Briſſon quad. 83. Br. Muſ. Aſbm. Muſ.
H. with four cutting teeth in each jaw; thoſe in the lower jaw ſtrait and pointing forward, the two middlemoſt the longeſt: four tuſks; thoſe in the upper jaw ſhort; in the lower, very long and truncated obliquely: head of an enormous ſize: its mouth vaſtly wide: the ears ſmall and pointed, lined within very thickly with ſhort fine hairs: the eyes and noſtrils ſmall, in proportion to the bulk of the animal: on the lips are ſome ſtrong hairs ſcattered in patches here and there: the hair on the body is very thin, of a whitiſh color, and ſcarce diſcernible at firſt ſight: there is no mane on the neck, as ſome writers feign; only the hairs on that part are rather thicker: the ſkin is very thick and ſtrong, and of a duſky color: the tail is about a foot long, taper, compreſſed and naked: the hoofs are divided [Page 79] into four parts: but notwithſtanding it is an amphibious animal, are unconnected by membranes: the legs ſhort and thick.
In bulk, it is ſecond only to the Elephant: the length of a male has been found to be ſeventeen feet; the circumference of its body fifteen; its height near ſeven; the legs near three; the head above three and a half; its girth near nine. Haſſelquiſt ſays, its hide is a load for a Camel.
Inhabits the rivers of Africa, from the Niger to the Cape of Good Hope. Found in none of the African rivers which run into the Mediterranean, except the Nile, and even there only in the upper Aegypt *, and in the fens and lakes of Aethiopia, which that river paſſes through: is a mild and gentle animal, unleſs it be provoked: inhabits equally the land and the water: during night, leaves the rivers to graze, and does great damage to the ſugar canes and plantations of rice and millet: it alſo feeds on the roots of trees, which it looſens with its great teeth; and will prey on ſmall fiſh: it is a clumſy animal on the land, walks ſlowly; but when purſued, takes to the water, plunges in and ſinks to the bottom, and is ſeen walking there at full eaſe: it often riſes to the ſurface, and remains with its head out of water, frequently making a bellowing noiſe that may be heard at a vaſt diſtance: if wounded, will riſe and attack boats or canoes with [Page 80] great fury, and often ſink them by biting large pieces out of the ſides, and frequently people are drowned by them; for they are as bold in the water, as they are timid on land: are moſt numerous high up the rivers; very rarely found near their mouths: ſleep on ſhoals of ſand in the midſt of the ſtream.
They are capable of being tamed. Belon ſays, he has ſeen one ſo gentle, as to be let looſe out of a ſtable, and fed by its keeper, without attempting to injure any one. They are generally taken in pit falls, and the poor people eat the fleſh. In ſome parts, the natives place boards, full of ſharp irons, in the corn grounds; which theſe beaſts ſtrike into their feet, ſo become an eaſy prey. Sometimes they are ſtruck in the water with harpoons faſtened to cords; and ten or twelve canoes are employed in the chaſe *. The teeth are moſt remarkably hard, even harder than ivory, and much leſs liable to grow yellow. Des Marchais [Note: II. 149.] ſays, that the dentiſts prefer them for the making of falſe teeth. The ſkin, when dried, is uſed to make bucklers, and is of an impenetrable hardneſs.
A herd of females has but a ſingle male: they bring one young at a time, and that on the land, but ſuckle it in the water. Among other errors related of them, that of their enmity with the Crocodile, [Page 81] an eye-witneſs declaring he had ſeen them ſwimming together without any diſagreement *.
Is the Behemoth of Job: known to the Romans: Scaurus treated the people with the ſight of five Crocodiles and one Hippopotame **, during his adileſhip; and exhibited them in a temporary lake. Auguſtus produced one at his triumph over Cleopatra †. An antient writer aſſerts, that ‡ theſe animals were found in the Indus; which is not confirmed by any modern traveller.
- Tapiirete Braſilienſibus, Luſitanis Anta Marcgrave Braſil, 229. Piſo Braſil, 101. Nieuboff's voy. 23. Raii ſyn. quad. 126. Klein quad, 36.
- Elephant hog, Wafer's voy. in Dampier, III. 400.
- Mountain cow, Dampier, II. 102. Sus aquaticus multisulcus. Barrere France Aequin. 160.
- Anta ou grand Bete. Gumilla Or [...] noque, II. 15. Condamine voy. 82 Species of Hippopotamus, or river horſe, Bancroft Guiana, 127.
- Le Tapir ou Manipouris Briſſo [...] quad. 81. de Buffon, xi. 444. tab [...] xliii.
- Hippopotamus terreſtris. H. pedibus poſticis triſulcis, L [...]. [...] Ed. x. 74.
T. with the noſe extended far beyond the lower jaw; ſlender, and forming a ſort of proboſcis; capable of being contracted or extended at pleaſure; the ſides ſulcated; the extremities of both jaws ending in a point; ten cutting teeth in each; between them and the grinders, a vacant ſpace: in each jaw ten grinders: ears erect: eyes ſmall: body formed like that of a hog: the back arched: legs ſhort: hoofs ſmall, black and hollow: tail very ſmall: grows to the ſize of a heifer half a year old: the hair is ſhort: when young, ſpotted with white; when old, of a duſky color.
Inhabits the woods and rivers of the eaſtern ſide of South America, from the Iſthmus of Darien to the river of Amazons: ſleeps, during day, in the darkeſt and thickeſt foreſts adjacent to the banks: goes out in the night-time in ſearch of food: lives on graſs, ſugar-canes, and on fruits: if diſturbed, takes to the water; ſwims very well; or ſinks below, [Page 83] and, like the Hippopotame, walks on the bottom as on dry ground. The Indians ſhoot it with poiſoned arrows: they cut the ſkin into bucklers, and eat the fleſh, which is ſaid to be very good: is a ſalacious, ſlow-footed, and ſluggiſh animal: makes a ſort of hiſſing noiſe. Gumilla ſays, it will make a vigorous reſiſtance if attacked, and ſcarce fails ſlaying the dogs which it can lay hold of.
- Caby-bara Marcgrave Braſil, 230. [...] Braſil, 99. Raii ſyn. quad. 1 [...]
- River hog. Wafer in Dampier, III. 400.
- C [...]chon d'Eau des Marchais, III. [...]14.
- S [...] maximus paluſtris. Cabiai, c [...]bionora. Barrere France Aequin. 1 [...]0.
- Capivard Froger's voy. 99.
- Sus hydrochaeris. S. plantis tridactylis cauda nulla. Lin. ſyſt. 103.
- Hydrochaerus, Le Cabiai. Briſſon quad. 80. de Buffon, xii. 384. tab. xlix.
- Irabubos Gumilla orenoque, III. 238.
T. with a very large and thick head and noſe; ſmall rounded ears; large black eyes; upper jaw longer than the lower; two ſtrong and great cutting teeth in each jaw; eight grinders in each jaw; and each of thoſe grinders form on their ſurface ſeemingly three teeth, each flat at their ends *; legs ſhort; toes long, connected near their bottoms by a ſmall web; their ends guarded by a ſmall hoof; [Page 84] no tail; hair on the body ſhort, rough and brown; on the noſe, long and hard whiſkers: grows to the ſize of a hog of two years old.
Inhabits the ſame countries with the preceding: lives in the fenny parts not remote from the banks of great rivers: runs ſlowly: ſwims and dives remarkably well, and keeps for a long time under water: feeds on fruits and vegetables: is very dexterous in catching fiſh, which it brings on ſhore and eats at its eaſe: it ſits up, and holds its prey with its fore feet, feeding like an ape: feeds in the night, and commits great ravages in gardens: keeps in large herds, and makes a horrible noiſe like the braying of an aſs: grows very fat: the fleſh is eaten, is tender, but has an oily and fiſhy taſte: is eaſily made tame *, and ſoon grows very familiar.
- [...] Ariſt. Hiſt. An. lib. 1. c 11. IX. c. 1.
- Elephas Plinii, lib. viii. c. 1. Geſner quad. 376. Raii ſyn. quad. 131. Klein quad. 36. Ludolph. Aethiop. 54. Boullaye Le Gouz. 250. Delb [...]'s voy. 71. Leo Afr. 336. Kolben's Cape, II. 98. Boſman's hiſt. Guinea, 230. Linſchottaniter, 55. Du Halde's China, II. 224. Adanſon's voy. 138. Moore's trav. 31. Borri's account Cochin China, 795. Barbot's Guinea, 141, 206, 207, 208. Seb. Muſ. I. 175. tab. iii. Edw. 221.
- L'Elephant Briſſon quad. 28. de Buffon, xi. 1. tab. I.
- Elephas maximus Lin. ſyſt. 48. Faunul. Sinens. Br. Muſ. Aſbm. Muſ.
E. with a long cartilaginous trunk, formed of multudes of rings, pliant in all directions, terminated with a ſmall moveable hook: the noſtrils at the end of the trunk; its uſe that of a hand, to convey any thing into the mouth: no cutting teeth: four large flat grinders in each jaw; in the upper two vaſt tuſks, pointing forwards, and bending a little upwards; the largeſt * are ſeven feet long, and weigh 152 lb. each: the eyes ſmall: ears long, broad and pendulous: back much arched: legs thick and very clumſy and ſhapeleſs: feet undivided; but the margins terminated by five round hoofs: tail like that of a hog: color of the ſkin duſky, with a few ſcattered hairs on it.
Inhabits India and ſome of its greater iſlands Cochin-China, and ſome of the provinces of China; abounds in the ſouthern parts of Africa from the river Senegal to the Cape, and from thence as high as Aethiopia on the other ſide: found in greateſt numbers in the interior parts, where there are vaſt foreſts, near the ſides of rivers: are fond of marſhy places, and love to wallow in the mire like a hog: ſwim very well: feed on the leaves and branches of trees: do great damage to the fields of corn, and to plantations of Coco Palms, tearing up the trees by the roots to get at their tops.
Often ſleep ſtanding; are not incapable of lying down as is vulgarly believed: are very mild and harmleſs, except wounded, or during the rutting time, when they are ſeized with a temporary madneſs: are ſaid to go one year with young, bring one at a time: live 120 or 130 years *; are 30 years before they arrive at their full growth. Drink by means of their trunk, ſucking water up it, and then conveying it into the mouth; are very careful of the trunk, conſcious that their exiſtence depends on it; is to them as a hand; is their organ of feeling and of ſmell, both which ſenſes it has in the moſt exquiſite degree: notwithſtanding its bulk is exceedingly ſwift: its ſtrength matchleſs; the tame elephants carry ſmall pieces of artillery, ſmall towers, with numbers of people in them, and alſo vaſt loads: is not at preſent [Page 87] domeſticated in Africa, only in the more civilized continent of Aſia; they are much more numerous in Africa, in ſome parts ſwarm, ſo that the negroes are obliged to make their habitations under ground for fear of them. Are killed and eaten by the natives; the trunk ſaid to be a delicious morſel: caught in pit-falls, covered with branches of trees; ſometimes chaced and killed with launces, are inſtantly killed by a ſlight wound in the head, behind the ears. All the teeth are brought from Africa; frequently picked up in the woods; uncertain whether ſhed teeth, or from dead animals: the African teeth * which come from Moſambique are 10 feet long; thoſe of Malabar only 3 or 4; the largeſt in Aſia are thoſe of Cochin-China, which even exceed the elephants of Moſambique **. The ſkin is thick, and when dreſſed, proof againſt a muſket ball: the fleſh, the gall, the ſkin. The bones, according to Shi Chin, are uſed in medicine †.
Is, notwithſtanding the great dullneſs of its eye and ſtupidity of its appearance, the moſt docil and moſt intelligent of animals: tractable and moſt obedient to its maſter's will: ſenſible of benefits, reſentful of injuries: directed by a ſlight rod of iron hooked at one end: are in many parts of India the executioners of juſtice; will with their trunks break every limb of the criminal, or trample him to death, or transfix him with their tuſks, according as they are directed: are ſo modeſt as never to permit any one to ſee them copulate: have [Page 88] a quick ſenſe of glory. In India, they were once employed in the launching of ſhips: one was directed to force a very large veſſel into the water; the work proved ſuperior to his ſtrength: his maſter, with a ſarcaſtic tone, bid the keeper take away this lazy beaſt and bring another: the poor animal inſtantly repeated his efforts, fractured his ſcull, and died on the ſpot *. In Delli, an Elephant paſſing along the ſtreets, put his trunk into a taylor's ſhop, where ſeveral people were at work; one of them pricked the end with his needle: the beaſt paſſed on, but in the next dirty puddle filled his trunk with water, returned to the ſhop, and ſpurting every drop among the people who had offended him, ſpoilt their work.
An Elephant in Adſmeer, which often paſſed through the Bazar or Market, as he went by a certain herb-woman, always received from her a mouthfull of greens: at length he was ſeized with one of his periodical fits of rage, broke his fetters, and running through the market, put the crowd to flight; among others, this woman, who in haſte, forgot a little child ſhe had brought with her. The animal recollecting the ſpot where his benefactreſs was wont to ſit, took up the infant gently in his trunk and placed it in ſafety on a ſtall before a neighboring houſe.
Another, in his madneſs, killed his Cornac or Governor: the wife ſeeing the misfortune, took her two children and flung them before the Elephant, ſaying, Now you have deſtroyed their father, you may as well put an end to their lives and mine. It inſtantly [Page 89] ſtopped, relented, took the greateſt of the children, placed him on its neck, adopted him for its Cornac, and never afterwards would permit any body elſe to mount it.
At the Cape of Good-Hope, it is cuſtomary to kill thoſe animals, for the ſake of their teeth, by the chace. Three horſemen, well-mounted and armed with launces, attack the Elephant alternately, each relieving the other as they ſee their companion preſſed, till the beaſt is ſubdued. Three Dutchmen (brothers) who had made large fortunes by this buſineſs, determined to retire to Europe, and enjoy the fruits of their labors; but reſolved, before they went, to have a laſt chace by way of amuſement: they met with their game, and began the attack in the uſual manner; but unfortunately one of their horſes fell down and flung its rider: the enraged animal inſtantly ſeized the unhappy man with its trunk, flung him up to a vaſt height in the air, and received him on one of its tuſks; then turning towards the two other brethren, as if it were with an aſpect of revenge and inſult, held out to them the impaled wretch wreathing on the bloody tooth *.
The Indians have from very early times employed the elephant in their wars: Porus oppoſed the paſſage of Alexander, over the Hydaſpes **, with eighty-five of theſe animals; M. de Buffon very juſtly imagines that it was ſome of the elephants taken by that monarch, and afterwards tranſported into Greece, which were employed by Pyrrhus againſt [Page 90] the Romans. From the time of Solomon, ivory has been uſed in ornamental works; it was one of the imports of his navy of Tharſhiſh, whoſe lading was gold and ſilver, ivory, apes, and peacocks*.
The teeth of this animal is often found in a foſſil ſtate; ſome years ago two great grinding teeth, and part of the tuſk of an elephant were given me by ſome miners, who diſcovered them at the depth of 42 yards in a lead-mine in Flintſhire; one of the ſtrata above them was lime-ſtone, about 8 yards thick; the teeth were found in a bed of gravel in the ſame mine; the grinders were almoſt as perfect as if juſt taken from the animal; the tuſk much decayed, ſoft, and exfoliating.
The grinders and tuſks of the Mammouth, ſo often found foſſil in Siberia, muſt be referred to this animal, as is evident from the account and figures of thoſe in the Ph. Tr. abridg. ix. 87. by Mr. Breynius †. The Molares differ not in the leſt from thoſe recent; but the tuſk has a curvature far greater than thoſe of any elephant I have ſeen; whether this was accidental or preternatural, cannot be determined from a ſingle ſpecimen; Strablenberg ſays they are ſomewhat more crooked ‡ than elephants teeth commonly are; and others relate that a pair weighed 400lb. which exceeds the weight of the largeſt recent tuſks: there are alſo found with them foſſil grinders of 24lb. weight; but ſince, in [Page 91] all other reſpects, thoſe grinders reſemble thoſe of the living elephants; and one being found lodged in the ſkeleton of the ſame head with the tuſks, we cannot deny our aſſent to the opinion of thoſe who think them to have been once the parts of the animal we have juſt deſcribed.
Theſe are found lodged in the ſandy banks of the Siberian rivers; ſometimes entire ſkeletons are found: the tuſks are made uſe of as ivory, formed into combs, and uſed to inlay cabinets. The Tartars have many wild notions about the Mammouth, ſuch as its being a ſubterraneous animal, &c. &c. Linnaeus * ſays it is the ſkeleton of the Walrus flung on ſhore.
An animal only known in a foſſil ſtate, and that but partially; from the teeth, ſome of the jaw-bones, the thigh bones and vertebrae, found with many others five or ſix feet beneath the ſurface, on the banks of the Ohio, not remote from the river Miame, ſeven hundred miles from the ſea coaſt.
Some of the tuſks near ſeven feet long, one foot nine inches in circumference at the baſe, and one foot near the point; the cavity at the root or baſe nineteen inches deep: the tuſks of the true elephant have ſometimes a very ſlight lateral bend, theſe have a larger twiſt or ſpiral curve towards the ſmaller end; but the great and ſpecific difference conſiſts in the ſhape of the molares or grinders, which are made like thoſe of a carnivorous animal, [Page 92] not flat and ribbed tranſverſely on their ſurface life thoſe of the recent elephant, but furniſhed with a double row of high and conic proceſſes, as if intended to maſticate, not to grind their food.
The tuſks have been cut and poliſhed by the workers in ivory, who affirmed, that in texture and appearance they differed not from the true ivory: the molares were indurated to a great degree. Specimens of theſe teeth and bones are depoſited in the Britiſh Muſeum, that of the Royal Society, and in the cabinet of Doctor Hunter *. I ſhould have been leſs accurate in this deſcription, had not that gentleman favored me with his obſervations on ſome particulars, which otherwiſe might have eſcaped my notice.
Theſe foſſil bones are alſo found in Peru, and in the Brazils: as yet the living animal has evaded our ſearch; it is more than probable that it yet exiſts in ſome of thoſe remote parts of the vaſt new continent, unpenetrated yet by Europeans. Providence maintains and continues every created ſpecies; and we have as much aſſurance, that no race of animals will any more ceaſe while the Earth remaineth, than ſeed time, and harveſt, cold and heat, ſummer and winter, day or night.
[Page 93] To this may properly be added a very obſcure animal, mentioned by Nieuhoff *, and called by the Chineſe of Java, Sukotyro. It is of the ſize of a large ox: has a ſnout like a hog: two long rough ears; and a thick buſhy tail: the eyes placed upright in the head, quite different from other beaſts: on the ſide of the head, next to the eyes, ſtand two long horns, or rather teeth, not quite ſo thick as thoſe of an elephant. It feeds on herbage, and is but ſeldom taken.
1.2.1. SECT. I. Anthropomorphous *.
A moſt numerous race; almoſt confined to the torrid zone: fills the woods of Africa, from Senega to the Cape, and from thence to Aethiopia: a ſingle ſpecies is found beyond that line, in the province of Barbary: found in all parts of India, and its iſlands; in Cochin-China, in the S. of China, and in Japan; and one kind is met with in Arabia: they ſwarm in the foreſts of S. America, from the iſthmus of Darien, as far as Paraguay.
Are lively, agile, full of frolick, chatter and grimace: from the ſtructure of their members, have many actions in common with the human kind: moſt of them are fierce and untameable; ſome are of a milder nature, and will ſhew a degree [Page 95] of attachment; but in general are endowed with miſchievous intellects: are filthy, obſcene, laſcivious, thieving: feed on fruits, leaves and inſects: inhabit woods, and live in trees: in general are gregarious, going in vaſt companies: the different ſpecies never mix with each other, always keep apart and in different quarters: leap with vaſt activity from tree to tree, even when loaded with their young, which cling to them. Are the prey of leopards, and others of the feline race; of ſerpents, which purſue them to the ſummit of the trees, and ſwallow them entire. Are not carnivorous, but for miſchiefs ſake will rob the neſts of birds of the eggs and young: in the countries where apes moſt abound, the ſagacity of the feathered tribe is more marvellouſly ſhewn in their contrivances to fix their neſt beyond the reach of theſe invaders *.
From this Linnaeus formed his method; M. de Buffon followed the ſame; but makes a very judicious [Page 96] ſubdiviſion of the long-tailed apes, or the true monkies, into ſuch which had prehenſile tails *, and ſuch which had not. I ſhall endeavour in this genus no other reform in the ſyſtem of our countryman, than what that gentleman has made; in reſpect to the trivial names of the ſpecies, I have in general invented ſuch as I ſuppoſed congruous, or in a few inſtances retained thoſe of M. de Buffon.
- Satyrus Geſner quad. 863.
- Pongo Purchas's Pilgr. II. 982. v. 623.
- Homo ſylveſtris, orang outang. Bontius Java. 84. Beckman's Borneo 37.
- Baris Nieremberg. 179.
- Barrys Barbot's Guinea. 101.
- Quojas morrou. idem 115.
- Chimpanzee Scotin's print. 1738.
- Man of the wood Edw. 213.
- Le Jocko de Buffon xiv. 44. tab. I.
- Le Pongo ibid.
- L'Homme de bois. Simia unguibus omnibus planis et rotundatis caeſarie faciem cingente. Briſſon quad. 134.
- Homo Troglodytes. Homo nocturnus Lin. ſyſt. 33. Amoen. Acad. vi. 68.69.72.
- Simia ſatyrus. S. ecaudata ferruginea, lacertorum pilis reverſis, natibus tectis. Lin. ſyſt. 34. Br. Muſ.
A. with a flat face, and a deformed reſemblance of the human: ears exactly like thoſe of a man: hair on the head longer than on the body: body and limbs covered with reddiſh and ſhaggy hair; longeſt on the back, thinneſt on the fore-parts: face and paws ſwarthy: buttocks covered with hair.
Inhabits the interior parts of Africa, the iſles of Sumatra, Borneo, and Java. Are ſolitary, and [Page 97] live in the moſt deſert places: grow to the height of ſix feet: has prodigious ſtrength, will over-power the ſtrongeſt man. The old ones are ſhot with arrows; only the young can be taken alive: live entirely on fruits and nuts: will attack and kill the negroes who wander in the woods: will drive away the elephants, and beat them with their fiſts, or pieces of wood: will throw ſtones at people that offend them: ſleep in trees; make a ſort of ſhelter from the inclemency of the weather: are of a ſolitary nature, grave appearance, and melancholy diſpoſition, and even when young not inclined to frolick: are vaſtly ſwift and agile: go erect: ſometimes carry away the young negroes*.
When taken young are capable of being tamed; very docil, are taught to carry water, pound rice, turn a ſpit. The Chimpanzee ſhewn in London, 1738, was extremely mild, affectionate, good-natured; like the ſatyr of Pliny, mitiſſima natura; very fond of the people it was uſed to: eat like a human creature: lay down in bed like one, with its hand under its head: fetch a chair to ſit down on: drink tea, pour it into a ſaucer if too hot: would cry like a child; be uneaſy at the abſence of its keeper. This was only two feet four inches high, and was a young one: that deſcribed by Doctor Tylon ** two inches ſhorter. There is great poſſibility that [Page 98] theſe animals may vary in ſize and in color, ſome being covered with black, others with reddiſh hairs.
Not the Satyrs of the antients, which had tails *, and were a ſpecies of monkey. Linnaeus's Homo nocturnus, an animal of this kind, unneceſſarily ſeparated from his Simia Satyrus. Some of the authorities in the Amaen Acad. very doubtfull. Sir John Mondeville, p. 361, certainly meant this large ſpecies, when he ſays he came to another yle where the Folk ben alle ſkynned roughe heer, as a rough beſt, ſaf only the face, and the pawme of the hond.
- [...]. Ariſtot. hiſt. an. lib. c. 8.
- Simia Geſner quad. 847. Raii ſyn. quad. 149.
- Ape 2d. ſp. Boſman's Guinea. 242.
- Le Singe. Simia unguibus omnibus planis planis, et rotundatis Briſſon quad. 133.
- Le Pitheque de Buffon xix. 84.
- Simia ſylvanus. S. ecaudatus, natibus calvis capite rotundato. Lin. ſyſt. 34.
Inhabits Africa. Not uncommon in our exhibitions of animals: very tractable, and good-natur'd: moſt probably the pygmy of the antients. Abounds in Aethiopia **, one ſeat of that imaginary nation: [Page 99] were believed to dwell near the fountains of the Nile *; deſcended annually to make war on the cranes, i. e. to ſteal their eggs, which the birds may be ſuppoſed naturally to defend; whence the fiction of their combats. Strabo judiciouſly ** obſerves, that no perſon worthy of credit ever ventured to aſſert he had ſeen this nation: Ariſtotle ſpeaks of them only by hear-ſay, [...], they were ſaid to be mounted on little horſes, on goats, on rams, and even on partridges. The Indians taking advantage of the credulity of people, embalmed this ſpecies of ape with ſpices, and ſold them to merchants as true pygmies †: ſuch, doubtleſs, were the diminutive inhabitants mentioned by Mr. Groſe ‡ to be found in the foreſt of the Carnatic.
Feed on fruits; are very fond of inſects, particularly of ants; aſſemble in troops ‖, and turn over every ſtone in ſearch of them. If attacked by wild beaſts, take to flight; but if overtaken, will face their purſuers, and by flinging the ſubtile ſand of the deſert in their eyes, often eſcape §.
A. with a flat ſwarthy face ſurrounded with grey hairs: hair on the body black and rough: buttocks bare: nails on the hands flat; on the feet, [Page 100] long: arms of a moſt diſproportioned length, reaching quite to the ground when the animal is erect, its natural poſture: of a hideous deformity.
Inhabits India, Malacca, and the Mollucca Iſles: a mild and gentle animal: grows to the height of four feet. The great black ape of Mangſi, a province in China, ſeems to be of this kind *.
β A ſpecies in poſſeſſion of Lord Clive about two years ago, much reſembling the laſt, but more elegant in its form, and the arms ſhorter; but ſo nearly allied in ſhape, as not to be ſeparated: face, ears, crown of the head, feet and hands, black: the reſt of the body and arms covered with ſilvery hairs: about three feet high: good-natured, and full of frolick.
- [...] Ariſtot. hiſt. an. lib. ii. c. 8.
- Cynocephalus Plinii, lib. viii. c. 54. Geſner quad. 859.
- Simius cynocephalus Pr. Alp. Aegypt, I. 241. tab. xv.xvi.
- Le Magot de Buffon, xiv. 109. tab. vii.viii.
- Le Singe Cynocephale. Briſſon quad.
- Simia Inuus. S. ecaudata natibus calvis, capite oblongo. Lin. ſyſt. 35.
- Yellow ape? Du Halde China, I. 120. La Roque voy. Arabia, 210.
A. with a long face, not unlike that of a dog: canine teeth, long and ſtrong: ears like the human: nails flat: buttocks bare: color of the upper part [Page 102] of the body a dirty greeniſh brown: belly of a dull pale yellow: grows to above the length of four feet.
Inhabits many parts of India, Arabia, and all parts of Africa, except Aegypt, where none of this genus are found. A few are found on the hill of Gibraltar, which breed there: probably from a pair that had eſcaped from the town; for I never heard that they were found in any other part of Spain.
Are very ill-natured, miſchievous and fierce; agreeing with the character of the antient Cynocephali: are a very common kind in exhibitions: by force of diſcipline, are made to play ſome tricks; otherwiſe, are more dull and ſullen than the reſt of this genus: aſſemble in great troops in the open fields in India *: will attack women going to market, and take their proviſions from them. The females carry the young in their arms, and will leap from tree to tree with them. Apes were worſhipped in India, and had magnificent temples erected to them. When the Portugueſe plundered one in Ceylon, they found in a little golden caſket ** the tooth of an ape; a relique held by the natives in ſuch veneration, that they offered 700,000 ducats to redeem it, but in vain; for it was burnt by the Viceroy, to ſtop the progreſs of idolatry.
A. with a noſe and head fourteen inches in length▪ the noſe of a deep red, face blue, both naked: black eye-brows: ears like the human; on the top of the head a long upright tuft of hair; on the chin another: two long tuſks in the upper jaw: fore feet exactly reſembling hands, and the nails on the fingers flat: the hind feet have the thumbs leſs perfect, and the nails imbricated: the fore part of the body, and the inſide of the legs and arms, naked: the outſide covered with mottled brown and olive hair; that on the back duſky: the buttocks red, and bare: length, from the noſe to the rump, three feet two inches.
A ſpecies of diſguſting deformity; very fierce and falacious; went on all fours; but would ſit up on its rump, and ſupport itſelf with a ſtick: in this attitude would hold a cup in its hand, and drink out of it: its food was fruits.
Ariſtotle barely mentions another ſpecies of ape under the title of [...], ſimia Porcaria. M. de Buffon imagines it to be the baboon; but ſince the Philoſopher expreſly ſays, that his [...], or apes, had no tails, we cannot aſſent to its being the baboon. I rather think it a ſpecies we have not at preſent knowlege of. Among my drawings is the copy of one in the Britiſh Muſeum, with a noſe exactly reſembling that of a hog, which poſſibly may be Ariſtotle's animal; but there is no account attending the painting to enable us to trace its hiſtory.
- Le Mandrill de Buffon, xiv. 154. tab. xvi. xvii.
- S. maimon. S. caudata ſubbarbata genis caeruleis ſtriatis. Lin. ſyſt. 35.
B. with a long naked noſe compreſſed ſideways, of a purple color, and ribbed obliquely on each ſide: on the chin a ſhort picked orange beard: tail very hairy, about two inches long, which it carries erect: buttocks naked: hair ſoft, duſky mottled with yellow: length, from noſe to tail, about two feet.
By the rude figure in Geſner *, this ſeems to be the animal he intended, by his Papio: (the Simia Sphinx of Linnaeus, 35.) but it muſt be obſerved, that able Naturaliſt here makes a great miſtake, in thinking it the Hyaena of the Antients; but his deſcription is taken from a drawing, not from nature.
Linnaeus places this among the ſimiae cauda elongata, and applies to it ſome of the ſynonyms of the [...]d ſpecies: but his deſcription agrees with this ſo exactly, that there can be no doubt but that it is his Simia maimon.
This animal is well deſcribed by M. de Buffon, Mr. [...], Linnaeus, and M. Briſſon; and indeed every [Page 104] Naturaliſt, except M. de Buffon, has copied Geſner: but we think the firſt ought to have applied the name of Baboon to this ſpecies, inſtead of that deſcribed by him, p. 133. the one having the character of this ſection, the other having a length of tail, that conſtitutes that of the monkey.
The animal called, by Barbot and Boſman *, SMITTEN, is a large ſpecies to be referred to this genus: it is deſcribed with a great head, ſhort tail, and of a mouſe color; that it grows to the ſize of five feet, is very fierce, and will even attack a man.
The mandrill mentioned by Smith, in his voyage to Guinea, is another kind; probably only a variety of the Smitten. He ſays it grows to a vaſt ſize: the body as thick as that of a man: the teeth large and yellow: head vaſtly large: face broad and flat, wrinkled, and covered with a white ſkin: noſe always running: body covered with long black hair like a bear. M. de Buffoon makes this laſt ſynonymous with his mandrill; but both the ſize and length of hair, and greatneſs of the head, ſhew them to be of a very different ſpecies.
The Tretretretre of Madagaſcar is another animal of this kind; deſcribed to be of the ſize of a calf of two years old; to have a round head, viſage and ears of a man, feet of an ape, hair curled: a ſolitary ſpecies: the natives are greatly afraid of it, and fly its haunts as it does theirs **.
- Simia apedia. S. ſemicaudata, palmarum pollice approximato, unguibus oblongis, pollicum rotundatis, natibus tectis. Lin. ſyſt. 35.
- Simia cauda abrupta, unguibus compreſſis obtuſiuſculis, pollice palmarum digitis adhaerente. Aman. Acad. I. 558.
B. with a roundiſh head, mouth projecting, ears roundiſh, and naked; thumb not remote from the fingers: nails narrow, and compreſſed; thoſe of the thumbs rounded: color of the hair yellowiſh tipt with black: face brown, with a few ſcattered hairs: tail not an inch long: buttocks covered with hairs: ſize of a ſquirrel, according to Linnaeus. But Mr. Balk, in the Amaen. Acad. ſays it is as large as a cat.
- Pig-tailed Monkey. Edw. 214. Le Maimon de Buffon, xiv. 176. tab. xix.
- Simia Nemeſtrina. S. Semicaudata ſub-barbata griſea iridibus brunneis, natibus calvis. Lin. ſyſt. 35. Br. Muſ.
B. with a pointed face, not ſo long as that of the laſt: eyes hazel: above and beneath the mouth ſome few black hairs: face naked, of a ſwarthy redneſs; two ſharp canine teeth: ears like the human: crown of the head duſky: hair on the limbs and body brown inclining to aſh color, paleſt on the belly: fingers black: nails long and flat: thumbs on the hind feet very long, connected to the neareſt toe by a broad membrane: tail four inches long, ſlender, exactly like a pig's, and almoſt [Page 106] naked: the bare ſpaces on the rump red, and but ſmall: length, from head to tail, twenty-two inches.
Inhabits the iſle of Sumatra and Japan *: is very docil: in Japan is taught ſeveral tricks, and carried about the country by mountebanks. Kaempfer was informed by one of theſe people, that the Baboon he had was 102 years old.
- [...] Ariſtot. hiſt. An. II. c 8.
- C [...]ephalus Plinii, lib. viii. c. [...]1 Geſner quad. 862. Clus. exot. 3 [...]0.
- [...] Tartarin Belon portraits 102. S [...]mia. Aegyptiaca cauda elongata, [...] tuberoſis nudis. Haſſel [...]n. 189.
- S [...] Hamadryas. S. caudata cinerea, auribus comoſis, unguibus acutiuſculis, natibus calvis. Lin. ſyſt. 36.
- Cercopithecus cynocephalus, parte anteriore corporis longis pilis obſita, naſo violaceo nudo. Le Magot ou le Tartarin. Briſſon quad. 152.
- Le Babouin de Buffon, xiv. 133. tab. xiii.xiv. Edw. fig. ined.
M. with a long, thick and ſtrong noſe, covered with a ſmooth red ſkin: eyes ſmall: ears pointed, and hid in the hair: head great, and flat: hair on the head, and fore part of the body, as far as the waſte, very long and ſhaggy; grey and olive brinded; that [...]n the ſides of the head very full: the hair on the [...]bs and hind part of the body very ſhort: limbs ſtrong and thick: hands and feet duſky: the nails on the fore feet flat; thoſe on the hind like a dog's: buttocks very bare, and covered with a ſkin of a [...]ody color: tail ſcarce the length of the body, and carried generally erect. The Baboon deſcribed [Page 108] by M. de Buffon, had loſt part of its tail; therefore is imperfectly deſcribed and figured. Well repreſented in Belon.
Inhabits the hotteſt parts of Africa and Aſia: keep in vaſt troops: are very fierce and dangerous: rob gardens: run up trees when paſſengers go by; ſhake the boughs at them with great fury, and chatter very loud: are exceſſively impudent, indecent, laſcivious: moſt deteſtable animals in their manners, as well as appearance. Mr. Edwards communicated to me an account and a fine print * of one, which was ſhewn in London ſome years ago: it came from Moco, in the Perſian gulph; was above five feet high; very fierce, and untameable; ſo ſtrong, as eaſily to maſter its keeper, a ſtrong young man: its inclinations to women appeared in the moſt violent manner. A Footman, who brought a girl to ſee it, in order to teize the animal, kiſſed and hugged her: the beaſt, enraged at being ſo tantalized, caught hold of a quart pewter pot, which he threw with ſuch force, and ſo ſure an aim, that had not the man's hat and wig ſoftened the blow, his ſcull muſt have been fractured; but he fortunately eſcaped with a common broken head.
- Cercopithecus barbatus primus. Cluſii exot. 371. Raii ſyn. quad. 159. Klein quad. 89.
- Wanderow Knox's Ceylon. 26.
- Simia veter. S. caudata barbata alba barba nigra. Lin. ſyſt. 36. Briſſon quad. 147.
- Simia ſilenus. S. caudata barbata nigra, barba nigra prolixa. Lin. ſyſt. 36. Briſſon quad. 149.
- Cercopithecus niger Aegyptiacus, ibid.
- Simia Faunus. S. caudata barbata, cauda apice floccoſa. Lin. ſyſt. 36.
- Cercopithecus barbatus infra albus, barba incana mucronata, cauda in floccum deſinente. Briſſon quad. 144.
M. with a long dog-like face, naked, and of a duſky color: a very large and full white or hoary beard: large canine teeth: body covered with black hair: belly of a lighter color: nails flat: tail terminated with a tuft of hair like that of a Lion: bulk of a middling ſized dog.
α. One ſhewn in London three years ago: exceſſively fierce, and ill-natured: the tail not longer than the back, ending with a large tuft: beard reaching quite up the cheeks, as far as the eyes. This is certainly the Ouanderou of M. de Buffon, xiv. 169. tab. xviii. which he makes a ſort of Baboon, or Monkey with a ſhort tail; for he ſeems to have met with a ſpecimen mutilated in that part; and deſcribes it accordingly.
[...]. with a triangular white beard, pointed at the bottom and on each ſide the ears, ſtanding out far beyond them: face and hands purple: body black: [Page 110] tail long, black, and terminated with a dirty white tuft. Ceylon. Mr. Loten. This is the Cercopithecu. barbatus, barba incana mucronata of M. Briſſon p. 148. Cercopithecus Barbatus ſecundus Cluſii exot 371.
δ. the little bearded men of Barbot voy. Guinea, 212 and Boſman, 242. are about two feet high, and are black as jet, with long white beards. The negroes ſet a great value on the ſkins of this ſpecies, and ſell them to one another at eighteen or twenty ſhillings each. Of the ſkins of theſe they make the caps for the Tie-Tie's, or public Criers.
ε. another bearded man, found on the Gold Coaſt, with white beard, and black muſtachoes; ſpeckled ſkin, white belly, a broad tawny ſtroke on the back, black paws, and black tail *.
- Cercopithecus angolenſis major, macaquo. Marcgrave Braſil, 227. Rau ſyn. quad. 155. Klein quad. 89. Cercopithecus cynocephalus, naribus bifidis elatis, natibus calvis Briſſon quad. 152. C. Cynoceph. ex virid. &c. 151.
- S. Cynomolgus. S. caudata imberbis, naribus bifidis elatis, cauda arcuata, natibus calvis. Lin. ſyſt. 38. S. cynocephalus. ibid. Le Macaque de Buffon, xiv. 190. tab, xiv.
M. with the noſtrils divided, like thoſe of a hare: noſe thick, flat, and wrinkled: head large: eyes ſmall: teeth very white: body thick, and clumſy: buttocks naked: tail long: color varies; ſometimes like that of a wolf; but others, are brown, tinged with yellow, or olive: the tail is rather ſhorter than the body, and is always carried arched.
Le Malbrouck of M. de Buffon, xiv. 224. tab. xxix. ſo much reſembles this ſpecies, that I place it it here as a variety. That able Zoologiſt ſuſpected the ſame; but ſeparates them, on account of ſome trifling diſtinctions, and the difference of country: this being a native of India, the other of Africa: but ſince thoſe very diſtinctions may ariſe from the laſt cauſe, it ſeems better to unite them, than to multiply the ſpecies already ſo numerous. A few years ago, one that ſeemed of this ſpecies was ſhewn in London, equal in ſize to a ſmall greyhound.
- Cercopithecus barbatus guineenſis, Exquima. Marcgrave Braſil. 227. Raii ſyn. quad. 156.
- Cercopithecus barbatus fuſcus punctis albis imperſis barba alba. Briſſon quad. 147. No. 23.148. No. 24.
- Simia Diana. S. caudata barbata, fronte barbaque faſtigiata. Lin. ſyſt. 38.
- L'Exquima de Buffon, xv. 16.
M. with a long white beard: color of the upper parts of the body reddiſh, as if they had been ſinged, marked with white ſpecks: the belly and chin whitiſh: tail very long: is a ſpecies of a middle ſize.
Inhabits Guinea and Congo, according to Marcgrave: the Congeſe call it Exquima. M. de Buffon denies it to be of that country: but, from the circumſtance of the curl in its tail, in Marcgrave's figure, and the deſcription of ſome voyagers, he ſuppoſes it to be a native of South America.
Linnaeus deſcribes his S. Diana ſomewhat differently: he ſays it is of the ſize of a large cat; black, ſpotted with white: hind part of the back ferrugineous: the hairs on the forehead erect, forming the ſhape of a creſcent: beard pointed; black above, white beneath; placed on a fattiſh excreſcence: breaſt and throat white: from the rump, croſs the thighs, a white line: tail long, ſtrait, and black: face, ears, and feet, of the ſame color: canine teeth, large.
- Simius Callitrichus. Proſp. Alp. Aegypt. I.
- Simia ſabaea. S. caudata imberbis flavicans, facie atra, cauda cinerca, natibus calvis. Lin. ſyſt. 38.
- Cercopithecus ex cinereo flaveſcens, genis longis pilis albis obſita. Briſſon quad. 145. et Cercobarbatus rufus facie nigra, caeſarie alba cincta. 140.
- Le Callitriche de Buffon xiv. 272. tab. xxxvli.
M. with a black and flattiſh face: the ſides of it bounded by long white hairs; falling backwards, and almoſt covering the ears, which are black, and like the human: head, limbs, and whole upper part of the body and tail, covered with ſoft hair, of a yellowiſh green color at their ends, cinereous at their roots: under ſide of the body and tail, and inner ſide of the limbs, of a ſilvery color: tail very long and ſlender: ſize of a ſmall cat.
Inhabits different parts of Africa: keep in great flocks, and live in the woods: are ſcarce diſcernible when among the leaves, except by their breaking the boughs with their gambols, in which they are very agile and ſilent: even when ſhot at, do not make the leſt noiſe; but will unite in company, knit their brows, and gnaſh their teeth, as if they meant to attack their enemy *: are very common in the Cape Verd iſlands.
- βSimia Aethiops. caudata imberbis, capillitio erecto lunalaque frontis albis. Lin. ſyſt. 39. Haſſelquiſt itin? 190.
- Le Mangabey de Buffon, xiv. 244 tab. xxxii. xxxiii.
M. with a long, black, naked, and dog-like face: the upper eye-lids of a pure white: ears black, and like the human: no canine teeth: hairs on the ſides of the face beneath the cheeks, longer than the reſt: tail long: color of the whole body tawny and black: flat nails on the thumbs and fore-fingers; blunt claws on the others: hands and feet black.
Le Mangabey a collier blanc *, is a variety, with the long hairs on the cheeks and round the neck white.
- Cercopithecus alius Guineenſis. Marcgrave Braſil, 228. Raii ſyn. quad. 156.
- S. cephus. S. caudata buccis barbatis, vertice flaveſcente, pedibus nigris, cauda apice ferruginea. Lin. ſyſt. 39.
- Cercopithecus nigricans, genis et auriculis longis pilis ex alba flavicantibus obſitis, ore caer [...] leſcente. Briſſon quad. 146.
- Le Mouſtac de Buffon, xiv. 283. tab. xxxix.
M. with a ſhort noſe, the end marked with a tranſverſe line of pure white: the face naked, and of a duſky blue: on the cheeks, before the ears, two large tufts of yellow hairs, like Muſtaches: the hair on the top of the head long and upright: round the [Page 115] mouth are ſome black hairs: the color of the hair on the head yellow; on the body and limbs, a mixture of red and aſh-color: the part of the tail next the body of the ſame color; the reſt yellowiſh: the under part of the body paler than the upper: the feet black: nails flat: its length, one foot; that of the tail, eighteen inches.
M. with a ſharp noſe, round head, large black naked ears: eyes, and end of the noſe, fleſh-colored: hair on the cheeks very long, and reflected towards the ears: on the chin a ſmall beard: the color of the whole upper part of the body, and the outſide of the limbs, a mixture of duſky yellow and green: the lower part white tinged with yellow: the tail very long and ſlender; above, of an olive and duſky color; beneath, cinereous: the paws black: length, about one foot; of the tail, one foot five inches.
M. with a round head: noſe a little ſharp: face, of a tawny fleſh color, with a few black hairs: [...]irides, a reddiſh hazel: hair above the eyes long, [...]uniting with the eye-brows; that on the temples partly covering the ears: breaſt and belly of a [Page 116] ſwarthy fleſh color, almoſt naked: hair on the body, limbs and tail, black, and pretty long: paws covered with a black ſoft ſkin: ſize of a large cat.
M. with a long face, and an upright ſharp-pointed tuft of hair on the top of the head: hair on the forehead black: the tuft and upper part of the body light grey: the belly white: eye-brows large: beard very ſmall: ſize of a ſmall cat.
Inhabits Java: fawn on men, on their own ſpecies, and embrace each other; play with dogs, if they have none of their own ſpecies with them: if they ſee a monkey of another kind, greet him with a thouſand grimaces: when a number of them ſleep, they put their heads together; make a continual noiſe during night.
M. with a long noſe: eyes ſunk in the head: ears furniſhed with pretty long hairs: body ſlender: over each eye, from ear to ear, extends a black line: the upper part of the body of a moſt beautifull and bright bay, almoſt red, ſo vivid as to appear painted: the lower parts aſh-color, tinged with yellow: [Page 117] tail not ſo long as the body: whoſe length is about one foot ſix inches.
Inhabits Senegal: is leſs active than the other kinds: very inquiſitive: when boats are on their paſſage on the river, will come in crowds to the extremities of the branches, and ſeem to admire them with vaſt attention: at length, will become ſo familiar, as to throw pieces of ſticks at the crew: if ſhot at, will raiſe hideous cries; ſome will throw ſtones, others void their excrements in their hands, and fling them among the paſſengers *.
Barbot ** mentions another ſort of red monkey, called in Guinea Peaſants, becauſe of their ugly red hair and figure, and their natural ſtink and naſtineſs.
Inhabits Ceylon: keep in great troops: rob the gardens of fruit, and fields of the corn: the natives are obliged to watch the whole day; yet theſe monkies are ſo bold, that, when drove from one end of [Page 118] the field, will immediately enter at the other, and carry off with them as much as their mouth and arms can hold. Boſman *, ſpeaking of the thefts of the monkies of Guinea, ſays, that they will take in each paw one or two ſtalks of millet, as many under their arms, and two or three in their mouth; and thus laden, hop away on their hind legs; but if purſued, fling away all, except what is in their mouths, that it may not impede their flight: they are very nice in their choice of the millet, examine every ſtalk, and if they do not like it, fling it away; ſo this delicacy does more harm to the fields than their thievery.
- [...]? Ariſt. hiſt. An.
- Monne? Leo Afr. 342.
- Monichus Proſp. Alp. Aegypt. I. 242.
- La Mone de Buffon, xiv. 258. tab. xxxvi.
- Cercopithecus pilis ex nigro et rufo variegatis veſtibus, pedibus nigris, cauda cinerea. Le ſinge variè. Briſſon quad. 1411
M. with a ſhort thick noſe, of a dirty fleſh color: hair on the ſides of the face, and under the throat, long; the color yellow and black; on the forehead, grey: above the eyes, from ear to ear, a black line: the upper part of the body duſky and red: the belly whitiſh: outſide of the thighs, and the feet, black: the tail of a cinereous brown: length, about a foot and a half; the tail, above two.
Inhabits Barbary, Aethiopia, and other parts of Africa: is the kind which gives the name of Monkey to the whole tribe, from the African word Menne; [Page 119] or rather its corruption, Monichus. M. de Buffon ſuppoſes it to be the [...] of Ariſtotle: but the Philoſopher ſays no more, than that the Cebi are apes furniſhed with tails.
- Le Doue de Buffon, xiv. 298. tab. x [...]i
- Cercopithecus cinereus, genis longis pilis ex albo flavicantibus, obſitis, torque ex caſtaneo purpuraſcente. Le grand ſinge de la Cochin-chine. Briſſon quad. 146.
M. with a ſhort flattiſh face, bounded on each ſide by long hairs of a yellowiſh white color: on the neck a collar of purpliſh brown: the lower part of the arms, the thighs, and tail, are white: the upper part of the arms, and thighs, black: the back, belly and ſides, grey tinged with yellow: above the root of the tail is a ſpot of white, which extends beneath as far as the lower part of the belly and part of the thighs: the feet black: the buttocks * covered with hair: is a very large ſpecies, about four feet long, from the noſe to the tail; but the tail not ſo long.
Inhabits Cochin-China and Madagaſcar **: lives on beans; often walks on its hind feet.
M. with a face a little produced; that and the ear fleſh colored: noſe flattiſh: long canine teeth in the lower jaw: hair on the upper part of the body pal [...] tawny, cinereous at the roots: hind part of the back orange: legs cinereous: belly white: ſize o [...] a cat: tail ſhorter than the body.
- Simia nictitans. S. caudata imberbis nigra punctis pallidis alperſa, naſo albo, pollice palmarum breviſſimo, natibus tectis. Lin. ſyſt.
- Cercopithecus Angolenſis alius *. Marcgrave Braſil. 227.
- White Noſes. Purchas's Pilg II. 955.
M. with a ſhort face covered with hair: noſe white: orbits naked: irides yellow: hair on the body black, marked with ſome circles of a lighter color: tail ſtrait, longer than the body: feet and tail black: buttocks covered: thumbs very ſhort: not quite the ſize of the Pygmy ape.
M. with a blue naked face ribbed obliquely: a long beard, like that of a goat: whole body and limbs of a deep brown color: tail long. Deſcribed from a drawing in the Britiſh Muſeum, by Kikius, an excellent painter of animals.
M. with a flat face: long hairs on the forehead and cheeks: upper part of the body and limbs of a tawny brown; belly cinereous: tail ſhorter than the body, annulated with a darker and lighter brown: from a drawing in the Britiſh Muſeum.
- Cercopithecus Luzonicus minimus, magu vel Root Indorum. F [...]. Gaz. 21. tab. 13.
- Simia ſyrichta. S. caudata imberbis ore ciliiſque vibriſſatis. Lin. ſyſt. 44.
α. With prehenſile tails*.
- Guariba Marcgrave Braſil, 226. Raii ſyn. quad. 153.
- Aquiqui De Laet. 486. Grew's Muſcum, 11.
- Howling Baboons, Guareba. Dancroft's Guiana. 133.
- Simia Beelzebub. S. caudata barbata nigra, cauda prehenſili extremo pedibuſque fuſcis. Lin. ſyſt. 37.
- Cercopithecus niger, pedibus fuſcis. Briſſon quad. 137.
M. with black ſhining eyes: ſhort round ears: a round beard under the chin and throat: hairs on the body of a ſhining black, long, yet lie ſo cloſe on each other that the animal appears quite ſmooth: the feet and end of the tail brown; tail very long, and always twiſted at the end: ſize of a fox.
Inhabits the woods of Braſil and Guiana in vaſt numbers; and makes a moſt dreadfull howling: ſometimes one mounts on a higher branch, the reſt ſeat themſelves beneath; the firſt begins as if it was to harangue, and ſets up ſo loud and ſharp a howl as may be heard a vaſt way, a perſon at a diſtance would think that a hundred joined in the cry; after a certain ſpace, he gives a ſignal with his hand, [Page 123] when the whole aſſembly joins in chorus; but on another ſignal, is ſilent, and the orator finiſhes his addreſs*: their clamor is the moſt diſagreeable and tremendous that can be conceived, owing to a hollow and hard bone placed in the throat, which the Engliſh call the throttle bone **. Theſe monkies are very fierce, untameable and bite dreadfully.
- α. ROYAL. Cercopithecus barbatus maximus, ferruginoſus, ſtertoroſus. Ala [...]iita, ſinge rouge. Barrere France Aequin. 150.
- Cercupithecus barbatus ſaturaté rufus. Briſſon quad. 147.
- Simia ſeniculus. S. caudata barbata rufa, cauda prehenſili. Lin. ſyſt. 37.
- Arabata Gumilla Orenóque, II. 8. Bancroft Guiana, 135.
- L'Allouatte, de Buffon, xiv. 5.
A variety of a ferruginous or reddiſh bay color, which the Indians † call the king of the monkies: is large, and as noiſy as the former: the natives eat this ſpecies, and ſeveral other ſorts of monkies, but are particularly fond of this; Europeans will alſo eat it, eſpecially in thoſe parts of America where food is ſcarce: when it is ſcalded in order to get off the hair, it looks very white, and has a reſemblance ſhocking to humanity, that of a child of two or three years old, when crying ‡.
- Cercopithecus major niger, faciem humanam referens. Quouata. Barrere France Aequin. 150.
- Quato Bancroft Guiana, 131.
- Cercopithecus in pedibus anteriobus pollice carens cauda inferius apicem verſus pi [...]is deſtituta. Le Belzebut. Briſſon quad. 150.
- Simia Paniſcus. S. caudata imberbis atra, cauda prehenſili, ad apicem ſubtus nuda. Lin. ſyſt. 37.
- Le Coaita de Buffon xv. 16.
- Spider Monkey. Edw. Gleanings. III. 222. Br. Muſ.
M. with a long fiat face, of a ſwarthy fleſh color: eyes ſunk in the head: ears like the human: limbs of a great length and uncommonly ſlender: hair black, long and rough: only four fingers on the hands, being quite deſtitute of a thumb: five toes on the feet: nails flat: tail long, and naked below, near the end: body ſlender: about a foot and a half long: tail near two feet, ſo prehenſile as to ſerve every purpoſe of a hand.
Inhabits the neighbourhood of Carthagena, Guiana, Braſil, and * Peru: aſſociate in vaſt herds: ſcarce ever are ſeen on the ground. Dampier ** deſcribes their gambols in a lively manner: ‘There was, ſays he, a great company, dancing from tree to tree over my head, chattering and making a terrible noiſe, and a great many grim faces and antick geſtures; ſome broke down dry ſticks and flung them at me, others ſcattered their urine and dung about my ears; at laſt one bigger than the reſt came to a ſmall limb juſt over my head, and leaping directly at me, made me leap back, but the monkey caught hold of the bough with the tip of his tail, and there continued ſwinging to [Page 125] and fro, making mouths at me. The females with their young ones are much troubled to leap after the males, for they have commonly two, one ſhe carries under her arm, the other ſits on her back, and claps its two fore paws about her neck: are very ſullen when taken; and very hard to be got when ſhot, for they will cling with their tail or feet to a bough, as long as any life remains; when I have ſhot at one, and broke a leg or arm, I have pitied the poor creature to ſee it look and handle the broken limb, and turn it from ſide to ſide.’
They are the moſt active of monkies, and quite enliven the foreſts of America: in order to paſs from top to top of lofty trees, whoſe branches are too diſtant for a leap, they will form a chain, by hanging down, linked to each other by their tails, and ſwinging in that manner till the loweſt catches hold of a bough of the next tree, and draws up the reſt * and ſometimes they paſs ** rivers by the ſame expedient.
Are ſometimes brought to Europe: are very tender, and ſeldom live long in our climate: Mr. Brookes had one or two, which, as long as they continued in health, were ſo active, and played ſuch tricks, as to confirm the account of voyagers.
- Simia trepida. S. caudata imberbis, capillitio arrecto, manibus pedibuſque caeruleis, cauda prehenſili villoſa. Lin. ſyſt. 39.
- Simia capucina. S. caudata imberbis fuſca, cauda prehenſili hirſuta, pileo artubuſque nigris, natibus tectis. Lin. ſyſt. 42. Muſ. Ad. Fred. I. tab. ii. S. Apella. S. caudata imberbis cauda ſubprehenſili, corpore fuſco, pedibus nigris, natibus tectis. ibid Muſ. Ad. Fred. I. tab. ii.
- Cercopithecus fuſcus, capitis vettice fuſco. Briſſon quad. 137.
- Le Sajou brun—et gris, de Buffon xv. 37. tab. iv.v.
- Buſh-tailed Montey Edw. 312. Simiolus Ceylonicus Seb. Muſ. I. 77. tab. 48. Br. Muſ.
M. with round head; and ſhort fleſh colored face, with a little down on it: hair on the forehead more or leſs high and erect in different ſubjects: top of the head black or duſky, hair on it pretty long: hind part of the neck, and middle of the back, covered with long duſky hairs; reſt of the back and the limbs of a reddiſh brown: hands and feet covered with a black ſkin: tail longer than the head and body, and often carried over the ſhoulders; the hair on it very long, of a deep brown color, and appears very buſhy from beginning to end: is a ſpecies that varies a little in colors, and in the different length of the hair, which induced Linnaeus to form three ſpecies out of this one.
- Cercopithecus Braſilienſis ſecundus Cluſii exot. 372.
- Cay? De Laet. 486. Raii ſyn. quad. 155.
- Cercopithecus totus niger. Briſſon quad. 139.
- Le Sai—Le Sai a gorge blanc. de Buffon, xv. 51. tab. viii. ix. Br. Muſ.
M. with a round and flat face, of a reddiſh brown color, very deformed: the hair on the head, and upper part of the body, black, tinged with brown; beneath and on the limbs, tinged with red: tail black, and much longer than the head and body: the young exceſſively deformed; their hair very long, and thinly diſperſed; in the Britiſh Muſeum are ſpecimens of old and young. M. de Buffon has a variety with a white throat.
Inhabits Surinam and Braſil: appear as if they were always weeping*: of a melancholy diſpoſition: but very full of imitating what they ſee done: theſe probably are the monkies Dampier ſaw in the Bay of All Saints, which he ſays are very ugly, and ſmell ſtrongly of muſk **: keep in large companies; and make a great chattering, eſpecially in ſtormy weather: reſide much on a ſpecies of tree, which bears a podded fruit, which they feed on†.
- Caitaia Marcgrave Braſil 227. Raii ſyn. quad. 175.
- Cercopithecus pilis ex fuſco, flaveſcente, et candicante variegatus veſtitus, pedibus ex flavo rufeſcentibus. Briſſon quad. 140.
- Cercopithecus ex albo flaveſcens, moſchum redolens. Briſſon 139.
- Cercopithecus minor luteus; Le ſapajou jaune. Barrere France Aequin. 151.
- Simia ſciurea. S. caudata imberbis, occipite prominulo, ungnibus quatuor plantarum ſubulatis; natibus tectis. Lin. ſyſt. 43.
- Le Saimiri de Buffon, xv. 67. tab. x. Br. Muſ.
M. with a round head, noſe a little pointed; the end duſky: orbits fleſh colored: ears hairy: hair on the body ſhort and fine, of a yellow and brown color; but in its native country, when in perfection, of a brilliant gold * color: the feet orange: nails of the hands flat: of the feet like claws: tail very long; leſs uſeful for prehenſile purpoſes than that of the reſt: body of the ſize of a ſquirrel.
Inhabits Braſil and Guiana: when provoked, ſcreams: is a very tender animal: ſeldom brought here alive: ſmells of muſk **. The Simia Morta of Linnaeus, 43; and Cercopithecus cauda murina of Briſſon, 143; engraved in Seba, tab. 48. under the name of Simiolus Ceylonicus, is only the foetus of ſome monkey: probably, as Linnaeus conjectures, of this ſpecies.
- Cercopithecus ex nigro et fuſco variegatus, faſciculis duobus pilorum capitis corniculorum aemulis. Le Sapajou cornu. Briſſon quad. 138.
- Simia Fatuellus Lin. ſyſt. 42.
M. with two tufts of hair like horns on the top of the head: eyes bright; of a duſky color; ears like the human: face, ſides, belly, fore legs brown: top of the head, middle of the back, hind legs, and all the feet black: tail prehenſile, covered with ſhort bright hair: body fourteen inches long, tail fifteen.
M. with a ſhort noſe; black face; hair on each ſide long; back and ſides orange and black, intimately mixed; belly white; outſide of the legs black; in [...]ide aſh-colored; tail of a duſky aſh: its length [...]wenty inches; that of the body eighteen.
Lately in poſſeſſion of Richard Morris, Eſq of [...]he Navy-Office: brought from Antigua: but its [...]ative place uncertain: very good-natured, lively, [...]nd full of tricks: frequently hung by its tail.
b. with ſtrait tails, not prehenſile *.
- Cagui major Marcgrave Braſil, 227.
- Cercopithecus pilis nigris, apice albido, veſtitus, cauda pilis longiſſimis nigris obſita. Briſſon quad. 138. C. pilis cinereſcentibus nigro mixtis, cauda rufa. Briſſon, 141.
- Simia Pithecia. S. caudata imberbis, vellere nigro apice albo cauda nigra villoſiſſima. Lin. ſyſt 40.
- Le Saki de Buffon, xv. 88. tab xii.
- Saccawinkee Bancroft Guiana 135. Br. Muſ.
M. with a ſwarthy face, covered with ſhort white down: forehead and ſides of the face with whitiſh, and pretty long hair: body with long duſky brown hairs; white or yellowiſh at their tips: hair on the tail very long and buſhy; ſometimes black, ſometimes reddiſh: belly and lower part of the limbs a reddiſh white: length from noſe to tail near a foot and a half: tail longer, and like that of a fox: hands and feet black, with claws inſtead of nails.
- Cercopithecus minimus niger Leontocephalus, auribus elephantinis. Barrere France Aequin. 151.
- Simia midas. S. caudara imberbis, labio ſuperiore fiſſo, auribus quadratis nudis, unguibus ſubulatis, pedibus croceis. Lin. ſyſt. 42.
- Le Tamarin. de Buffon xv. 92. tab. xiii.
- Little black monkey. Edw. 196. Br. Muſ.
M. with a round head, ſwarthy, fleſh-colored, naked face: upper lip a little divided: ears very large, erect, naked, and almoſt ſquare: hair on the forehead upright and long; on the body ſoft, but ſhaggy: the head, whole body, and upper part of the limbs, black, except the lower part of the back, which was tinged with yellow: hands and feet covered with light orange-colored hairs, very fine and ſmooth: nails long and crooked: tail black, and twice the length of the body: teeth very white.
Inhabits the hotter parts of South America, and the iſle of Gorgona, ſouth of Panama, in the South Sea. There are, ſays Dampier, a great many little black monkies: at low water, they come to the ſea ſide to take muſcles and perriwinkles, which they dig out of the ſhells with their claws *.
- Cagui minor Marcgrave Braſil, Cercopithecus Braſilianus tertius Sagouin. Cluſii Exot. 372. Geſner quad. 869. Raii ſyn. quad. 154. Klein quad. 87. tab. iii. Ludolph. Com. Aethiop. 58.
- Cercopithecus taeniis tranſverſis alternatim fuſcis et e cincreo albis variegatus, auriculis pilis albis circumdatis. Briſſon quad. 143.
- Simia Iacchus. S. caudata auribus villoſis patulis, cauda hirſotiſſima curvata, unguibus ſubulatis; pollicum rotundatis. Lin. ſyſt. 40.
- L'Ouiſtiti de Buffon, xv. 96. tab. xiv.
- Sanglin or Cagui minor. Edw. 218. Ph. Tr. abridg. 1751. p. 146. tab. vii. Br. Muſ.
M. with a very round head: about the ears two very long full tufts of white hairs ſtanding out on each ſide: irides reddiſh: face ſwarthy fleſh-color: ears like the human: head black: body aſh-colored, reddiſh, and duſky; the laſt forms ſtriated bars croſs the body: tail full of hair, annulated with aſh-color and black: body ſeven inches long: tail near eleven: hands and feet covered with ſhort hairs: fingers like thoſe of a ſquirrel: nails, or rather claws, ſharp.
Inhabits Braſil: feeds on vegetables; will alſo eat fiſh *: makes a weak noiſe: very reſtleſs: often brought over to Europe.
- Cercopithecus minor dilutè olivaceus, parvo capite, Acarima a Cayenne. Barrere France Aequin. 151.
- Cercopithecus ex albo flavicans, fucie circumferentia, ſaturaté rufa. Le petit ſinge Lion. Briſſon quad. 142.
- Simia Roſalia. S. caudata imberbis, capite piloſo, facie circumferentia pedibuſque rubris, unguibus ſubulatis. Lin. ſyſt. 41.
- Le Marikina de Buffon, xv. 108. tab. xvi.
M. with a flat face, of a dull purple color: ears round and naked: on the ſides of the face the hairs very long, turning backwards, of a bright bay color; ſometime yellow, and the former only in patches: the hair on the body long very fine, ſilky, gloſſy, and of a pale but bright yellow: hands and feet naked, and of a dull purple color: claws inſtead of nails to each finger: length of head and body ten inches: tail thirteen and a half; a little buſhy at the end.
- Pinche Condamine's voy. 83.
- Simia Oedipus. S. caudata imberbis, capillo dependente, cauda rubra, unguibus ſubulatis. Lin. ſyſt. 41.
- Cercopithecus pilis ex fuſco et rafo veſtitus, facie ultra auriculas uſque nigra et nuda, vertice longis pilis obſita. Briſſon quad. 150.
- Le Pinche de Buffon, xv. 114. tab. xvii.
- Little Lion Monkey. Edw. 195.
M. with a round head and black pointed face: ears round and duſky: hair on the head white, long, and ſpreading over the ſhoulders: ſhoulders and back covered with long and looſe brown hairs: rump and half the tail deep orange-colored, almoſt red; the remaining part black: throat black: [Page 134] breaſt, belly, and legs, white: inſides of the hands and feet black: claws crooked and ſharp: length of the head and body eight inches; tail above twice as long.
- A Sagoin, &c. Condamine's voy. 83.
- Cercopithecus ex cinereo albus argenteus, facie auriculiſque rubris ſplendentibus, cauda caſtanei coloris. Briſſon quad. 142.
- Le Mico. de Buffon, xv. 121. tab. xviii.
M. with a ſmall round head: face and ears of the moſt lively vermillion color: body covered with moſt beautifull long hairs of a bright and ſilvery whiteneſs, of matchleſs elegance: tail of a ſhining dark cheſnut: head and body eight inches long; tail twelve.
- Animal elegantiſſimum Robinſoni. Raii ſyn. quad. 161.
- Animalculum cynocephalum, Ceylonicum, Tardigradum dictum, Sunii ſpecies. Maſ, Seb. Muſ. I. tab. 35. Cercopithecus ceylonicus, ſeu Tardigradus dictus, major Idem. tab. 47. Klein quad. 86.
- Lemur tardigradus. L. ecaudatus. Lin. ſyſt. 44.
- Simia unguibus iudicis pedum poſteriorum longis, incurvis, et acutis. Briſſon. quad. 134. S. cynocephala unguibus indicis longis incurvis et acutis. Idem. 135.
- Le Loris de Buffon, xiii. 210.
M. with a ſmall head; ſharp pointed noſe: orbits ſurrounded with a black circle, ſpace between them white: from the top of the head along the middle of the back, to the rump, a dark ferruginous line, which on the forehead is bifurcated: ears ſmall: body covered with ſhort, ſoft, and ſilky aſh-colored, and reddiſh fur: toes naked: nails flat: thoſe of the inner toe on each hind foot long, crooked and ſharp: length from the noſe to the rump ſixteen inches.
Inhabits Ceylon and Bengal; lives in the woods, and feeds on fruits: is fond of eggs, and will greedily devour ſmall birds: has the action and inactivity of the ſloth *, creeps ſlowly along the ground: is very tenacious of its hold, and makes a plaintive noiſe.
M. de Buffon repreſents his animal with a much longer viſage than this; his is the ſame with that repreſented by Seba, tab. 35, and each of them [Page 136] much leſs than our animal; but whether they are the ſame I cannot at preſent determine.
- Macaſſar fox. Nieuboff voy. 361. chitote Barbot. 560.
- Vary (1) Flacourt. hiſt. Madag. 153.
- Simia-ſeiurus lanuginoſus fuſcus Petiv. Gaz. tab. 17.
- The Mongooz. Edw. 216.
- Proſimia fuſoa. Pr. fuſca naſo pedibuſque albis. Pr. fuſca. rufo admixto, facie nigra, pedibut fulvis. Briſſon quad. 156, 157.
- Lemur Mongooz. L. caudatus griſeus, cauda unicolore. Lin. ſyſt. 44.
- Le Mongouz, de Buffon, xiii. 174. tab. xxvi.
M. with orange-colored irides: ſhort rounded ears: end of the noſe black: eyes lodged in a circle of black; the ſpace between them of the ſame color: reſt of the noſe and lower ſides of the cheeks white: when in full health the whole upper part of the body covered with long, ſoft and thick fur, a little curled or waved, of a deep browniſh aſh color: tail very long, covered with the ſame ſort of hair, and of the ſame color: breaſt and belly white: hands and feet naked, and dusky: nails flat, except that of the inner toe of the hind feet: ſize of a cat: varies, ſometimes with white or yellow paws, and with a face wholly brown.
Inhabits Madagaſcar, and the adjacent iſles: ſleeps on trees: turns its tail over its head to protect it from rain *: lives on fruits: is very ſportive and good-natured: very tender: found as far as Celebes, or Maccaſſar. Linnaeus confounds this with Mr. Edwards's black maucauco, our 107th.
- Vari Flacourt. hiſt. Madag. 153.
- Mocawk. Groſe's voy. 41.
- Maucauco. Edw. 197.
- Proſimia cinerea, caudâ cinctâ annuiis alternatim albis et nigris. Briſſon quad. 157.
- Lemur Catta. L. caudatus, cauda albo nigroque annulata. Lin. ſyſt. 45. Oſbeck's voy. II. 168.
- Le Mococo de Buffon, xiii. 173. tab. xxii.
M. with the end of the noſe black: ears erect: white face: black circles round the orbits: hair on the top of the head and hind part, deep aſh color: back and ſides reddiſh aſh color: outſides of the limbs paler: belly and inſide of the limbs white: all its hair very ſoft, cloſe and fine, erect like the pile of velvet: tail twice the length of the body; is marked with numbers of regular rings of black and white; and when ſitting twiſted round the body, and brought over its head: nails flat, particularly thoſe of the thumbs of the hind feet: inſide of the hands and feet black: ſize of a cat.
Inhabits Madagaſcar and the neighboring iſles: is very good-natured, has all the life of a monkey, without its miſchievous diſpoſition: is very cleanly: its cry weak: in a wild ſtate, goes in troops of thirty or forty: is eaſily tamed when taken young: according to Flacourt ſometimes found white; Cauche in his voyage to Madagaſcar * alſo ſpeaks of a white kind, which he ſays grunts like ſwine, and is called there Amboimenes.
- Vari ou Varicoſſi. Flacourt. hiſt. Madag. 153. Cauche's voy. 53.
- Black Maucauco. Edw. 217.
- Le Vari. de Buffon, xiii. 174. tab. xxvii.
- Lemur caudatus niger, collari barbato. Lin. ſyſt. 44.
M. with orange-colored irides: long hair round the ſides of the head, ſtanding out like a ruff: tail long: the color of the whole animal black, but not always, being ſometimes white, ſpotted with black; but the feet black: rather larger than the laſt.
Inhabits Madagaſcar: very fierce in a wild ſtate; and make ſo violent a noiſe in the woods, that it is eaſy to miſtake the noiſe of two for that of a hundred: when tamed are very gentle and good-natured. The hind thighs and legs of theſe three ſpecies are very long, which makes their pace ſideling, and bounding.
M. with a ſhort duſky noſe: ſmall eyes: ears ſhort, broad, and flapping, and placed at a great diſtance from each other: head flat and broad: cheeks ſwelling out: tongue very long: legs and thighs ſhort, and very thick: five toes to each foot, ſeparated and ſtanding all forward: claws large, a little hooked, and of a fleſh color: the hairs ſhort, ſoft, gloſſy, cloſely ſet together: on the head, back, and ſides a mixture, of yellow and black: cheeks, inſide of the legs, and the belly, yellow: half way down the middle of the belly is a broad duſky liſt, ending at the tail; and another from the head along the [Page 139] middle of the back to the tail: tail of a bright tawny, mixed with black; is round, and has the ſame prehenſile faculty as ſome of the monkies have: length from the noſe to the tail nineteen inches; of the tail ſeventeen: very good-natured and ſportive; would catch hold of any thing with its tail, and ſo ſuſpend itſelf: lay with its head under its legs and belly.
- Veſpertilio admirabilis. Bontius Juva. 68.
- F [...]lis volans Ternatana. Seb. Muſ. [...] tab. 58.
- Lemur volans. L. caudatus, membrana ambiente volitans. Lin. ſyſt. 45.
M. with a long head: ſmall mouth and teeth: ſmall ears, round and membranous: from the neck to the hands, thence to the hind feet, extends a broad ſkin, like that of a flying ſquirrel; the ſame is alſo continued from the hind feet to the tip of the tail, which is included in it: the body and outſide of this ſkin is covered with ſoft hairs, hoary, or black and aſh color: the inner ſide of the extended ſkin appears membranous, with little veins and fibres diſperſed thro' it: the legs are cloathed with a ſoft yellow down: five toes on each foot: the claws ſlender, very ſharp, and crooked, by which it ſtrongly adheres to whatſoever it faſtens on: the whole length of this ſpecies is near three feet: the breadth the ſame: the tail ſlender; a ſpan long.
[Page 140] Inhabits the country about Guzarat, the Molucca iſles, and the Philippines: feeds on the fruits of trees: a ſpecies very diſtinct from the bat, and flying ſquirrel; but from ignorance of the form of its teeth, its genus very doubtfull: placed here on the authority of Linnaeus.
Five toes before; four behind *.
Not originally in a wild ſtate: the praedominant paſſion of the whole race towards an attachment to mankind, prevented theſe animals from ſeparating themſelves from us; till deſerted, or by ſome accident left in places where there was no poſſibility of re-union: it ſeems beyond the power of ill uſage to ſubdue the faithfull and conſtant qualities inherent in them. Found in great numbers wild, or rather without maſters, in Congo, Lower Aethiopia, and towards the Cape of Good Hope **: are red haired: have ſlender bodies, and turned up tails, like grehounds; others reſemble hounds. Go in great packs: attack lions, tigers, and elephants, but are often killed by them: the ſight of theſe dogs pleaſing [Page 142] to travellers, who ſuppoſe they have conquered the wild beaſts, and ſecured their journey, by driving then away: chace all ſort of animals: when they have run down a beaſt, ſtill preſerve that ſort of reſpect to mankind, as to permit part of it to be taken from them without growling: attack the ſheep of the Hottentots, and commit great ravages among them.
Multitudes wild in S. America: derived from the European race: breed in holes, like rabbet holes *: when found young inſtantly attach themſelves ** to mankind: nor will they ever join themſelves to the wild dogs; or deſert their maſters: theſe have not forgot to bark†, as Linnaeus ſays: look like a grehound ‡: have erect ears: are very vigilant; excellent in the chaſe.
The dog unknown in America before it was introduced there by the Europeans: the Alco of the Peruvians, a little animal, which they were ſo fond of, and kept at a lap dog, too ſlightly mentioned by A-Coſta for us to determine what it was: the figure given by Hernandez ‖ too rude to form any judgement of: the other animal deſcribed by Fernandez is a large ſpecies, he calls it Xoloizicuinlli, the ſame name that is given by the firſt to the Mexican [Page 143] wolf *; as it is certain that the dog of N. America, or rather its ſubſtitute, on its firſt diſcovery by the Engliſh, was derived from the † wolf, tamed and domeſticated; ſo it is reaſonable to imagine that of S. America had the ſame origin: theſe ſubſtitutes cannot bark, but betray their ſavage deſcent by a ſort of howl: want the ſagacity of a true dog; ſerve only to drive the dear into corners: the wolfiſh breed to this day deteſted ‡ by European dogs, who worry them on all occaſions, retaining that diſlike which it is well known all dogs have to the wolf: this reclaimed breed commonly white: have ſharp noſes, and upright ears.
The dog ſubject to more variety than any other animal; each will mix with the other, and produce varieties ſtill more unlike the original ſtock: M. de Buffon, who with great ingenuity has given a genealogical table of all the known dogs, makes the Chien de Berger, the ſhepherds dog, or what is ſometimes called Le chien-loup, or the wolf dog, the origin of all, becauſe it is naturally the moſt ſenſible; becomes, without diſcipline, almoſt inſtantly the guardian of the flocks; keeps them within bounds, reduces the ſtragglers to their proper limits, and defends them from the attacks of the wolves. We have this variety in England; but it is ſmall and weak. Thoſe of France and the Alps, are very large and ſtrong; ſharp-noſed, erect, and ſharp-eared; very hairy, eſpecially about the neck, and [Page 144] have their tails turned up or curled; and by accident, their faces often ſhew the marks of their combats with the wolf.
α POMERANIAN Dog, Le Chien Loup de Buffon. tab. xxix. *
II. Hound, or dog with long ſmooth and pendulous ears. Le Chien courant. p. 205. tab. xxxii. Canis venaticus ſagax. Raii ſyn. quad. 177. Canis ſagax. Lin. ſyſt. 57. This is the ſame with the blood-hound. Br. Zool. I. 51. and is the head of the other kinds with ſmooth and hanging ears.
[Page 145] β. DALMATIAN * Le Braque de Bengal. tab. xxxiv. a beautifull ſpotted kind, vulgarly called the Daniſh dog.
III. SPANIEL. Canis aviarius, ſive Hiſpanicus campeſtris. Raii ſyn quad. 177. Canis avicularius? Lin. ſyſt. 57. Theſe vary in ſize, from the ſetting dog to the ſpringing ſpaniels, and ſome of the little lap dogs, ſuch as
α. KING CHARLES'S **. Le Gredin tab. xxxix. fig. 1.
α. IRISH GRE-HOUND. A variety once very frequent in Ireland, and uſed in the chace of the wolf: now very ſcarce: a dog of great ſize and ſtrength. Le Matin †. de Buffon. tab. xxv. Canis grains Hibernicus. Raii ſyn. quad. 176.
β. COMMON GRE-HOUND. Le Levrier de Buffon xxvii. Canis venaticus graius. Raii ſyn. quad. 176. Canis graius Lin. ſyſt. 57. its varieties are, 1. ITALIAN GRE-HOUND, ſmall, and ſmooth: 2. Oriental, tall, ſlender, with very pendulous ears, and very long hairs on the tail, hanging down a great length.
γ. DANISH DOG. Le grand Danois de Buffon xxvi. of a ſtronger make than a gre-hound: the largeſt of dogs: perhaps of this kind were the dogs of Epirus, mentioned by Ariſtotle, lib. iii. c. 21; or thoſe of Albania, ſo beautifully deſcribed by Pliny. Lib. viii. c. 40.
δ. MASTIFF. Very ſtrong and thick made: the head large: the lips great, and hanging down on each [Page 147] ſide: a fine and noble countenance: grows to a great ſize: a Britiſh kind. For a further account of this and other Britiſh dogs, vide Br. Zool. I. 40, Le Dogue de forte race. de Buffon tab. xlv. maſtivus Raii ſyn. quad. 176. Canis moloſſus Lin. ſyſt. 57.
α. BULL-DOG: with a ſhort noſe, and under jaw longer than the upper: a cruel and very fierce kind, often biting before it barks: peculiar to England: the breed ſcarcer than it has been ſince the barbarous cuſtom of bull-baiting has declined. Le Dogue de Buffon tab. xllii.
*The moſt faithfull of animals: is the companion of mankind: fawns at the approach of its maſter: will not ſuffer any one to ſtrike him: runs before him in a journey; often running backward and forward [Page 148] over the ſame ground: on coming to croſs ways, ſtops and looks back: very docil: will find out what is dropt: watchfull by night: anounces the coming of ſtrangers: guards any goods committed to its charge: drives cattle home from the field: keeps herds and flocks within bounds: protects them from wild beaſts: points out to the ſportſman the game, be virtue of its acute ſenſe of ſmelling: brings the birds that are ſhot to its maſter: will turn a ſpit: at Bruſſels and in Holland draws little carts to the herb market: in Siberia draws a ſledge with its maſter in it, or loaden with proviſions: ſits up and begs *: when it has committed a theft ſlinks away with its tail between its legs: ears enviouſly with oblique eyes: is maſter among its fellows: enemy to beggars: attacks ſtrangers without provocation: fond of licking wounds: cures the gout and cancers: howls at certain notes in muſick, and often urines on hearing them: bites at a ſtone flung at it: is ſick at the approach of bad weather: gives itſelf a vomit by eating graſs: is afflicted with tape-worms: ſpreads its madneſs: grows blind with age: ſaepe gonnorhaea infectus: driven as unclean from the houſes of the Mahometans; yet the ſame people eſtabliſh hoſpitals for them, and allow them a daily dole of food: eats fleſh, carrion, farinaceous vegetables not greens: fond or rolling in carrion: dungs on a ſtone; its dung the greateſt of Septics: drinks by lapping: makes water ſide-ways, with its leg held up; very [Page 149] apt to repeat it where another dog has done the ſame: odorat anum alterius: menſtruans catulit cum variis; mordet illa illos; cohaeret copula junctus. Goes 63 days with young; brings from four to ten; the males like the dog, females like the bitch: its ſcent exquiſite: goes obliquely: foams when hot, and hangs out its tongue: ſcarce ſweats: about to lie down, often goes round the ſpot: its ſleep attended with a quick ſenſe of heating: dreams.
- Lupus Geſner quad. 634. Raii ſin. quad. 173.
- Weſt Klein quad. 69. Kram. Auſt. 31 [...].
- Canis ex griſeo flaveſcens. Briſſon quad. 170.
- Canis Lupus. C. cauda incurvata. Lin. ſyſt. 58.
- Warg, Ulf Faun. ſuec. No. 6.
- Le Loup de Buffon, vii. 39. tab. I.
- Wolf. Br. Zool. I. 61. tab. I.
D. with a long head: pointed noſe: ears erect and ſharp: tail long, buſhy, bending down: long leg'd: hair pretty long: teeth large: color generally pale brown, tinged with yellow; ſometimes found white*; in Canada ſometimes black: taller than a large grehound.
Inhabits the continents of Europe, Aſia, Africa, and America; but not ſo high as the Arctic circle: have been long extirpated in Great Britain **: the vaſt foreſts on the European continent will always preſerve them: the wolves of N. America the ſmalleſt; [Page 150] when reclamed, are the dogs of the natives the wolves of Senegal the largeſt and fierceſt; they prey in company with the lion *.
Are cruel, but cowardly animals: fly from man except preſſed by hunger, when they prowl by night in vaſt droves thro' villages, and deſtroy any perſons they meet: ſuch that once get the taſte o [...] human blood, give it the preference: ſuch were the wolves of the Gevaudan, of which ſo many ſtrange tales were told: the French peaſants call this Loupgarou, and ſuppoſe it to be poſſeſſed with ſome evil ſpirit: ſuch was the Were Wulf of the old Saxons †. The wolf preys on all kind of animals; but in caſe of neceſſity will feed on carrion: in hard weather aſſemble in vaſt troops, and join in dreadfull howlings: horſes generally defend themſelves againſt their attacks; but all weaker animals fall a prey to them: throughout France the peaſants are obliged nightly to houſe their flocks: wolves are moſt ſuſpicious animals; ſally forth with great caution: have a fine ſcent; hunt by noſe: are capable of bearing long abſtinence: to allay their hunger will fill their bellies with mud: a mutual enmity between dogs and them: are in heat in winter, followed by ſeveral males, which occaſions great combats: goes with young ten weeks: near her time prepares a ſoft bed of moſs, in ſome retired place: brings from five to nine at a time: the young born blind: teeth of the wolf large and ſharp: its bite terrible, as its ſtrength is great: the hunters therefore cloath [Page 151] their dogs, and guard their necks with ſpiked collars: wolves are proſcribed animals, deſtroyed by pit-falls, traps or poiſon: a peaſant in France, who kills a wolf, carries its head thro' the villages, and collects ſome ſmall reward from the inhabitants: the Kirghis-Khaiſſacks take the wolves by the help of a large ſort of hawk called Berkut, which is trained for the diverſion, and will faſten on them and tear out their eyes*.
The Coyotl ** of New Spain is a ſmall ſpecies of wolf; very fierce and ravenous: of a ſize between a wolf and a fox.
- MEXICAN WOLF. Xoloizcuintli In Daies Mex. 479.
- Cautia [...]htli, ſen lupus indicus.
- Fernandez An. Nov. Hiſp. 7.
- Canis cinereus, maculis fulvis vaneg [...]rus, tarniis ſubnigris a car [...]al latera deorſum hinc inde deductis. Briſſon quad. 172.
- Canis mexicanus. C. cauda deflexa laevi, corpore cinereo, faſciis fuſcis, maculiſque fulvis variegato. Lin. ſyſt. 60.
- Le Loup de Mexique. de Buſſon, xv. 149.
D. with a very large head: great jaws: vaſt teeth: on the upper lips very ſtrong briſtles, reflected backwards, not unlike the ſofter ſpines of a porcupine; and of a grey and white color: large, erect, cinereous ears; the ſpace between marked with broad tawny ſpots: the head aſh colored, ſtriped tranſverſely with bending duſky lines: neck fat and thick, covered with a looſe ſkin, marked with a long tawny ſtroke: on the breaſt is another of the ſame kind: body aſh colored, ſpotted with black; [Page 152] and the ſides ſtriped from the back downwards, with the ſame color: belly cinereous: tail long, of the color of the belly, tinged in the middle with tawny: legs and feet ſtriped with black and aſh color: ſometimes this variety (for Fernandez, who has deſcribed the animals of Mexico, thinks it no other) is found white.
- Vulpes Geſner quad. 966. Raii ſyn. quad. 177.
- Fuchs Klein. quad. 73. Meyer's An. I. tab. 36.
- Canis vulpes. C. cauda recta apice albo. Lin. ſyſt. 59. Haſſelquiſt. itin. 191.
- Ra [...]f Faun. ſuec. No. 7.
- Canis ſulvus, pilis cinereis intermixtis. briſſon quad. 173.
- Le Renard. de Buffon, vii. 75. tab. vi.
- Fox. Br. Zool. I. 58.
D. with a ſharp noſe: lively hazel eyes: ſharp erect ears: body tawny red, mixed with aſh color: fore part of the legs black: tail long, ſtrait, buſhy, tipt with white: ſubject to much variety in color.
β. CROSS FOX: with a black mark, paſſing tranſverſely from ſhoulder to ſhoulder; and another along the back, to the tail. Vulpes crucigera. Geſner quad. 90. Jonſton. quad. I. 93. Schoeffer Lapl. 135. Hiſt. Kamtſchatka. 9 [...]. Klein quad. 71.
Inhabits the coldeſt parts of Europe, Aſia, and North America: a valuable fur; thicker and ſofter than the common ſort: great numbers of the ſkins imported from Canada. Not a variety of the Iſatis or Arctic fox.
γ. BLACK FOX. The moſt cunning of any: and its [...]in the moſt valuable; a lining of it eſteemed in Ruſſia preferable to that of the fineſt ſables: a ſingle ſkin well ſell for 400 rubels: inhabits the northern parts of Aſia, and N. America: the laſt of inferior goodneſs.
δ. BRANT FOX. That deſcribed by Geſner * and Linnaeus ** is of a fiery redneſs; and called by the firſt Brand-fuchſ, by the laſt Brandraef: one that was the property of Mr. Brook, was ſcarce half the ſize of the common fox: the noſe black, and much ſharper: ſpace round the ears ferruginous: forehead, back, ſhoulders, ſides and thighs, black, mixed with red, aſh color, and black; the aſh color predominated, which gave it a hoary look: the belly yellowiſh: tail black above, red beneath: cinereous on its ſide. This Mr. Brook received from Penſylvania, under the name of Brant fox.
D. with upright ears: ſoft downy hair: tail buſhy, the length of the body: throat white: irides yellowiſh green: color in ſummer pale tawny; in winter gray: baſe, and tip of the tail, black: a ſmall kind.
Inhabits the deſerts beyond the Yaik: lives in holes: howls and barks: caught by the Kirghis-Khaiſſacks, with falcons and gre-hounds: 40 or 50,000 are taken annually, and ſold to the Ruſſians, at the rate of 40 Kopeiks, or 20 pence each: the former uſe their ſkins inſtead of money: great numbers are ſent into Turky *.
COMMON FOX inhabits all Europe, the cold and temperate parts of Aſia **, Barbary, but not the hotter parts of Africa; abounds in N. America; and are alſo found in S. America †: in all countries have the ſame cunning diſpoſition; the ſame eagerneſs after prey; and commit the ſame ravages among game, birds, poultry, and the leſſer quadrupeds: are very fond of honey; attack the wild bees, and neſts of waſps, for ſake of the magots: will eat any ſort of inſects: devour fruit; and are very deſtructive [Page 155] in vineyards: bury what they cannot eat: fond of baſking in the ſun.
Lodge under ground; generally making uſe of a badger's hole, which they enlarge, adding ſeveral chambers, and never neglecting to farm another hole to the ſurface to eſcape at, in caſes of extremity: prey by night: females in heat in winter; bring five or ſix at a time; if the young are diſturbed, will remove them one by one to a more ſecure place: their voice a yelp, not a bark: their bite like that of the wolf, is very hard and dangerous: their ſcent exceſſively ſtrong; the chace in that account more keen, more animating: when chaſed firſt attempt to recover their hole, but finding that ſtopped generally fly the country.
- Vulpes alba, Jonſton quad. 93.
- Fox, Marten's Spitzberg. 100.
- Egede Greenl. 62. Crantz Greenl. I [...].
- Aſhen-colored Fox, Schaeffer Lapland, 135.
- Canis Lagopus. C. cauda recta, apice concolore. Lin. ſyſt. 59.
- Fial racka, Faun. ſuec. No. 8.
- Canis hieme alba, aeſtate ex cinerco caeruleſcens. Briſſon quad. 174.
- Iſatis. Nov. Com. Petrop. V. 358. de Buffon, xiii. 272. Aſh. Muſ.
D. with a ſharp noſe: ſhort rounded ears: almoſt hid in the fur: long and ſoft hair, ſomewhat woolly; ſhort legs: toes covered on all parts, like that of a hare, with fur: tall ſhorter than that of the common fox, and more buſhy: of a bluiſh grey, or aſhcolor; ſometimes white: the young of the grey are black before they come to maturity: hair much longer in winter than ſummer, as uſual with animals of cold climates.
[Page 156] Inhabits the countries bordering on the frozen ſea; Kamtſchatka, the iſles between it and America, and the oppoſite parts of America diſcovered in Captain Bering's expedition, 1741; is again found in Greenland, Iceland, Spitzbergen, Nova Zembla, and Lapland: burrows under ground; forms holes many feet in length; ſtrews the bottom with moſs: in Greenland and Spitzbergen, lives in the cliffs of rocks, not being able to burrow, by reaſon of the froſt: two or three pair inhabit the ſame hole: are in heat about Lady-Day; during that time continue in the open air; afterwards take to their holes: go with young nine weeks: like dogs continue united in copulation: bark like that animal; for which reaſons the Ruſſians call them Peſzti *: have all the cunning of the common fox: prey on the young of geeſe, ducks, and other water fowl, before they can fly; on grouſe of the country, and hares, on the eggs of birds; and in Greenland (through neceſſity) on berries, ſhell fiſh, or any thing the ſea flings up; but their principal food in the North of Aſia, and in Lapland, is the Leming †, or Lapland Marmot: thoſe of the countries laſt mentioned are very migratory, purſuing the Leming, a very wandering animal: ſometimes theſe foxes will deſert the country for three or four years, probably in purſuit of their prey; for it is well known that the migrations of the Leming is very inconſtant, appearing in certain countries only once in ſeveral years: the people of Jeneſea ſuſpect they [Page 157] go to the banks of the Oby: are taken in traps: oft-time the glutton and great owl deſtroys them, before the hunter can take them out: the ſkins of ſmall value: the great rendezvous of theſe animals on the banks of the frozen ſea, and the rivers that flow into it, being found there in greet troops.
- Grey fox. Smith's voy. Virginia, 27. Joſſelyn's voy. 82. rarities, 21. Lawſon's Carolina, 125. Cateſhy Carolina, II. 78.
- Canis ex cinereo argenteus Briſſon quad. 174.
Inhabits Carolina, and the warmer parts of N. America: differs from the arctic fox in form; and in nature of its dwelling: agrees with the common fox in the firſt, varies from it in the laſt: never burrows; lives in hollow trees: gives no diverſion to the ſportſman, for after a mile's chace takes to its retreat: has no ſtrong ſmell: feeds on poultry, birds, &c. eaſily made tame: their ſkins, when in ſeaſon, made uſe of for muffs.
In form reſembling the common fox: abound in the wooded eminencies, in Louiſiana, which are every where pierced with their holes: their coat very beautifull; the ſhort hairs of a deep brown; over them ſpring long ſilvery, hairs which give the animal a very elegant appearance: as they live in foreſts [Page 158] abounding with game, never attempt the poultry, which run at large.
- Adil, Squilachi Graec. modern. Belon cbſ. 163.
- Lupus Aureus. Kaemfer. Amaen. exot. 413. Raii ſyn. quad. 174. Klein quad. 70.
- Canis aureus. Lin. ſyſt. 5 [...].
- Canis flavus Briſſon quad 171.
- Le Chacal & L'Adive. de Buffon, xiii. 255.
Inhabits all the hot and temperate parts of Aſia; is found in Barbary, and other parts of Africa, as low as the Cape of Good Hope. They go in packs of 40, 50, even of 200, and hunt like hounds in full cry, from evening to morning *: they deſtroy the flocks, and poultry, ravage the ſtreets of villages and gardens, neer towns, and will even deſtroy children ** that happen to be unprotected: they will enter ſtables and out-houſes, and devour ſkins, and any thing elſe formed of that material: there is ſcarce an animal they will leave unmoleſted: in default of living prey, will feed on roots, fruits, and the moſt infected carrion: will greedily diſinter the dead†, and feed on the putrid corpſes; for which reaſon, in many countries, the graves are made of a great depth, and well ſecured againſt their attacks: they attend caravans, and follow armies, in hopes that death will provide them a banquet: their howls and clamors are dreadfull, and [Page 159] ſo loud that people can ſcarce hear one another ſpeak: during day they are ſilent, and retire to their dens. Dellon ſays that they are ſometimes tamed, and kept among other domeſtic animals.
This animal is vulgarly called the Lion's provider, from an opinion that it rouzes the prey for that bad noſed quadruped. The fact is, every creature in the foreſt is ſet in motion by the fearfull cries of the Jackals; the Lion, and other beaſts of rapine, by a ſort of inſtinct, attend to the chaſe, and ſeize ſuch timid animals that betake themſelves to flight at the noiſe of this nightly pack. Deſcribed by Oppian * under the name of [...], or yellow wolf; who mentions its horrible howl. It is ſtrange, that an animal ſo common in the Levant, ſhould never have been brought over to be deſcribed by any modern Naturaliſt. The deſcriptions yet remain very obſcure; and there is ſtill great uncertainty, whether the Jackal, and the Adive of M. de Buffon, are the ſame, or different animals. A ſtuft ſkin of one in the Aſhmolean Muſeum (in very ill preſervation) had none of that brilliant color aſcribed to it by Belon.
May, as M. de Buffon conjectures, be the [...] of Ariſtotle **, who mentions it with the wolf, and ſays that it has the ſame internal ſtructure as the wolf, which is common with congenerous animals. The Thoes of Pliny may alſo be a variety of the ſame animal; for his account of it agrees with the modern hiſtory of the Jackal, except in the laſt article †.
D. with upright ears: little warts on the cheeks, above the eyes, and under the throat: the tongue fringed in the ſides: ſize of a large cat: color of the upper part of the body greyiſh; the lower white: tail bending downwards, and ſmooth: five toes before, four behind.
- [...] Ariſtol. hiſt. An. lib. vi. c. 31. Cyp [...]an Cynig. III. 263.
- H [...]aena Pl [...]n [...], lib. viii. c. 30.
- Lapus ma [...]nus Belon aquat. 33. [...].
- [...] [...]mu [...], ſive Hyaena ve [...] [...]aſtoar. Kaemſer Amaen. [...]. 411.
- Dubha Shaw's travels, 246.
- Hyaena Ruſſel's Aleppo, 59.
- Canis Hyaena. C. cauda recta annulata, pilis cervicis erectis, auriculis nudis, palmis tetradactylis. Lin. ſyſt. 58.
- L'Hyaene de Buffon, ix. 268. tab. xxv. Briſſon quad. 169.
H. with long ſharp pointed naked ears: upright mane: high ſhoulders: fore legs longer then the hind legs: hair on the body courſe, rough, and pretty long, of an aſh color, marked with long black ſtripes, from the back downwards; others croſs the legs: tail very full of hair, ſometimes plain, ſometimes barred with black: ſize of a large dog, but very ſtrongly made.
Inhabits Aſiatic Turky, Syria, Perſia, and Barbary: like the jackal violates the repoſitories of the dead, and greedily devours the putrid contents of the grave; like it, preys on the herds and flocks; yet, for want of other food, will eat the roots of plants *, and the tender ſhoots of the palms; but contrary to the nature of the former, is an unſociable animal; [...] ſolitary, and inhabits the chaſms of the rocks. The ſuperſtitious Arabs, when they kill one, carefully [Page 162] bury the head *, leaſt it ſhould be applied to magical purpoſes; as the neck was of old by the Theſſalian ſorcereſs.‘ Viſcera non Lyneis, non dirae nodus Hyaena Defuit **.’
The antients were wild in their opinion of the Hyaena: they believed that it changed its ſex, imitated the human voice; that it had power of charming the ſhepherds, and as it were rivetting them to the place they ſtood on: no wonder that an ignorant Arab ſhould attribute to its remains preternatural powers.
They are cruel, fierce, and untameable animals, with a moſt malevolent aſpect: have a ſort of obſtinate courage, which will made them face ſtronger quadrupedsthan themſelves; Kaempfer relates that he ſaw one which had put two lions to flight, regarding them with the utmoſt coolneſs, Their voice is hoarſe, a diſagreeable mixture of growling and roaring.
- Jackal, or wild Dog, Boſman's Guinea, 293.
- Quumbengo Churchill's coll. voy. v. 486.
- Tiger wolf Kolben's Cape, II. 108.
- Hyaena or Crocuta? Ludolph. Aethiopia, 57.
- Cani-apro-lupo-vulpes? Deſlandes Hiſt. de l'Acad. tom. xxviii. 50. octavo ed.
Inhabits Guinea, Aethiopia, and the Cape: lives in holes in the earth, or cliffs of rocks: preys by night: howls horribly: breaks into the folds, and kills two or three ſheep: devours as much as it can, and carries away one for a future repaſt: will attack mankind; ſcrape open graves, and devour the dead. M. de Buffon, miſled by Boſman's name of this animal, makes it ſynonymous with the common jackal. Has, till the preſent time, been undiſtinguiſhed by naturaliſts. This deſcription taken from one ſhewn ſome years ago in London.
- Leo Plinii, lib. viii. c. 16. Geſner quad. 572. Raii ſyn. quad. 102.
- Lowe Klein quad. 81.
- Felis cauda in floccum deſineute. Briſſon quad. 194.
- Felis Leo. F. cauda elongata, corpore helvulo. Lin ſyſt. 60.
- Le Lion de Buffon, ix. 1. tab. I.II.
C. with a large head: ſhort rounded ears: face covered with ſhort hairs: upper part of the head, chin, whole neck and ſhoulders, with long ſhaggy hairs, like a mane: hair on the body and limbs ſhort and ſmooth; along the bottom of the belly long: limbs of vaſt ſtrength: tail long, with a tuft of long hairs at the end: color tawny, but on the belly inclines to white: length of the largeſt lion from noſe to tail above eight feet: the tail four feet: the lioneſs or female is leſs, and wants the mane.
An inhabitant of all parts of Africa; and the hot parts of Aſia, ſuch as India and Perſia, and a few are ſtill met with in the deſerts between Bagdat and Baſſorah, on the banks of the Euphrates; but they are found in greateſt numbers in the torrid zone, where their ſize is the largeſt, and their rage more [Page 165] tremendous, being enflamed by the influence of a burning ſun, on a moſt arid ſoil. In the interior parts of Africa *, amidſt the ſcorched and deſolate deſerts of Zaara, or Biledulgerid, they reign ſole maſters; they lord it over every beaſt, and their courage never meets with a check, where the climate keeps mankind at a diſtance: the nearer they approach the habitations of the human race, the leſs their rage, or rather the greater is their timidity **; they have often experienced the unequal combat, and finding that there exiſts a being ſuperior to them, commit their ravages with more caution: a cooler climate again has the ſame effect; for in the burning deſerts, where rivers and fountains are denied, they live in a perpetual fever, a ſort of madneſs fatal to every animal they meet with: the author of the oeconomy of nature gives a wonderfull proof of the inſtinct of theſe animals in thoſe unwatered tracts. There the Pelican makes her neſt; and in order to cool her young ones, and accuſtom them to an element they muſt afterwards be converſant in, brings from afar, in their great gular pouch, ſufficient water to fill the neſt; the lion, and other wild beaſts, approach and quench their thirſt, yet never injure the unfledged † birds, as if conſcious that their deſtruction would immediately put a ſtop to thoſe gratefull ſupplies.
The courage of the lion is tempered with mercy ‡, [Page 166] and has been known to ſpare the weaker animals, as if beneath his attention: there are many inſtance; of its gratitude; relations ſo ſtrange, that the reader is referred to them in the notes * to the authorities themſelves. Lions are capable of being tamed: the monarch of Perſia, full of ſavage ſtate, has, on days of audience **, two great ones chained on each ſide of the paſſage to the room of ſtate, led there by keepers, in chains of gold. As they have been ſo far ſubdued, why may we not credit the ſtory of their being harneſſed for the triumphal car of the conqueror Bacchus?
The lion preys on all kinds of animals: as his ſcent is bad, his peculiar and tremendous roar ſtrikes terror into every beaſt of the deſert, and ſets them in motion, in open view; he then ſelects his object, and takes it not ſo much by purſuit, as by a vaſt bound, ſtriking it with his talons, and tearing it to pieces: in inhabited countries he invades the folds, leaps over the fences with his prey; and ſuch is his ſtrength, that he can carry off a middling ox with the utmoſt eaſe †: in many places it takes its prey by ſurprize, lurking in the thickets, and ſpringing on it: oft-times mankind falls a victim to his hunger, but then it is rather thro' neceſſity than choice. The Arabs have a notion of his ſparing the tender ſex, but Doctor Shaw informs us ‡ that they make no diſtinction in theſe days: the ſame writer acquaints [Page 167] us, that the fleſh of the lion is often eaten in Barbary, and it reſembles veal in taſte.
- Tigris Plinii, lib. viii. c. 18. Bontius Java, 53. Geſner quad. 936. Raii ſyn. quad. 165. Klein. quad. [...]8.
- Felis Tigris. F. cauda elongata, corpore maculis omnibus virgatis. Lin. ſyſt. 61.
- Felis flava, maculis longis nigris variegata. Briſſon quad. 194.
- Le Tigre de Buffon, ix. 129. tab. ix.
C. with a ſmooth head and body; vaſt ſtrength in its limbs; of a pale yellow color, beautifully marked with long ſtripes of black from the back, pointing to the belly, with others croſs the thighs: the tail ſhorter by a third than the body; annulated with black: often ſuperior in ſize to a lion; that called the Royal ‡ Tiger of a tremendous bulk. M. de Buffon mentions one that was (tail included) fifteen feet long. Du Halde II. 254, ſays, that the Chineſe tigers vary in color, ſome being white, ſtriped with black and gray.
The tiger is peculiar to Aſia §; and is found as far North as China, and Chineſe Tartary; it inhabits mount Ararat, and Hyrcania of old, famous for its [Page 168] wild beaſts; but the greateſt numbers, the largeſt, and the moſt cruel, are met with in India, and its iſlands; they are the ſcourge of the country; they lurk among the buſhes, on the ſides of rivers, and almoſt depopulate many places: they are inſidious, blood thirſty, and malevolent; and ſeem to prefer preying on the human race preferable to any other animals: they do not purſue their prey, but bound on it from their ambuſh, with an elaſticity, and from a diſtance that is ſcarce credible: if they miſs the object, they make off; but if they ſucceed, be it man, or be it beaſt, even one as large as a Buffalo *, they carry it off with ſuch eaſe, that it ſeems not the leſt impediment to their flight: if they are undiſturbed, they plunge their head into the body of the animal up to their very eyes, as if it were to ſatiate themſelves with blood, which they exhauſt the corps of before they tear it to pieces**: there is a ſort of cruelty in their devaſtations, unknown to the generous lion; as well at a poltronery in their ſudden retreat on any diſappointment. I was informed, by very good authority, that in the beginning of this century, ſome gentlemen and ladies, being on a party of pleaſure, under a ſhade of trees, on the banks of a river in Bengal, obſerved a tiger preparing for its fatal ſpring; one of the ladies, with amazing preſence of mind, layed hold of an umbrella, and furled it full in the animal's face, which inſtantly retired, and gave the company opportunity of removing from ſo terrible a neighbor.
[Page 169] Another party had not the ſame good fortune: a tiger darted among them while they were at dinner, [...] on one gentleman, and carried him off, and [...] was more heard of. They attack all ſorts of animals, even the lion; and it has been known that both have periſhed in their combats: there is in ſome parts of India a popular notion *, that the rhinoceros and the tiger are in friendſhip, becauſe they are often found near each other: the fact is, the rhinoceros, like the hog, loves to wallow in the mire; and on that account frequents the banks of rivers; the tiger, to quench its raging thirſt, is met with in places contiguous to them.
Pliny has been frequently taken to taſk by the moderns, for calling the tiger, animal tremendae ve [...]tatis **; they allow it great agility in its bounds, but deny it ſwiftneſs in purſuit: two travellers of authority, both eye-witneſſes, confirm what Pliny ſays; the one indeed only mentions, in general its vaſt fleetneſs; the other ſaw a tryal between one and a ſwift horſe, whoſe rider eſcaped meerly by getting in time amidſt a circle of armed men. The chaſe of this animal was a favorite diverſion with the great CAM-HI, the Chineſe monarch, in whoſe company our countryman, Mr. Bell, that faithfull traveller; and the Pere Gerbillon, ſaw theſe proofs of the tiger's ſpeed †.
- Varia et Pardus? Plinis, lib. viii. c. 17.
- [...]? Oppian Cyneg. lib. III. [...]. 63.
- Panthera, Pardus, Pardalis, Leopardus Geſner quad. 824. Raii ſyn. quad. 166. Klein. quad. 77.
- Felis Pardus. F. cauda elongata, corpore maculis ſuperioribus orbiculatis; inferioribus virgatis. Lin. ſyſt. 61 *. Briſſon quad. 198.
- La Panthere de Buffon, ix. 151. tab. xi. xii.
C. with ſhort ſmooth hair, of a bright tawny color: the back, ſides, and flanks elegantly markes with black ſpots, diſpoſed in circles from four to five in each, with a ſingle black ſpot in the centre of each: on the face and legs ſingle ſpots only: on the top of the back is a row of oblong ſpots; the longeſt next the tail: the cheſt and belly white; the firſt marked with tranſverſe duſky ſtripes: the belly and tail with large irregular black ſpots: ears ſhort and pointed: end of the noſe brown: limbs very ſtrong: the ſkin of one I meaſured, was, from the end of the noſe to the origin of the tail, ſix feet ten inches; the tail near three.
Inhabits Africa, from Barbary to the remoteſt parts of Guinea †. This ſpecies is next in ſize to the tiger; next to it in cruelty, and in its general enmity to the animal creation: it is to Africa what the former is to Aſia, with this alleviation, that it prefers the fleſh of brutes to that of mankind; but when preſſed with hunger, [Page 171] attacks every living creature without diſtinction: its manner of taking its prey is the ſame with that of the tiger, always by ſurprize, either lurking in thickets, or creeping on its belly till it comes within reach: it will alſo climb up trees in purſuit of monkies, and leſſer animals; ſo that nothing is ſecure from its attacks: it is an untameable ſpecies, always retains its fierce, its malevolent aſpect, and perpetual growl or murmur.
The antients were well acquainted with theſe animals; theſe and the leopards were the Variae, and Pardi of the old writers: one ſhould think that the Romans would have exhauſted the deſerts of Africa, by the numbers they draw from thence for their public ſhews: Scaurus exhibited at one time 150 Panthers; Pompey the great 410; Auguſtus 420*: probably they thinned the coaſts of Mauritania of theſe animals, but they ſtill ſwarm in the Southern parts of Guinea.
An animal of this ſpecies is found in Buckharia, called there Babr; is ſeven [...]eet long; very deſtructive to horſes, and even camels: the ſkin is fine, and valued in Ruſſia at 1l. ſterling†.
- Uncia Caii opuſc. 42. Geſner quad. 825.
- Le Leopard des Marchais voy. I. 202.
- Le Leopard de Buffon, ix. 151. tab. xiv.
C. with hair of a lively yellow color; marked on the back and ſides with ſmall ſpots, diſpoſed in circles, and placed pretty cloſely together: the face and legs marked with ſingle ſpots: the breaſt and belly covered with longer hairs than the reſt of the body, of a whitiſh color: the ſpots on the tail large and oblong: the length of this ſpecies, from noſe to tail, four feet; the tail two and a half.
[Page 173] Inhabits Senegal and Guinea; ſpares neither man nor beaſt: when beaſts of chaſe fail, deſcends from the internal parts of Africa in crowds, and makes great havoke among the numerous herds that cover the rich meadows of the lower Guinea: it tears its prey to pieces with both claws and teeth; is always thin, tho' perpetually devouring. The Panther is its enemy, and deſtroys numbers of them. The Negreſſes make collars of their teeth, and attribute to them certain virtues. The Negroes take theſe animals in pit-falls, covered at the top with ſlight hurdles, on which is placed ſome fleſh as a bait. The Negroes made a banquet of theſe animals, whoſe fleſh is ſaid to be as white as veal, and very well taſted. The ſkins are often brought to Europe, and reckoned very valuable.
C. with the face ſpotted with black: chin white: a great black ſpot each ſide of the upper lip: breaſt marked with ſmall ſpots: belly white, ſpotted with black: back, ſides and rump, covered with hair of a bright yellow color: marked with circles of ſpots, like the former; but the ſpots much leſs: not half the bulk of the laſt; but the tail ſhorter in proportion, and tapering to a point, and the hair on it ſhort. The tails of the two laſt ſpecies are of equal thickneſs from top to bottom.
C. with a ſmall head: irides pale orange: end o [...] the noſe black: from each corner of the mouth to that of each eye, a duſky line: ears ſhort, tawny marked with a brown bar: face, chin and throat of a pale yellowiſh brown: the face ſlightly ſpotted: body of a light-tawny brown, marked with numbers of ſmall round black ſpots; not in circles, but each diſtinct: the ſpots on the rim and outſide of the legs were larger: the inſide of the legs plain: hair on the top of the neck longer than the reſt: that on the belly white, and very long: tail longer than the body; of a reddiſh brown color; marked above with large black ſpots; the hair on the under ſide very long.
- [...]. Oppian Cyneg. III. [...].95.
- Panthera? Plinii, lib. viii. c. 17.
- L'Once de Buffon, ix. 151. tab. xiii.
C. with a large head: ſhort ears: long hair on the whole body: color a whitiſh aſh, tinged with yellow: on the breaſt and belly with a ſmaller caſt of yellow: head marked with ſmall round ſpots: behind each ear a large black ſpot: the upper part of the neck varied, with large ſingle ſpots: the ſides of the back with longitudinal marks, conſiſting of ſeveral ſpots, almoſt touching each other, leaving the ground color of the body in the middle: the ſpots beneath theſe irregular, large, and full: thoſe on the legs ſmall, and thinly diſperſed: the tail full of hair; irregularly marked with large black ſpots. This ſpecies is of a ſtrong make: long backed: ſhort legged: length from the noſe to the tail, about three feet and a half: tail upwards of three feet.
Inhabits Barbary **, Perſia, Hyrcania † and China ‡; is an animal of a more gentle and mild nature than moſt of the preceding; is, like the laſt, [Page 176] uſed for the chace of antelopes, and even hares; but, inſtead of being conveyed in a waggon, is carried on the crupper on horſeback; it under as much command as a ſetting dog, returns at the leſt call, and jumps up behind its maſter *.
Is ſuppoſed to be the leſſer Panther of Oppian, and the Panthera of Pliny †.
- Jaguara Marcgrave Braſil, 235. Piſo Braſil, 203.
- Pardus aut Lynx Braſilienſis Jaguara dicta, Luſitanis onza. Raii ſyn. quad. 168. Klein. quad. 80.
- Le Tigre de La Guiane Des Marchais, voy. III. 299.
- Tigris americana. Felis flaveſcens, maculis nigris orbiculatis quibuſdam roſam referentibu [...] variegata. Briſſon quad. 196.
- Felis onça. Felis cauda mediocri, corpore flaveſcente, ocellis nigris rotundato angulatis medio flavis. Lin. ſyſt. 91.
- Le Jaguar de Buffon, ix. 201. tab. xviii.
C. with hair of a bright tawny color: the top of the back marked with long ſtripes of black: the ſides with rows of irregular oblong ſpots: open in the middle, which is of the ground-color of the hair: the thighs and legs marked with full ſpots of black: the breaſt and belly whitiſh: the tail not ſo long as the body: the upper part deep tawny, marked with large black ſpots, irregularly: the lower part with ſmaller ſpots: grows to the ſize of a wolf, and even larger.
Inhabits the hotteſt parts of S. America, from the iſthmus of Darien to Buenos Ayres: fierce and deſtructive to man and beaſt. Like the tiger it plunges its head into the body of its prey, and [Page 177] ſucks out the blood before it devours it: makes a great noiſe in the night, like the howling of a hungry dog: is a very cowardly animal: eaſily put to flight; either by the ſhepherds dogs, or by a lighted torch, being very fearfull of fire: it lies in ambuſh near the ſides of rivers: there is ſometimes ſeen a ſingular combat between this animal and the crocodile; when the Jaguar comes to drink, the crocodile, ready to ſurprize any animal that approaches, raiſes its head out of the water, the former inſtantly ſtrikes its claws into the eyes of this dreadfull reptile, the only penetrable part, who immediately dives under the water, pulling his enemy along with it, where they commonly both periſh *.
- Tac [...]ozelotl; Tlalocelotl. Catuspardus mexicanus. Hernandez. Mex. 512.
- L'O [...]e [...] de Buffon, xiii. 239. tab. xxxv. xxxvi.
- Felis ſylveſtris, americanus, Tigrinus. Seb. Muſ. I. 47. tab. xxx. fig. 2, & 77. tab. xlviii. fig. 2.
C. with its head, back, upper part of the rump and tail of a bright tawny: a black ſtripe extends along the top of the back, from head to tail: from the noſtrils to the corners of the eyes, a ſtripe of black: forehead ſpotted with black: the ſides whitiſh, marked lengthways with long ſtripes of black, hollow, and tawny, in the middle; in which are ſprinkled ſome ſmall black ſpots: from the neck towards the ſhoulders point, others of the ſame colors: the ramp marked in the ſame manner: legs whitiſh, varied [Page 178] with ſmall black ſpots: tail ſpotted with ſmall ſpots near its baſe; with larger near the end, which is black.
An animal, ſuppoſed to be the female*, was ſhewen two years ago in London: its ground color was cinereous; paleſt on the legs and belly: irides hazel: tip of the noſe red: ears ſhort, and rounded, black on the out-ſide, grey within: from the noſe to the eye, on each ſide, a black line; above and beneath each eye a white one: ſides of the mouth white, marked with four rows of ſmall black ſpots: from the hind part of the head, to the back and ſhoulders, ran ſome long, narrow, hallow ſtripes: along the top of the back two rows of oval black ſpots: the marks on the ſides long, hollow, and irregular, extending from ſhoulders to thighs: ſhoulders both barred and ſpotted: legs and belly only ſpotted: tail not ſo long at the body; had large ſpots above, ſmall beneath.
Inhabits Mexico, the neighborhood of Carthagena, and Braſil: lives in the mountains: is very voracious; but fearfull of mankind: preys on young calves**, and different ſorts of game: lurks amidſt the leaves of trees; and ſometimes will extend itſelf [Page 179] along the boughs, as if dead, 'till the monkies, tempted by their naturall curioſity, approaching to examine it, become its prey *.
- Cugacuarana. Marcgrave Braſil. 2 [...]. Raii ſyn. quad. 169.
- Cugacuara Piſo Braſil, 103.
- Panther Lawſon Carolina, 117.
- C [...]ſby Carolina App.
- Tigris fulvus Barrere France Aequin. 166. Du Pratz. II. 63.
- Tigris fulva. Felis ex flavo rufeſcens, mento et infimo ventre albicantibus. Briſſon quad. 197.
- Le Couguar de Buffon, ix. 216. tab. xix.
C. with a very ſmall head: ears a little pointed: eyes large: chin white: back, neck, rump, ſides, pale browniſh red, mixed with duſky hairs: breaſt, belly, and inſide of the legs cinereous: hair on the belly long: tail duſky, and ferruginous; the tip black: the teeth of a vaſt ſize: claws white: the outmoſt claw of the fore feet much larger than the others: it long bodied, and high on its legs: the length from noſe to tail, five-feet three inches; of the tail two feet eight.
Inhabits the continent of America, from Canada to Brazil: in South America is called Puma †, and miſtaken for the lion: is the ſcourge of the colonies of the hotter parts of America; fierce and ravenous to the higheſt degree: ſwims over the broad rivers, and attacks the cattle, even in the encloſures; and when preſſed with hunger, ſpares not even mankind. In N. America their fury ſeems to be ſubdued by the rigor of the climate; the ſmalleſt cur, in company with its maſter, makes them ſeek for ſecurity, by [Page 180] running up trees: but then they are equally deſtructive to domeſtic animals, and are the greateſt nu [...] ſance the planter has: when they lay in wait for the Mooſe, or other deer*, they lie cloſe on the brand of ſome tree, 'till the animal paſſes beneath, whe [...] they drop on them, and ſoon deſtroy them: they alſo make wolves their prey: that whoſe ſkin is in the Museum of the Royal Society, was killed juſt as it had pulled down a wolf: conceal ſuch part of the prey which they cannot eat: purr like a cat: the fur ſoft, and of ſome value among the Indians, who cover themſelves with it during winter: the fleſh is alſo eaten, and ſaid to be as good and as white as veal†.
C. with the head, back, ſides, fore part of the legs, and the tail, covered with ſhort and very gloſſy hairs, of a duſky color; ſometimes ſpotted ‡ with black, [Page 181] but generally plain: upper lips white: at the corner of the mouth a black ſpot*: long hairs above each eye, and long whiſkers on the upper lip: lower lip, throat, belly, and the inſide of the legs, whitiſh, or very pale aſh-color: paws white: ears pointed: grows to the ſize of a heifer of a year old: has vaſt ſtrength in its limbs.
C. with ſhort hair, of a bright ferruginous color: the face marked with black ſtripes, tending downwards: from the hind part of the head to the tail, the back is marked with oblong ſtripes of black: the ſides with very numerous ſmall, and round ſpots of black: belly white: tail long, of a bright tawny color, ſpotted with black: length from the noſe to the tail, near three feet.
- Maraguao Marcgrave Braſil, 233.
- Felis fera tigrina Barrere France Aequin. 152.
- Tepe Maxlaton Fernand, Nov. Hiſp. 9. c. 28.
- Le Pichou, Cat-a-mount du Pratz Louiſian II. 64.
- Felis ſylveſtris tigrina. F. e [...] griſeo, flaveſeens, maculis nigris variegata Briſſon quad. 193.
- Le Margay de Boffon, xiii. 248. tab. xxxvii.
C. with the upper part of the head, the neck, back, ſides, ſhoulders and thighs of a bright tawny color: the face ſtriped downwards with black: the ſhoulders and body marked with ſtripes, and oblong large black ſpots: the legs with ſmall ſpots: the breaſt, and inſide of the legs and thighs whitiſh, ſpotted with black: the tail very long, marked with black, tawny, and grey: ſize of common cat.
Theſe ſmall ſpotted ſpecies are called by the general name of tiger-cats: ſeveral kinds are found in the Eaſt-Indies *, and in the woods near the Cape of Good Hope; but ſo negligently, or ſo unſcientifically mentioned, as to tender it impoſſible for a zoologiſt to form a deſcription from them: yet a good hiſtory of theſe animals being among the many deſiderata of the naturaliſt; the following maim accounts may ſerve to direct the enquiries of future voyagers. Kolben ** mentions two kinds; one he calls
[Page 183] The WILD RED CAT, which has a ſtreak of bright red, running along the ridge of the back to the tail, and loſing itſelf in the grey and white on the ſides: the ſkins are ſaid to give eaſe in the gout, and are much valued on that account at the Cape. The other he calls
- (WILD CAT.) Catus ſylveſtris.
- Boumriitter. Geſner quad. 325.
- Catus ſylveſtris, ferus vel feralis, eques arborum. Klein quad. 75.
- Wilde Katze. Kram Auſtr. 311.
- Felis ſylveſtris. F. pilis ex fuſco, flavicante, et albido, variegatis veſtita, cauda annulis alternatim nigris et ex ſordidé albo flavicantibus cincta. Briſſon quad. 192.
- Kot Driki, Zbik. Rzaczinſki Polon. 217.
- Le chat ſauvage de Buffon, vi. 1. tab. I. Br. Zool. I. 47.
C. with long ſoft hair, of a yellowiſh white color, mixed with grey; the grey diſpoſed in ſtreaks, pointing downwards, riſing from a duſky liſt, that runs from the head to tail, along the middle of the back: tail marked with alternate bars of black and white, its tip black: hind part of the legs black: three times as large as the common cat; and very ſtrongly made*.
Inhabits the woods of moſt parts of Europe: a variety of a blue color is met with at the Cape of Good Hope: moſt deſtructive to lambs, kids, and fawns; and to all ſorts of feathered game. The [Page 184] ſtock, or origin of the DOMESTIC CAT *, which is ſubject to many varieties.
α. ANGORA CAT. With long hair; of a ſilvery whiteneſs, and ſilky texture; very long, eſpecially about the neck, where it forms a fine ruff: the hairs on the tail very long, and ſpreading: is a large variety: found about Angora; the ſame country which produces the fine haired goat, p. 15. Degenerates after the firſt generation in our climate.
The cat a uſefull but deceitfull domeſtic: when pleaſed purrs, and moves its tail: when angry, ſpits, hiſſes, ſtrikes with its foot: in walking, draws in its claws: drinks little: is fond of fiſh: the female very ſalacious; a piteous, jarring, ſqualing lover: its urine corroſive: buries its dung: then natural [Page 185] enemy of mice; watches them with great gravity: does not always reject vegetables: waſhes its face with its fore feet, Linnaeus ſays, at the approach of a ſtorm: ſees by night: its eyes ſhine in the dark: its hair emits fire, when rubbed in the dark: always lights on its feet: proverbially tenacious of life: very cleanly; hates wet: is fond of perfumes; marum valerian, catmint. The unaccountable antipathy of multitudes: beloved by the Mahometans: Meillet, who ſays that the cats of Aegypt are very beautifull, adds, that the inhabitants build hoſpitals for them *.
- [...] Chat-pard Memoires pour ſervir [...]. Nat. An. part. I. 110.
- [...] Pardus ſive Catus Montanus Americanorum. the Cat a [...]ntain. Raii ſyn. quad. 169.
- Felis Pardalis. F. cauda elongata, corpore maculis ſuperioribus virgatis, inferioribus orbiculatis. Lin. ſyſt. 62. Briſſon quad. 199.
C. with upright pointed ears, marked with two brown tranſverſe bars: color of the head, and whole upper part of the body, a reddiſh brown, marked with long narrow ſpots on the back; and with numerous round ſmall ſpots on the ſides: the belly whitiſh: the chin and throat of a pure white: the tail barred with black: the length of this animal two feet and a half; that of the tail eight inches.
Differs from the preceding in theſe particulars: the orbits are white: the ſpots on the body univerſally round: in its nature very fierce, and untameable: inhabits the woods in the mountanous parts of India: lives in trees, and ſcarce ever deſcends on the ground, for it breeds in them: leaps with great agility from tree to tree: called by the natives of Malabar, the Maraputé; by the Portugueſe, the Serval *.
Mr. J. R. Forſter informed me, he ſaw an animal of this ſpecies in the Empreſs's menagery at Peterſburg: it's fur was of a whitiſh yellow: the ſpots duſky; had a wild and piercing look: was brought from Tibet.
- Chaus Plinii, lib. viii. c. 19. Lupus cervarius. c. 22.
- [...]. Aelian. lib. xiv. c. 6. Oppian Cyneg. III. 84.
- Lupus cervarius, Lynx, Chaus. Geſner quad. 677, 678.
- Lynx ſive Leuncia Caii opuſc. 50.
- Fabri Exp. An. Nov. Hiſp. 527.
- Lynx, Catus cervarius anglicè, the ounce. Raii ſyn, quad. 166.
- Tournefort's voy. 410. I. 360.
- Rys, Oſtrowidz. Rzacinſki Polon. 222.
- Lux Kramer Auſtr. 311. Ridinge Wilden Thiere 22. Kleine Thiere 65 &c.
- Felis Lynx. F. cauda abbrevia ta; apice atra, auriculis apic barbatis Lin. ſyſt. 62. Warglo Kattlo. Faun. ſuec. No. 10, 11. Lynx. Felis auriculorum apic: bus pilis longiſſimis praeditis caudâ brevi. Briſſon quad. 200 Catus cervarius, 199.
- Le Lynx, or Loup-Cervier, [...] Buffon, ix. 231. tab. xxi.
C. with a ſhort tail, black at its end: eyes of a pale yellow: hair under the chin long and full: hair on [Page 187] the body long and ſoft, of a cinereous color, tinged with red, marked with duſky ſpots, more or leſs diſtinct in different ſubjects; in ſome ſcarce viſible: belly whitiſh: ears erect, tufted with long black hairs, the character of the different ſpecies of Lynnes: legs and feet very thick and ſtrong: the length of the ſkin of a Ruſſian lynx, from noſe to tail, was four feet ſix inches; the tail only ſix: vary ſometimes in their color: the Irbys, from lake Ba [...]kaſh *, or the Kattlo, of the Suedes, is whitiſh, ſpotted with black, and larger than the common kind; this large variety is called by the Germans, Wolf-Lucks, and Kalb-Lucks, on account of its ſize.
Inhabits the vaſt foreſts of the N. of Europe, Aſia, and America **, not India, tho' poets have harneſſed them to the chariot of Bacchus, in his conqueſt of that country: bring two or three young at a time: is long-lived: climbs trees: lies in wait for the deer, which paſs under, falls on them, and ſe [...]zing on the jugular vein, ſoon makes them its prey: will not attack mankind; but is very deſtructive to the reſt of the animal creation: the furs of theſe animals are valuable for their ſoftneſs and warmth: numbers are annually imported from North America, and the north of Europe, and Aſia; the farther North and Eaſt they are taken, the whiter they are, and the more diſtinct the ſpots; of theſe the moſt elegant kind is called Irbys, taken near [Page 188] lake Balkaſh, whoſe ſkin ſells on the ſpot for on pound ſterling *.
The antients celebrated the great quickneſs o [...] its ſight; and feigned that its urine was converted into a precious ſtone †.
Victa racemifero Lyncas dedit INDIA Baccho:E quibus (ut memorant) quicquid veſica remiſit,Vertitur in Lapides, ef congelat Aēra tacto. Ovid. Met. xv. 413.
C. with a ſhort tail: irides yellow: ears upright, and ſharp pointed, tufted with long black hairs: color of the head, back, ſides, and exterior parts of the legs, bright bay, obſcurely marked with duſky ſpots: down the face marked with black ſtripes, pointing to the noſe: each ſide the upper lip three rows of minute black ſpots, with long ſtiff hairs iſſuing out of them: orbits edged with white: from beneath each eye certain long black ſtripes, of an incurvated form, mark the cheeks; which with the upper and under lip, whole under ſide of the body, and inſides of the legs, are white: the upper part of the inſide of the fore legs marked with two black bars: upper part of the tail barred with duſky ſtrokes; and next the end, one of a deep black; its tip and under ſide white: about twice the bigneſs of a large cat: the hair ſhorter and ſmoother than that of the laſt.
- Siyah-Ghuſh, or black ear. Charl [...]n Ex. 21. tab. page 23. Raii ſyn quad. 168. Ph. Tranſ. vol. LI. part. II. 648. tab. xiv.
- Le Caracal de Buffon, ix. 262. tab. xxiv.
C. with a lengthened face, and ſmall head: very long ſlender black ears, terminated with a long tuft of black hairs: inſide and bottom of the ears white: noſe white: eyes ſmall: the upper part of the body is of a very pale reddiſh brown: the tail rather darker: belly and breaſt whitiſh: limbs ſtrong, and pretty long: tail about half the length of the body.
Inhabit Perſia, India, and Barbary *: are often brought up tame, and uſed in the chace of leſſer quadrupeds; and the larger ſort of birds, ſuch as cranes, pelecans, peacocks, &c. which they ſurprize with great addreſs: when they ſeize their prey, hold it faſt with their mouth, and lie for a time motionleſs on it: are ſaid to attend the lion, and to feed on the remains of the prey that animal leaves **: are fierce when provoked: Dr. Charleton ſays, he ſaw one fall on a hound, which it killed and tore to pieces in a moment notwithſtanding the dog defended itſelf to the utmoſt.
The Arabian writers call it Anak el Ard: ſay that a hunts like the panther; jumps up at cranes as they fly; and covers its ſteps when hunting †.
- Urſus Plinii, lib. viii. c. 36.
- [...] Oppian Cyneg. III. 139. Urſus Geſner quad. 941. Agricola An. Subter. 486. Raii ſyn. quad. 171.
- Niedzwiedz Rzaczinſki Polon. 225. Bâr. Klein. quad. 82. Schwenckfelt Theriotroph. 131. Ridinger Wild. Thiere. 31.
- Urſus niger, cauda concolor Briſſon quad. 187.
- Urſus cauda abrupta. Ian. [...] 69. Biorn Faun. ſuec. No. 19. L'Ours de Buffon, viii. 248. [...] xxxi. xxxii.
B. with a long head: ſmall eyes: ſhort ears, rounded at the top: ſtrong, thick, and clumſy limbs: very ſhort tail: large feet: body covered with very long and ſhaggy hair, various in its color: the largeſt of a ruſty brown; the ſmalleſt of a deep black: ſome from the confines of Ruſſia black, mixed with white hairs, called by the Germans, ſilver-bar: and ſome (but rarely) are found in Tartary of a pure white.
Inhabits the N. parts of Europe, and Aſia; the Alps of Suitzerland, and Dauphine; Japan *, and Ceylon **; N. America †, and Peru ‡. The brown bears are ſometimes carnivorous, and will deſtroy cattle, and eat carrion; but their general food is roots, fruits, and vegetables: will rob the fields of peaſe; and when they are ripe, pluck great quantities [Page 191] up; beat the peaſe out of the huſks on ſome hard place, eat them, and carry off the ſtraw: they will alſo, during winter, break into the farmer's yard, and make great havoke among his ſtock of oats: are particularly fond of honey. The bears of America are ſmall and black; and confine themſelves entirely to vegetables, and are remarkably greedy of Mayz and Potatoes; they will even reject animal food, tho' preſſed by hunger *: neither of theſe varieties will attack mankind, unleſs wounded, or when they have their young: they ſtrike with their fore feet like a cat; ſeldom or ever uſe their mouths in fighting, but ſeizing the aſſailant with their paws, and preſſing him againſt their breaſt, almoſt inſtantly ſqueeze him to death.
The females after conception retire into the moſt ſecret place; leaſt, when they bring forth, the males ſhould devour the young: it is affirmed for fact, that out of the ſeveral hundred bears that are killed in America, during winter, (which is their breeding ſeaſon) that ſcarce a female is found among † them; ſo impenetrable is their retreat during their pregnancy: they bring two, rarely three young at a time: the cubs are deformed, but not a ſhapeleſs maſs, to be licked into ſhape, as the antients pretended ‡. The fleſh of a bear in autumn, when they are moſt exceſſively fat, by feeding on acorns, [Page 192] and other maſt, is moſt delicate food; and that o [...] the cubs ſtill finer; but the paws of the old bear are reckoned the moſt exquiſite morſel: the fat white and very ſweet: the oil excellent for ſtrains, and old pains.
The latter end of autumn, after they have fattened themſelves to the greateſt degree, the bean withdraw to their dens, where they continue for a great number of days in total inactivity, and abſtinence from food, having no other nouriſhment than what they get by ſucking their feet, where the fat lodges in great abundance: their retreats are either in cliffs of rocks; in the deepeſt receſſes of the thickeſt woods; or in the hollows of antient trees, which they aſcend and deſcend with ſurprizing agility: as they lay in no winter proviſions, they are in a certain ſpace of time, forced from their retreats by hunger, and come out extremely lean: multitudes are killed annually in America, for the ſake of their fleſh, or ſkins; which laſt makes a conſiderable article of commerce.
- White bear. Martin's Spitſberg. 100. Egede Greenl. 59. Ellis voy. 41. Crantz Greenl. I. 73. Barentz voy. 18. 45. La Hontan voy. I. 235. Cateſby Carolina App. xxvi.
- Urſus albus Martenſii. Klein quad. 82.
- L'Ours blanc. Briſſon quad. 188. de Buffon, xv. 128.
B. with long head and neck: ſhort round ears: end of the noſe black: vaſt teeth: hair long, ſoft, white, tinged in ſome parts with yellow: limbs of great ſize and ſtrength: grow to a vaſt ſize; the ſkins of ſome are thirteen feet long.
[Page 193] This animal is confined to the coldeſt part of the globe: it has been found as far as navigators have penetrated northwards above lat. 80. The frigid climates only ſeem adapted to its nature; for we do not learn from any authority that it is met with farther ſouth than Newfoundland. Its bounds in reſpect to longitude are alſo very limited; being an animal unknown except on the ſhores of Hudſon's Bay, Greenland, and Spitzbergen, on one ſide, and thoſe of Nova Zembla on the other; for ſuch as have appeared in other parts, have been brought there involuntarily * on floating iſlands of ice; ſo that the intermediate countries of Norway and Iceland are acquainted with them but by accident. We cannot trace them farther Eaſt than Nova Zembla; tho' the frozen ſea, that is continued from thence as far as the land of Tſchukſchi, that lies above Kamtſchatka, is equally ſuited to their nature. The late hiſtories of thoſe countries are ſilent in reſpect to them.
During ſummer the white bears are either reſident on iſlands of ice, or paſſing from one to another: they ſwim admirably, and can continue that exerciſe † ſix or ſeven leagues; and dive with great agility. They bring two young at a time: the affection between the parents and them is ſo ſtrong, that they would die rather than deſert one another. Their winter retreats are under the ſnow‡, in which they form deep dens, ſupported by pillars of the ſame.
[Page 194] They feed on fiſh, ſeals, and the carcaſſes of whales; and on human bodies, which they will greedily diſinter: they ſeem very fond of human blood; and are ſo fearleſs as to attack companies of armed men, and even to board ſmall veſſels: when on land they live on birds, and their eggs; and, allured by the ſcent of the ſeals fleſh, often break into, and plunder the houſes of the Greenlanders: their greateſt enemy in the brute creation is the Morſe *, with whom they have terrible conflicts, but are generally worſted, the vaſt teeth of the former giving it a ſuperiority.
The fleſh is white, and ſaid to taſte like mutton: the fat is melted for train oil, and that of the feet uſed in medicine; but the liver is very unwholſome, as three of Barentz's ſailors experienced, who fell dangerouſly ill on eating ſome of it boiled.
One of this ſpecies was brought over to England a few years ago: it was very furious, almoſt always in motion, roared loud, and ſeemed very uneaſy, except when cooled by having pail-fulls of water poured on it.
Callixenus Rhodius †, in his deſcription of the pompous proceſſion of Ptolemoeus Philadelphus at Alexandria, ſpeaks of one great white Bear, [...], among other wild beaſts that graced the ſhew: notwithſtanding the local ſituation of this ſpecies at preſent, it is poſſible that Ptolomy might procure one; whether men could penetrate, [Page 195] in thoſe early times, as far as the preſent reſidence of theſe Arctic animals, I will not venture to affirm, nor to deny; but ſince my friend, the Hon. Daines Barrington *, has clearly proved the intenſe cold that in former ages raged in countries now more than temperate, it is moſt probable that in thoſe times they were ſtocked with animals natural to a rigorous climate; which, ſince the alteration, have neceſſarily become extinct in thoſe parts: the Polar Bear might have been one, but that it was the ſpecies meant by Callixenus is clear to me, by the epithet [...], or Great, which is very applicable to it; for the white Tartarian land bear (which Ptolomy might very eaſily procure) differs not in ſize from the black or brown kind, but the bulk of the other is quite characteriſtic.
- Quickhatch, Cateſby Carolina App. xxx.
- Carcajou, or Quickhatch, Dobbs Hudſon's Bay, 40.
- Quickhatch, or Wolverene, Ellis Hudſon Bay, 42. Clerk's voy. II. 3. Edw. 103.
- Urſus luſcus. U. cauda elongata, corpore ferrugineo, roſtro fuſco, fronte plagaque laterali corporis. Lin. ſyſt. 71.
- Urſus Freti Hudſonis. U. caſtanei coloris, cauda unicolore, roſtro pedibuſque fuſcis. Briſſon quad. 188.
B. with a black ſharp pointed viſage; ſhort rounded ears, almoſt hid in the hair: hairs on the head, back, and belly, reddiſh, with black tips, fo that thoſe parts appear, on firſt ſight, quite black: ſides of a yellowiſh brown, which paſſes in form of a band [Page 196] quite over the hind part of the back, above the tail: on the throat a white ſpot: on the breaſt a white mark, in form of a creſcent: legs very ſtrong, thick and ſhort, of a deep black: five toes on each foot*, not deeply divided: on the fore foot of that I examined were ſome white ſpots: the bottom of the feet covered very thickly with hair: reſts like the bear on its foot, as far as the firſt joint of the leg: claws ſtrong and ſharp, white at their ends: tail cloathed with long coarſe hairs; thoſe at the baſe reddiſh, at the end black; ſome of the hairs are ſix inches long: length from noſe to tail twenty-eight inches: length of the trunk of the tail ſeven inches, but the hairs reach ſix beyond its end: the whole body is covered with very long and thick hair, which varies in color, according to the ſeaſon.
Inhabits Hudſon's-Bay, and Canada, as far as the ſtraits of Michilimakinac: is found under the name of the GLUTTON in the N. parts of Europe, and Aſia, being a native of the moſt rigorous climates: deſcribed as the GLUTTON under theſe ſynonyms:
- ROFOMAK. Rzaczinſki Polon. 218. Bell's Travels, I. 235.
- MULLER'S RUSS SAMLUNG. III. 549. 550. Ritchkoff Topogr. Orenb. I. 295.
- JERF, FIELDFROSS. Strom Sondmor. 152. Pontopp. Norway, II. 22. Scheffer's Lapland, 134.
- HYAENA. Briſſon. quad. 169. Yſbrandts Ides Trav. Harris's Coll. II. 923.
- MUSTELA GULO. M. pedibus fiſſis, corpore rufo fuſco medio dorſi nigro. Lin. ſyſt. 67.
- JARF, FILFRESS. Faun. ſuec. No. 14.
- JAE [...]RVEN. Gunner's Act. Nidros. III. 143. tab. iii.
- LE GLUTTON. de Buffon, xiii. 278.
A moſt voracious animal: ſlow of foot, ſo is obliged to take its prey by ſurprize: in America is called the Beaver-Eater, watching thoſe animals as they come out of their houſes, and ſometimes breaks into their habitations, and devours them: often l [...]rks on trees, and falls on the quadrupeds, that paſs under; will faſten on the horſe, elk, or ſtag, and continue eating a hole * into its body, till the animal falls down with the pain; or elſe will tear out its eyes †: no force can diſengage it, yet ſometimes the deer, in their agony, have been known to deſtroy it, by running their head violently againſt a tree ‡: devours the Iſatis, or white fox; ſearches for the traps layed for the ſables, and other animals, and often is before hand with the huntſmen, who [Page 198] ſuſtain great loſſes by the glutton: authors have pretended, that it feeds ſo voraciouſly, that at length it is in danger of burſting; and that it is obliged to eaſe itſelf of its load, by ſqueezing it out between two trees.
In a wild ſtate is vaſtly fierce; a terror to both wolf and bear, which will not prey on it when they find it dead, perhaps on account of its being ſo very foetid, ſmelling like a pole-cat: makes a ſtrong reſiſtance when attacked, will tear the ſtock from the gun, and pull the traps it is caught in to pieces: notwithſtanding this, is capable of being tamed, and of learning ſeveral tricks*: burrows†, and has its den under ground. The ſkin ſold in Siberia for four or ſix ſhillings; at Jakutſk for twelve; and [...] dearer in Kamtſchatka where the women dreſs th [...] hair with its white paws, which they eſteem a great ornament: the fur is greatly eſteemed in Europe; that of the North of Europe, and Aſia, whoſe ſkins are ſometimes to be ſeen in the farmers ſhops, is infinitely finer, blacker, and more gloſſy than that of the WOLVERENE, or American kind.
The Glutton has, by ſome authors, be [...]n confounded with the Hyaena; and Charlevoix, in Hiſt. No [...]. Fr [...]nce v. 189, gives the name of this ammal (C [...]r [...]jou) to our 129th ſpecies, the brown panther of N. America.
- Raccoon Lawſon Carolina, 121. [...] Carolina App. xxix.
- Mapach, ſeu animal cuncta praete [...]ante manibus. Fernandez Nov. H [...]p. 1. Nieremberg. 175.
- [...] affinis americana. Raii ſyn. [...]. 179. Sicane Jamaica, II. [...].
- [...] Worm. Muſ. 319. Coati. Urſus cauda annulatim variegata. Briſſon quad. 189.
- Urſus Lotor. U. cauda annulata, faſcia per oculos tranſverſali nigra. Lin. ſyſt. 70.
- Le Raton de Buffon, viii. 337. tab. xliii.
- Raccoon Kalm's Travels Forſter's Tr. I. 96.208. tab. 11.
B. with a ſharp pointed black noſe: upper jaw the longer: ears ſhort, and rounded: eyes ſurrounded with two broad patches of black: from the forehead to the noſe a duſky line: face, cheeks and chin, white: upper part of the body covered with hair, aſh-colored at the root, whitiſh in the middle, and tipt with black: tail very buſhy, annulated with black: toes black, and quite divided.
Inhabits the warm and temperate parts of America: found alſo in the mountains of Jamaica; and in the iſles of Maria, between the S. point of California, and Cape Corientes, in the S. Sea *: an animal eaſily made tame, very good-natured and ſportive, but as unlucky as a monkey, almoſt always in motion; very inquiſitive, examining every thing with its paws; makes uſe of them as hands: [...] up to eat: is extremely fond of ſweet things, and ſtrong liquors, and will get exceſſively drunk: has all the cunning of a fox: very deſtructive to [...]; but will eat all ſorts of fruits, green corn, [...]. at low water feeds much on oyſters, will watch [Page 200] their opening, and with its paw ſnatch out the fiſh; ſometimes is caught in the ſhell, and kept there till drowned by the coming in of the tide: fond alſo of crabs: climbs very nimbly up trees; hunted for its ſkin; the fur next to that of the beaver, being excellent for making hats.
- Meles Plinii, lib. viii. c. 38. Geſ [...]r quad. 327.
- Meles, five Taxus Raii ſyn. quad. 185.
- Meles, Taxus, Taſſus, Blerellus; Jazwiec, Borſuk. Rzaczinſki Po [...], 233.
- C [...]ati cauda brevi, Coati griſeus, Taxus, meles, Tax. Klein quad. [...].
- Dachs Kramer Auſtr. 313.
- Meles pilis ex ſordide albo et nigro variegatis veſtita, capite taeniis alternatim albis et nigris variegato. Briſſon quad. 183.
- Le Blaireau, ou Taiſon. de Buffon, viii. 104. tab. vii.
- Urſus meles. U. cauda concolore, corpore ſupra cinereo, ſubtus nigro, faſcia longitudinali per oculos aureſque nigra. Lin. ſyſt. 70. Meles unguibus anticis longiſſimis. Graf-ſuin. Faun. ſu [...]c. No. 20. Br. Zool. I. 64. Br. Zool. illuſtr. tab. lii.
B. with ſmall eyes: ſhort rounded ears: ſhort thick neck: with noſe, chin, lower ſides of the cheeks, and middle of the forehead white: ears and eyes incloſed in a pyramidal bed of black: hair on the body long and rude; their bottoms a yellowiſh white, middle black, ends aſh colored: throat, breaſt, belly, and legs black: tail covered with long hairs, colored like thoſe on the body: legs very ſhort and thick: claws on the fore feet very long: a foetid white matter exudes from the orifice beneath the tail: animal of a very clumſy make.
Inhabits moſt parts of Europe, as far N. as Norway *, and Ruſſia; and the ſtep or deſert beyond [Page 202] Orenburgh, in the Ruſſian Aſiatic dominions, N. of the Caſpian ſea *; inhabits alſo China, and is often found in the butchers ſhops in Pekin, the Chineſe being fond of them†: a ſcarce animal in moſt countries: ſeldom appears in the day; confines itſelf much to its hole: is indolent and ſleepy: generally very fat: feeds by night; eats roots, fruits, graſs; inſects and frogs: not carnivorous: its fleſh makes good bacon: runs ſlowly, when overtaken comes to bay, and defends itſelf vigorouſly: its bite hard and dangerous: burrows under ground, makes ſeveral appartments, but forms only one entrance from the ſurface: hunted during night for the ſkin, which ſerves for piſtol furniture; the hair for making bruſhes, to ſoften the ſhades in painting. The diviſion of this ſpecies into two, viz. the ſwine, and the dog badger, unneceſſary, there being only one.
B. with a white line from the tip of the noſe, paſſing between the ears to the beginning of the back, bounded on each ſide as far as the hind part of the head, with black; then by a white one, and immediately between that and the ears another of black: hair long: back colored like that of the common badger: ſides yellowiſh: belly cinereous: thighs duſky: tail covered with long, dirty yellow hairs, tipt with white; the end duſky.
[Page 203] Deſcribed from a ſkin from Hudſon's-Bay, found in a furrier's ſhop in London: it was leſs than that of the European badger: the furrier ſaid, he never met with one before from that country. Kalm * ſays, he ſaw the European badger in the province of Pen [...]ania, where it is called the Ground Hog: as the feet were cut from the ſkin I ſaw, it is doubtfull whether this is a diſtinct ſpecies from our kind, or only a variety †.
Cutting teeth unequal in number in each jaw *.
- Tlaquatzin Hernandez Mex. 330. Caragueya (faem.) Tai-ibi (mas.) Marcgrave Braſil, 222. Raii ſyn. quad. 182.185.
- Semi-vulpa Geſner quad. 870. icon. An. 90.
- Opoſſum Ph. Tr. abridg. II. 884. tab. 13. III. 593. Lawſon Carolina, 120. Beverley's Virginia, 135. Cateſby Carolina. App. xxix. Rochefort Antilles, I. 283.
- Fara ou Ravall, Gumilla Orenoque, III. 238.
- Vulpes major putoria cauda tereti et glabra. Barrere France Aequin. 166.
- Le manicou Feuilleè obſ. Peru. III 206.
- Wood-rat. du Pratz Louiſiana, II. 65.
- Mus marſupialis; ſylveſtris Br [...] ſilienſis Beutel ratze. Klein quad. 59.
- Philander ſaturatè ſpadiceas in dorſo, in ventre flavus, maculis fupra oculos flavis. Briſſon quad. 207.
- Didelphis marſupialis. D. mammis octo intra abdomen. Lin. ſyſt. 71.
- Le Sarigue ou L'Oppoſſum de Buffon, x. 279. tab. xiv. xlvi.
Inhabits Virginia, Louiſiana, Mexico, Braſil, and Peru: is very deſtructive to poultry, and ſucks the blood without eating the fleſh: feeds alſo on roots and wild fruits: is very active in climbing trees: will hang ſuſpended from the branches by its tail, and, by ſwinging its body, fling itſelf among the boughs of the neighboring trees: hunts eagerly after birds and their neſts: walks very ſlow: when purſued and overtaken, will feign itſelf dead: not eaſily killed, being as tenacious of life as a cat: when the female is about to bring forth, ſhe makes a thick neſt of dry graſs in ſome cloſe buſh at the [...] of a tree, and brings four, five, or ſix young at a time.
As ſoon as the young are brought forth, they take ſhelter in the pouch, or falſe belly, and faſten ſo cloſely to the teats, as not to be ſeparated without difficulty: they are blind, naked, and very ſmall when new-born, and reſemble foetuſes: it is therefore neceſſary that they ſhould continue there [...] they attain a perfect ſhape, ſtrength, ſight and hair; and are prepared to undergo what may be [Page 206] called a ſecond birth: after which, they run into this pouch as into an aſylum, in time of danger; and the parent carries them about with her. During the time of this ſecond geſtation, the female ſhews an exceſſive attachment to her young, and will ſuffer any torture rather than permit this receptacle to be opened, for ſhe has power of opening or cloſing it by the aſſiſtance of ſome very ſtrong muſcles.
This genus is not confined to America, as M. de Buffon ſuppoſes; who combats the opinion of other naturaliſts on this ſubject with much warmth: but the authority of Piſo, Valentyn, and of Le Brun *, who have ſeen it both in Java and in the M [...]llucca iſles, and of numbers of collectors in Holland, who receive it frequently from thoſe places, are ſufficient to ſatisfy me, that a ſpecies of the genus, perhaps only a variety of the kind juſt deſcribed, inhabits the Indian iſles, as well as the continent of America.
- [Page 207] Mus ſylveſtris americanus Sca [...]s dictus Seb. Muſ. I. 46. tab. xxxi. fig. 1, 2.
- [...] ſaturate ſpadiceus in [...] ventre dilutè flavus, [...] albicantibus Briſſon quad. 211.
- Didelphis murina. D. cauda ſemipiloſa, mammis ſenis. Lin. ſyſt. 72.
- La Marmoſe de Buffon, X. 336. tab. lii. liii.
O. with long broad ears rounded at the end, thin and naked: eyes encompaſſed with black: face, head, and upper part of the body, of a tawny color: the belly yellowiſh white: the feet covered with ſhort whitiſh hair: toes formed like thoſe of the preceding: tail ſlender, covered with minute ſcales to the very rump: length, from noſe to tail, about ſix inches and a half; tail of the ſame length: the female wants the falſe belly of the former; but, on the lower part, the ſkin forms on each ſide a fold, between which the teats are lodged.
Inhabits the hot parts of South America: agrees with the others in its food, manners, and the prehenſile powers of its tail: it brings from ten to fourteen young at a time; at leſt, in ſome ſpecies, there are that number of teats: the young affix themſelves to the teats as ſoon as they are born, and remain attached, like ſo many inanimate things, 'till they attain growth and vigor to ſhift a little for themſelves.
- Cayopollin Fernandes Nov. Hiſp. 10.
- Animal caudimanum Nieremberg, 158.
- Mus Africanus Kayopollin d [...]us, mas. S [...]b. Muſ. tab. xxxi. fig. 3.
- Philander ſaturatè ſpadiceus [...] dor [...]o, in ventre ex albo flavican cauda ex ſaturatè ſpadiceo ma [...] [...]ata Briſſon quad. 212.
- Le Cayopollin de Buffon, X. 35 [...] tab. lv.
O. with large, angular, naked and tranſparent ears noſe thicker that that of the former kind: a ſligh [...] border of black round the eyes: the hairs on the head and upper part of the body aſh-colored at the roots; tawny at the tips: belly and legs whitiſh tail long, and pretty thick, varied with brown and yellow; is hairy near an inch from its origin [...] the reſt naked: length, from noſe to tail, about ſeven inches and a half; of the tail, more than eleven.
- Mus ſylveſtris Americana, foemina. Seb. Muſ. I. 50. tab. xxxi.
- Philander obſcurè rufus in dorſo, in ventre helvus, cauda brevi e [...] craſſa. Briſſon quad. 213.
- Philander ex rufo luteus in dorſo, in [...]e [...]tre [...] flavo albicans, capi [...] [...]. Briſſon quad. 213. Seb. M [...]ſ. I. 50. tab. xxxi. fig. 8. Klein quad. 58.
- Le Phalanger de Buffon, xiii. 92. tab. x. xi.
O. with a thick noſe: ſhort ears, covered with hair: eight cutting teeth in the upper jaw; two in the lower: hair on the upper part of the body reddiſh, mixed with light aſh color, and yellow: the hind part of the head, and middle of the back, marked with a black line: the throat, belly, legs, and part of the tail, of a dirty yellowiſh white; the reſt of the tail brown and yellow: the body of the female marked with white: the firſt and ſecond toes of the hind feet cloſely united: the claws large: the thumb on the hind feet diſtinct, like that of the other ſpecies: the bottom of the tail is covered with hair, for near two inches and a half; the reſt naked: the length, from noſe to tail, near nine inches; the [...].
Inhabits Surinam: perhaps may be the ſpecies the coloniſts call the Cane Rat; which is ſo deſtruct [...]ve to the ſugar canes *.
- [Note: 149. MERIAN * ]De zak, of Beurs Rot. Merian inſect. Surinam 66. tab. lxvi.
- Mus ſylveſtris americana Seb. Muſ. I. 49. tab. xxxi. fig. 5.
- Philander ex rufo helvus in dorſo, in ventre ex flavo albicans. Briſſon quad. 212.
- Mus ſylveſtris Americanus, catulos in dorſo gerens Klein quad. 58.
- Didelphis dorſigera. D. cauda baſi piloſa corpore longiore, digitis manuum muticis. Lin. ſyſt. 72.
- Le Philandre de Surinam de Buffon, xv. 157.
O. with long, ſharp pointed naked ears: head, and and upper part of the body of a yellowiſh brown color: the belly white, tinged with yellow: the fore feet divided into five fingers; the hind into four, and a thumb, each furniſhed with flat nails; tail very long, ſlender, and, except at the baſe, quite naked.
Inhabits Surinam: burrows under ground: brings five or ſix young at a time, which follow their parent: on any apprehenſion of danger, they all jump on her back, and twiſting their tails round her's, ſhe immediately runs with them into her hole.
- M [...]ſtela Agricola An. Subter. 485. [...] quad. 752.
- [...]eaſel or Weeſel, muſtela vul [...]ris; in Yorkſhire, the Fitchet, [...] Foumart. Raii ſyn. quad. 195. The Whit [...]ed Sib. Scot. III. 11. [...]ieſel Klein quad. 62.
- Muſtela ſupra rutila, infra alba. Briſſon quad. 173.
- La Belette de Buffon, vii. 225. tab. xxix.
- Weeſel Br. Zool. I. 82. Br. Zool. illuſtr. tab. ci.
W. with ſmall rounded ears: whole upper part of the head and body, pale tawny brown; under ſide entirely white: a brown ſpot beneath the corners of the mouth: length, from noſe to tail, between ſix and ſeven inches; tail two and a half.
Inhabits the temperate parts of Europe; ſcarce in the North: found alſo in Barbary *: mentioned once [...]y Linnaeus, under the title of Muſtela Nivalis, or [...]mus **: very deſtructive to chickens, birds, and [...]oung rabbets; a great devourer of eggs: does [...]ot eat its prey on the ſpot; but after killing it, by [...] bite near the head, carries it off to its retreat: is a great deſtroyer of field mice; a gentleman informed [...]e he found eighty-five, newly killed, in one hole, which he believed belonged to this animal: very active, runs up the ſides of walls with great eaſe; to place is ſecure from its ravages: frequents out-houſes, [Page 212] barns, and granaries: is a great enemy t [...] rats and mice, and ſoon clears its haunts from thoſ [...] pernicious animals: brings four or five young at [...] time: its ſkin and excrements intolerably foetid ſometimes is found white: in Siberia are called Laſ [...] mitſka: their ſkins are ſold to the Chineſe for three o [...] four rubles the hundred.
- Muſtela Geſner quad. 753.
- Wieſel Kramer Auſtr. 312. Meyer's An. II. tab. 23, 24.
- Muſtela erminea. M. plantis fiſſis, caudae apice albo. Lin. ſyſt. 68.
- Weſla Faun. ſuec. No. 17.
- Muſtela hyeme alba, aeſtate ſ [...] pra rutila infra alba, caudae apic nigro. Briſſon quad. 176.
- Le Roſelet de Buffon, vii. 240 tab. xxix.
- Stoat Br. Zool. I. 84.
- β. ERMINE, when white. Mus Ponticus Plinii, lib. viii. c. 37. Agricola An. Subter. 484.
- Armelinus, Hermelein. Geſner quad. 754.
- Gornoſtay Rzaczinſ [...]i Polon. 235.
- Muſtela candida, animal ermineum Raii ſyn. quad. 198.
- L'Hermine de Buffon, vii. 240 tab. xxix. fig. 2. Briſſon qua [...] 176.
- Ermine hiſt. Kamtſchatka, 99 Pontop. Norway, II. 25. Br. Zoo [...] I. 84.
W. with the upper part of the body pale tawny brown: edges of the ears, and ends of the toes, o [...] a yellowiſh white: throat, breaſt, and belly white [...] end of the tail black: length, from noſe to tail, te [...] inches; tail five and a half: in the N. of Europe becomes entirely white at approach of winter, the end of the tail excepted: reſumes its brown color in the ſpring: ſometimes found white in Great-Britain: one was brought to me laſt winter, mottled with brown and white, the ſeaſon not having been ſevere enough to effect a total change *.
[Page 213] Inhabits, in great abundance, the N. of Europe, and of Aſia; is met with in Newfoundland, and Canada *: the ſkins a great article of commerce in Norway and Siberia: is found in the laſt place in plenty in birch foreſts, but none in thoſe of fir or pine: the ſkins are ſold on the ſpot, from two to three pounds ſterling per hundred†: taken in Norway in traps, baited with fleſh; in Siberia ‡ either ſhot with blunt arrows, or taken in a trap made of two flat ſtones, propped by a ſtick, to which is faſtened a baited ſtring, which, on the leſt touch of the animal, falls down and kills it: its manners and food the ſame with the former; but does not frequent houſes: its haunts are woods and hedges, eſpecialy ſuch as border on ſome brook.
- Putorius Geſner quad. 767.
- Y [...]is Agricola An. Subter. 485.
- Pole cat, or Fitchet, Raii ſyn. quad. 196.
- Tchorz. Rzaczinſki Polon. 236.
- Muſtela foetida. Iltis. Teuffels [...]ind. Klein. quad. 63.
- Muſtela putorius. M. pedibus [...], corpore flavo nigricante; ore auriculiſque albis. Lin. ſyſt. 67. Iller Faun. ſuec. No. 16.
- Muſtela pilis in exortu ex cinereo albidis, colore nigricante terminatis, oris circumferentia alba. Briſſon quad. 186.
- Le Putois de Buffon, vii. 199. tab. xxiii.
- Pole cat Br. Zool. I. 77.
W. with the ſpace round the mouth; and the tips of the ears white: head, body, and legs, of a chocolate color, almoſt black; on the ſides the hairs are of a tawny caſt: tail black; length ſeventeen inches; tail ſix.
[Page 214] Inhabits moſt parts of Europe: burrows under ground, forming a ſhallow retreat, about two y [...]rds in length, generally terminating under the roots of ſome large tree; ſometimes forms its lodge under hay-ricks, and in barns: brings five or ſix young at a time: preys on poultry, game, and rabbets: in winter frequents houſes, and will rob the dairy of the milk. This animal is exceſſively foetid; yet the ſkin is dreſſed with the hair on, and uſed as other furs, for tippets, &c. and is alſo ſent abroad to line cloaths.
- Viverra Plinii, lib. viii. c. 55. Agricola An. Subter. 486.
- Muſtela ruſtica, viverra, Furo, Ictis. Geſner quad. 762. Raii ſyn. quad. 198.
- Fret Klein. quad. 63.
- Viverra pilis ſubflavis, longi [...] bus, caſtaneo colore [...] (mas.) M. pilis ex albo [...] veſ [...]ita. (faem.) Briſſon quad. 1 [...] ▪
- Muſtela Furo. M. pedibus [...], oculis rubicundis. Lin. ſyſt. 68
Inhabits, in its wild ſtate, Africa *; from whence it was originally brought into Spain **, in order to free that country from the multitudes of rabbets, with which the kingdom was over-run; from thence the reſt of Europe was ſupplied with it: is a lively active animal: the natural enemy of rabbets: ſucks the blood of its prey, ſeldom tears it: breeds in our climate; and brings five, ſix, or nine at a time: [Page 215] but is apt to degenerate, and loſe its ſavage nature: warreners * are therefore obliged to procure an intercourſe between the female and a pole-cat, by leaving it near the haunts of the laſt: the produce is a breed of a much darker color than the ferret, partaking more of that of the pole-cat: the ferret has the ſame diſagreeable ſmell with that animal.
- Martes gutture albo. Agricola An. Sabter. 485. Geſner quad. 764.
- S [...]e [...]-marter Klein quad. 64.
- Martes alias Foyna, Martin or Martlet Raii ſyn. quad. 200.
- K [...]na Rzaczinſk Polon. 222.
- M [...]la pilis in exortu albidis caſtaneo colore terminatis veſtita, gutture albo. Briſſon quad. 178.
- Muſtela martes. M. pedibus fiſſis, corpore fulvo nigricante, gula pallida. Lin. ſyſt. 67. Mard. Faun. ſuec. No. 15.
- La Fouine de Buffon, vii. 186. tab. xviii.
- Martin Br. Zool. I. 79.
W. with broad rounded ears: lively eyes: head brown, with a tinge of red: body, ſides, and legs covered with hair, aſh colored at the bottoms, bright cheſnut in the middle, black at the tips: throat and breaſt white: belly deep brown: tail full of hair, and of a duſky color: feet broad, covered at bottom with thick down: claws white: length eighteen inches: tail ten.
Inhabits moſt parts of Europe: is a moſt elegant lively animal: capable of being tamed: is very good-natured, and ſportive: lives in woods; and breeds in the hollow of trees: brings from four to ſ [...]x young at a time: deſtroys poultry, game, &c. and will eat rats, mice, and moles: the ſkin and excrements have a muſky ſmell: the fur is of ſome value, and uſed to line the robes of magiſtrates.
- Martes gutture Luteo. Agricola An. Subter. 485.
- Martes ſylveſtris Geſner quad. 765.
- Martes abietum Raii ſyn. quad. 200.
- Baum-Marter. Klein quad. 64.
- Muſtela pilis in exortu ex cinereo albidis caſtaneo colore terminatis, gutture flavo. Briſſon quad. 179.
- La Marte de Buffon, vii. 186. tab. xxii.
- Yellow-breaſted Martin Br. Zool. I. 81. Faunul. Sinens.
Inhabits the N. of Europe, Aſia, and America: found alſo in Great Britain *: inhabits large foreſts, eſpecially thoſe of pines: never lodges near houſes, as the other ſpecies is ſaid † to do: M. de Buffon ſays, that it brings but two or three young at a time: its prey is the ſame with the former; its fur of far greater value: the N. of Aſia, and of America, abounds with them: their ſkins a prodigious article of commerce.
- Zobela Agricola An. Subter. 485.
- Muſtela Sobella Geſner quad. 768.
- Muſtela Zibellina, the Sable. Raii [...]. quad. 201. Klein quad. 64.
- Muſtela Zibellina, Ariſtoteli Satheri [...]s, Nipho cebalus, Alciato Mus Samarticus et ſcythicus. Charleton Ex. 20.
- Muſtela Zibellina. M. pedibus fiſſis, corpore obſcurè fulvo, fronte exalbida, gutture cinereo. Lin. ſyſt. 68.
- Muſtela Zibellina Nov. Com. Petrop. v. 330. tab. vi.
- Martes Zibellina. Muſtela obſcurè fulvo, gutture cinereo Briſſon quad. 180.
- La Zibeline de Buffon, xiii. 309.
W. with long whiſkers: rounded ears: large feet: white claws: long and buſhy tail: color of the hair black at the tips, cinereous at the bottom: chin cinereous: the edges of the ears yellowiſh: ſometimes the hair has a tawny caſt, for in ſpring, after ſhedding the coat, the color varies: there are inſtances of their being found of a ſnowy whiteneſs*: the uſual length, from noſe to tail, is about eighteen inches; the tail twelve.
Inhabits Siberia, Kamtſchatka, and ſome of the Kurilſki iſles, which lie between Kamtſchatka, and Japan: a few are alſo found in Lapland **.
Sables live in holes in the earth, or beneath the roots of trees: ſometimes, like the martin, form neſts in the trees, and will ſkip with great agility from one to the other: are very lively, and much in motion during night: ſleep much in the day: one that was kept tame, would, on ſight of a cat, ſit up on its hind legs: excrements moſt exceſſively foetid: prey, during ſummer, on ermines, weeſels, and ſquirrels, but above all on hares; in winter, on [Page 218] birds; in autumn, on hurtleberries, cranberries, and the berries of the ſervice tree: but during that ſeaſon their ſkins are at the worſt, that diet cauſing them to itch, and to rub off their fur againſt the trees: they bring forth at the end of March, or beginning of April, and have from three to five at a time, which they ſuckle for four or five weeks *.
Their chaſe was, in the more barbarous times of the Ruſſian empire, the employ, or rather the taſks of the unhappy exiles into Siberia: as that country is now become more populous, the ſables have in great meaſure quitted it, and retired farther North and Eaſt, to live in deſert foreſts, and mountains; they live near the banks of rivers, or in the little iſlands in them †: on this account they have, by ſome, been ſuppoſed to be the [...], of Ariſtotle, Hiſt. An. lib. viii. c. 5; which he claſſes with the animals converſant among waters.
At preſent the hunters of ſables form themſelves into troops, from 5 to 40 each; the laſt ſubdivide into leſſer parties, and each chuſes a leader, but there is one that directs the whole: a ſmall covered boat is provided for each party, loaden with proviſion, a dog and net for every two men, and a veſſel to bake their bread in: each party alſo has an interpreter for the country they penetrate into: every party then ſets out according to the courſe their chief points out. they go againſt the ſtream of the rivers, drawing their boats up, till they arrive in [Page 219] the hunting country; there they ſtop, build huts, and wait till the waters are frozen, and the ſeaſon commences: before they begin the chaſe, their leader [...] them, they unite in a prayer to the Almighty [...] ſucceſs, and then ſeparate: the firſt ſable they take is called GOD's ſable, and is dedicated to the church.
They then penetrate into the woods, mark the trees as they advance, that they may know their way back; and in their hunting quarters, form huts of trees, and bank up the ſnow round them: near theſe they lay their traps, then advance farther, and lay more traps, ſtill building new huts in every quarter, and return ſucceſſively to every old one, to viſit the traps, and take out the game to ſkin it, which none but the chief of the party muſt do: during this time they are ſupplied with proviſions by perſons who are employed to bring it on ſledges, from the places on the road, where they are obliged to form magazines, by reaſon of the impracticability of bringing quantities thro' the rough country they muſt paſs. The traps are a ſort of pitfall, with a looſe board placed over it, baited with f [...]h or fleſh: when ſables grow ſcarce, the hunt [...]rs trace them in the new fallen ſnow, to their holes, place their nets at the entrance, and ſometimes wait, watching two or three days for the com [...]g out of the animal: it has happened that theſe poor people have, by the failure of their proviſions, been ſo pinched with hunger, that, to prevent the cravings of appetite, they have been reduced to t [...]ke two thin boards, one of which they apply to [Page 220] the pit of the ſtomach, the other to the back drawing them tight together by cords placed at the ends*: ſuch are the hardſhips our fellow creature [...] undergo, to ſupply the wantoneſs of luxury.
The ſeaſon of chace being finiſhed, the hunters re-aſſemble, make a report to their leader of the number of ſables each has taken; make complaints of offenders againſt their regulations; puniſh delinquents; ſhare the booty; then continue at the head quarters 'till the rivers are clear of ice; return home, and give to every church the dedicated furs.
The following is the commercial hiſtory of this fur trade, which Mr. J. R. Forſter was ſo obliging as to tranſlate for me, from Muller's Samlung Ruſs. Geſchichte III, 495 to 515, being an abſtract from above 20 pages.
"SABLE, SOBOL in Ruſſian; ZOBEL in German: their price varies, from 1 l. to 10 l. ſterling, and above: fine and middling ſable ſkins are without bellies, and the coarſe ones are with them: forty ſkins make a collection calle [...] Zimmer: the fineſt ſables are ſold in pairs, perfectly ſimilar, and are dearer than ſingle ones of the ſame goodneſs; for the Ruſſians want thoſe in pairs for facing caps, cloaks, tippets, &c. the blackeſt are reputed the beſt. Sables are in ſeaſon from November to February; for thoſe caught at any other time of the year are ſhort hair'd, and then called Nedoſobo [...]: the hair of ſables differs in length and quality: the [Page 221] long hairs, which reach far beyond the inferior ones, are called Os; the more a ſkin has of ſuch long hairs, the blacker they are, and the more valuable is the fur; the very beſt have no other but thoſe long and black hairs: Motchka is a technical term in the Ruſſian fur trade, expreſſing the lower part of the long hairs; and ſometimes it comprehends likewiſe the lower and ſhorter hairs: the above mentioned beſt ſable furs are ſaid to have a black Motchka: below the long hairs are, in the greater parts of ſable furs, ſome ſhorter hairs, called Podoſie, i. e. Under-Os: the more Podoſie a fur has, the leſs valuable: in the better kind of ſables the Podoſie has black tips, and a grey or ruſty Motchka: the firſt kind of Motchka makes the middling kind of ſablo furs; the red one the worſt, eſpecially if it has but few Os: between the Os and Podoſie is a low wooly kind of hair, called Podſada; the more Podſada a fur has, the leſs valuable, for the long hair will, in ſuch caſe, take no other direction than the natural one; for the character of ſables is, that notwithſtanding the hair naturally lies from the head towards the tail, yet will lie equally in any direction, as you ſtrike your hand over it: the various combinations of theſe characters, in regard to Os, Motchka, Podoſie, and Podſada, make many ſpecial diviſions of the goodneſs of furs: beſides this, the furriers attend to the ſize, preſerving always caeteris paribus the biggeſt, and thoſe that have the greateſt gloſs: the ſize depends upon the animal being a male or female, the latter being always ſmaller: the gloſs vaniſhes in old furs: the freſh ones have a kind of [Page 222] bloomy appearance, as they expreſs it; the old ones are ſaid to have done blooming: the died ſables always loſe their gloſs, become leſs uniform, whether the lower hairs have taken the dye or not, and commonly the hairs are ſomewhat twiſted or criſped, and not ſo ſtrait as in the natural ones: ſome fumigate the ſkins, to make them look blacker, but the ſmell, and the criſped condition of the long hair, betrays the cheat; and both ways are detected, by rubbing the fur with a moiſt linnen cloth, which grows black in ſuch caſes."
"The Chineſe have a way of dying the ſables, ſo that the colour not only laſts, (which the Ruſſian cheats cannot do) but the fur keeps its gloſs, and the criſped hairs only diſcover it: this is the reaſon that all the ſables, which are of the beſt kind, either in pairs or ſeparate, are carried to Ruſſia; the reſt go to China: the very beſt ſables come from the environs of Nertchitſk and Yakutſk; and in this latter diſtrict, the country about the river Ud affords ſometimes ſables, of whom one ſingle fur is often ſold at the rate of 60 or 70 rubles, 12 or 14 l. The bellies of ſables, which are ſold in pairs, are about two fingers breadth, and are tied together by forty pieces, which are ſold from 1 to 2 l. ſterling: tails are ſold by the hundred; the very beſt ſable furs muſt have their tails, but ordinary ſables are often cropped, and a hundred ſold from 4 to 8 l. ſterling: the legs or feet of ſables are ſeldom ſold ſeparately: white ſables are rare, and no common merchandize, but bought only as curioſities: ſome are yellowiſh, and are bleached in the ſpring on the ſnow."
W. with a black noſe: ſtrong and ſtiff whiſkers: ſix ſmall weeſel-like teeth above and below: ſix large canine teeth: four grinding teeth in each upper jaw; three ſharp-pointed, the fourth flat: in the lower jaws ſix; the laſt flatted, the next tridentated; the next to thoſe bidentated: ears broad and round, duſky on their outſides, edged with white: face and ſides of the neck pale brown, or cinereous, mixed with black: hairs on the back, belly, legs and tail, black; browniſh at their baſe: ſides brown: the feet very broad; covered with hair even on their ſoles: five toes on the fore feet; generally four, but ſometimes five on the hind feet; with ſharp, ſtrong and crooked white claws; fore legs ſhorter than thoſe behind: tail full and buſhy, ſmalleſt at the end, ſeventeen inches long: length, from noſe to tail, twenty-eight inches.
Inhabits N. America: notwithſtanding its name, is not amphibious: preys on all ſorts of leſſer quadrupeds *: by the number of ſkins imported, is not an uncommon animal; not leſs than 580 being brought in one ſeaſon from New York and Penſylvania: ſeems to be the animal, called by Joſſelyn †, the SABLE; which, he ſays, is perfectly black. I have ſeen many of the ſkins, which vary in color: yet, from the agreement in form and colors in general with the true SABLE, I cannot help thinking them the ſame animal. Such numbers of quadrupeds are [Page 224] found common to the N. of Europe, or of Aſia and o [...] America *, that I ſuſpect myſelf to be too cauriou [...] in making this a diſtinct ſpecies from the former.
W. with ſhort ears: the hair on the whole body brown at the roots, and barred above with black, and ferruginous: the tail of the ſame color: the length, from noſe to tail, about fourteen inches; the tail, to the tip of the hairs at the end, near ten.
W. with very long and ſtrong whiſkers: ears a little pointed: hair on the head, body, belly and legs cinereous at the roots, of a bright bay at the ends; very ſoft and gloſſy: between the fore-legs a white ſpot: toes covered with thick hair, above and below: claws ſharp: tail of a deeper color than the body: in form like a martin, but much leſs.
- Galera, ſubfuſca, cauda elongata, auribus ſubnudis appreſſis. Browne's Jamaica, 485. tab. xlix.
- Le Tayra ou le Galera de Buffon, xv. 155.
W. with the upper jaw much longer than the lower: eyes placed mid-way, between the ears and tip of the noſe: ears like the human: tongue rough: tail declining downwards, leſſening towards the point: feet ſtrong, and formed for digging: ſhape of the body like that of a rat: ſize of a ſmall rabbet: of a duſky color: the hair rough.
Inhabits Guinea: common about the negro ſettlements: burrows like a rabbet: very fierce; if drove to neceſſity will fly at man or beaſt: very deſtructive to poultry: ſeems to be the Kokeboe of B [...]jman *, which only differs in color, being red.
- Muſtela barbara. M. pedibus fiſſis atra, collo ſubcus macula alba triloba. Lin. ſyſt. 67.
- Muſtela maxima atra moſcum redolens. Tayra, groſſe Belette. Barrere France Aequin 155.
- [...]. Ariſtot. hiſt. An lib. ix. c. 6. Oppian Cyneg. III. 407.
- Ichneumon Plinii, lib. viii. c. 24.
- L'Ichneumon, que les Egyptiens nomment Rat * de Pharaon. Belon obſ. 95. Portraits 106. Proſp. Alp. I. 234. Geſner quad. 566. Raii ſyn. quad. 202. Shaw's Travels, 249, 376.
- Muſtela Aegyptiaca Klein quad. 64.
- Meles Ichneumon digitis mediis longioribus, lateralibus aequalibus, unguibus ſubuniformibus▪ Plaſſelquiſt itin. 191.
- Ichneumon: Mus Pharaonis vulgo. Briſſon quad. 181.
- Viverra Ichneumon. V. cauda e [...] baſi incraſſata ſenſim attenuat [...], pollicibus remotiuſculis. Lin. ſyſt. 63.
- β. INDIAN. Quil, vel Quirpele Garcia Arom. 214. Raii ſyn. quad. 197.
- Viverra Mungo. Kaempfer Amaen. 574.
- De Mongkos Valentyn Amboin. III.
- Serpenticida ſive Moncus. Rumph. herb. Amboin. App. 69. tab. xxviii.
- Indian Ichneumon Edw. 199.
- Ichneumon ſeu vulpecula ceilonica Seb. Muſ. I. 66. tab. xli. fig. 1.
- La Mangouſte de Buffon, xiii. 150. tab. xix.
- Viverra indica. V. ex griſeo rufeſcens. Briſſon quad. 177. Raii ſyn. quad. 198.
W. with bright flame-colored eyes: ſmall rounded ears, almoſt naked: noſe long and ſlender: body thicker than that of others of this genus: tail very thick at the baſe, tapering to a point: legs ſhort: the hair is hard and coarſe: color various in different animals, from different countries; in ſome, alternately barred with dull yellowiſh brown and white; in others, pale brown and mouſe-colored; ſo that the animal appears mottled: throat and belly of a uniform brown: beneath the tail is an orifice not unlike that of a badger: differs in ſize: from twenty-four to forty-two inches in length, from the [Page 227] tip of the noſe to the end of the tail: the ſpecimen in the Aſhmolean Muſeum was thirteen inches and a half long to the origin of the tail; the tail eleven: the Aegyptian variety is the largeſt.
Inhabits Aegypt, Barbary, India, and its iſlands: a moſt uſefull animal; being an inveterate enemy to the ſerpents and other noxious reptiles which infeſt the torrid zone: attacks without dread that moſt fatal of ſerpents the Naja, or Cobra di Capello; and ſhould it receive a wound in the combat, inſtantly retires; and is ſaid to obtain * an antedote from a certain herb, after which it returns to the attack, and ſeldom fails of victory: is a great deſtroyer of the eggs of crocodiles, which it digs out of the ſand; and even kills multitudes of the young of thoſe terrible reptiles: it was not therefore without reaſon, that the antient Aegyptians ranked the [Page 228] Ichneumon among their Deities: is at preſent do [...] meſticated and kept in houſes in India and i [...] Aegypt; for it is more uſefull than a cat, in deſtroying rats and mice: grows very tame: is very active ſprings with great agility on its prey; will glid [...] along the ground like a ſerpent, and ſeem as i [...] without feet: ſits up like a ſquirrel, and eats with its fore feet: catches any thing that is flung to it: is a great enemy to poultry: will feign itſelf dead, til [...] they come within reach: loves fiſh: draws its prey, after ſucking the blood, to its hole: its excrements very faetid: when it ſleeps, brings its head and tail under its belly, appearing like a round ball, with two legs ſticking out. Rumphius obſerves how ſkilfully it ſeizes the ſerpents by the throat, ſo as to avoid receiving any injury: and Lucan beautifully deſcribes the ſame addreſs of this animal, in conquering the Aegyptian Aſp.
Aſpidas ut Pharias cauda ſolertior hoſtisLudit, et iratas incerta provocat umbra:Obliquanſque caput vanas ſerpentis in aurasEffuſae toto comprendit guttura morſuLetiferam citra ſaniem: tunc irrita peſtisExprimitur, fauceſque fluunt pereunte veneno.Lib. iv. 724.
W. with the upper jaw much longer than the lower, and very moveable and pliant: ears rounded: hair pretty long, hard, and upright; varied with black [Page 229] and white; the points [...] only four toes on each foot, an exception in this genus: tail taper: length, from noſe to tail, about one foot; tail ſix inches.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope *, and the iſland of Java **: is an active, lively animal: ſits upright, and drops its fore-legs on its breaſt: is carnivorous, and preys on the leſſer creatures: very playfull: drinks its own urine: when diſcontented, makes a noiſe like the barking of a whelp; when pleaſed, like a rattle ſwiftly ſhook. Deſcribed only by M. de Buffon, who ſeems to have been deceived about its native place.
- Coati Marcgrave Braſil. 228. De Laet. 486. Raii ſyn. quad. 180. Klein quad. 72.
- Vulpes minor, roſtro ſuperiore long [...]uſculo, cauda annulatim ex nigro et rufo variegatâ. Quachy. Barrere France Aequin. 167.
- Viverra naſua. V. rufa, cauda albo annulato. Lin. ſyſt. 64.
- Urſus naſo producto et mobili, cauda annulatim variegata. Briſſon quad. 190.
- Le Coati brun. de Buffon, viii. 358. tab. xlviii.
- Badger of Guiana. Bancroft, 141.
W. with the upper jaw lengthened into a pliant, moveable proboſcis, much longer than the lower jaw: ears rounded: eyes ſmall: noſe duſky: hair on the body ſmooth, ſoft and gloſſy, of a bright bay color: tail annulated with duſky and bay: breaſt whitiſh: length, from noſe to tail, eighteen inches; tail, thirteen.
[Page 230] β. DUSKY. Noſe and ears formed like the preceding: above and beneath the eye two ſpots [...] white: hair on the back and ſides duſky at th [...] roots, black in the middle, and tipt with yellow chin, throat, ſides of the cheeks, and belly, yellowiſh: feet black: tail annulated with black an [...] white: ſometimes the tail is of an uniform duſk [...] color *. Le Coati noiratre of M. de Buffon, tab xlvii. the Coati-mondi of Marcgrave.
Inhabits Braſil and Guiana: feeds on fruits, eggs and poultry: runs up trees very nimbly: eats like a dog, holding its food between its fore-legs: is eaſily made tame: is very good-natured: makes a ſort of whiſtling noiſe: ſeems much inclined to ſleep in the day. Marcgrave obſerves, that they are very ſubject to gnaw their own tails.
- Yzquiepatl. Hernandez Mex. 332. Raii ſyn. quad. 181. Klein quad. 72.
- Meles ſurinamenſis. Briſſon quad. 185.
- Ichneumon de Yzquiepatl. Seb. Muſ. I. tab. xlii.
- Le Coaſe de Buffon? xiii. 288. tab. xxxviii.
Inhabits Mexico, and perhaps other parts of America. This, and the four following ſpecies, remarkable [Page 231] for the peſtiferous, ſuffocating, and moſt foetid vapour, they emit from behind, when attacked, purſued, or frightened: it is their only means of defence: ſome turn * their tail to their enemy, and keep them at a diſtance by a frequent crepitus; and others ejaculate their urine, tainted with the horrid effluvia, to the diſtance of eighteen feet: the purſuers are ſtopped with the terrible ſtench: ſhould any of this liquid fall into the eyes, it almoſt occaſions blindneſs; if on the cloaths, the ſmell will remain for ſeveral days, in ſpite of all waſhing; they muſt even be buried in freſh ſoil, in order to be ſweetened. Dogs that are not true bred, run back as ſoon as they perceive the ſmell; thoſe that have been uſed to it, will kill the animal; but are often obliged to relieve themſelves by thruſting their noſes into the ground. There is no bearing the company of a dog that has killed one, for ſeveral days.
Profeſſor Kalm was one night in great danger of being ſuffocated by one that was purſued into a houſe where he ſlept; and it affected the cattle ſo, that they bellowed through pain. Another, which was killed by a maid ſervant in a cellar, ſo affected her with its ſtench, that ſhe lay ill for ſeveral days: all the proviſions that were in the place were ſo tainted, that the owner was obliged to throw them away.
Notwithſtanding this, the fleſh is reckoned good meat, and not unlike that of a pig: but it muſt be [Page 232] ſkinned as ſoon as killed, and the bladder taken carefully out. The Virginian ſpecies is capable of being tamed, and will follow its maſter like a dog: it never emits its vapour, except terrified.
- Pole-cat, or Skunk, Lawſon Carolina.
- Pole-cat Cateſby Carolina, II.
- Muſtela Americana faetida Klein quad. 64.
- Muſtela nigra taeniis in dorſo albis. Briſſon quad. 181.
- Viverra putorius. V. fuſca lineis quatuor dorſalibus parallelis albis. Lin. ſyſt. 64.
- Le Conepate de Buffon, xiii. 288. tab. xl.
W. with rounded ears: head, neck, belly, legs, and tail, black: the back and ſides marked with five parallel white lines; one on the top of the back; the others on each ſide: the ſecond extends ſome way up the tail, which is long, and buſhy towards the end: ſize of a European Pole-cat; the back more arched: varies in the diſpoſition of the ſtripes.
Inhabits N. America: when attacked, briſtles up its hair, and flings its body into a round form: its vapour horrid. Du Pratz ſays, that the male of the Pole cat, or Skunk, is of a ſhining black: perhaps the Coaſe of M. de Buffon is the male; for his deſcription does not agree with the Yzquiepatl, which he makes ſynonymous.
- Chinche Feuillee obſ. Peru, 1714, p. 272.
- Skunk, Fiſkatta, Kalm's voy. For [...]er's Tr. I. 273. tab. ii. Joſſelyn's voy. 85.
- Enfant du Diable, Bete puante. Charlevoix Nouv. France, v. 196.
- Le Chinche de Buffon, xiii. 294. tab. xxxix.
W. with ſhort rounded ears: black cheeks: a white ſtripe from the noſe, between the ears, to the back: upper part of the neck, and the whole back, white; divided at the bottom by a black line, commencing at the tail and paſſing a little way up the back: belly and legs black: tail very full of long coarſe hair; generally black, ſometimes tipt with white: that figured by M. de Buffon entirely white: nails on all the feet, very long, like thoſe on the fore-feet of a badger: rather leſs than the former.
- A [...]nas of the Indians, Zorrinas of the Spaniards, Garcilaſſo de la Vega, 331.
- Mariputa, Mafutiliqui, Gumilla Orenoque, III. 240.
W. with the back and ſides marked with ſhort ſtripes of black and white; the laſt tinged with yellow: tail long and buſhy; part white, part black: legs and belly black: leſs than the preceding *.
W. with a ſhort-pointed noſe: no external ears, only two oblong auditory orifices: middle of the back o [...] a whitiſh grey: from the eyes to the middle of the tail, on each ſide, is a ſtripe of white: the belly, legs, and tip of the tail, black: the claws of the fore feet an inch long; thoſe of the hind feet ſhort: length, from noſe to tail, two feet; the tail eight inches.
- La civette qu'on nommoit anciennement Hyaena. Belon. obſ. 94.
- Zibettus Caii opuſc. 43.
- Felis Zibethus Geſner quad. 837.
- Animal Zibethicum, mas et faem. Hernandez Mex. 580, 581.
- Civet Cat Raii ſyn. quad. 178.
- Coati civetta vulgo, Klein quad. 73.
- Meles faſciis et maculis albis nigris et rufeſcentibus variegata▪ Briſſon quad. 186.
- Viverra Zibetha▪ V. cauda anmulata, dorſo cinereo nigreque un [...]atim ſtriato, Lin. ſyſt. 65.
- La Civette de Buffon, ix. 299. tab. xxxiv.
W. with ſhort rounded ears: ſky-blue eyes: ſharp noſe; the tip black: ſides of the face, chin, breaſt, legs and feet, black: the reſt of the face, and part of the ſides of the neck, white, tinged with yellow: from each ear three black ſtripes, ending at the throat and ſhoulders: the back and ſides cinereous, [Page 235] tinged with yellow, marked with large duſky ſpots diſpoſed in rows: the hair coarſe; that on the top of the body longeſt, ſtanding up like a mane: the tail ſometimes wholly black; ſometimes ſpotted near the baſe: length, from noſe to tail, about two feet three inches; the tail fourteen inches: the body pretty thick.
Inhabits India *, the Philippine iſles **, Guinea †, Aethiopia ‡, and Madagaſcar §: the famous drug muſk, or civet, is produced from an overture between the privities and the anus, in both ſexes, ſecreted from certain glands. The perſons who keep them procure the muſk by ſcraping the inſide of this bag twice a week with an iron ſpatula, and get about a dram each time; but it is ſeldom ſold pure, being generally mixed with ſuet or oil, to make it more weighty: the males yield the moſt; eſpecially when they are previouſly irritated: they are fed, when young, with pap made of millet, with a little fleſh or fiſh; when old, with raw fleſh: in a wild ſtate prey on fowl.
- β. ZIBET. Animal Zibethecum Americanum. Hernandez Mex. 538.
- Felis Zibethus. Geſner quad. 836.
- Le Zibet, de Buffon, 299. tab. xxxi.
W. with ſhort rounded ears: ſharp long noſe: pale cinereous face: head, and lower part of the neck, [Page 236] mixed with dirty white, brown and black: ſides of the neck marked with ſtripes of black, beginning near the ears, and ending at the breaſt and ſhoulders: from the middle of the neck, along the ridge of the back, extends a black line, reaching ſomeway up the tail: on each ſide are two others: the ſides ſpotted with aſh-color and black: the tail barred with black and white; the black bars broader on the upper ſide than the lower.
A variety firſt diſtinguiſhed from the other by M. de Buffon; but figured long before by Hernandez and Geſner: unknown in Mexico *, till introduced there from the Philippine iſles. Theſe animals ſeem not to be known to the antients: it is probable the drug was brought without their knowing its origin [...] for it is certain the fine gentlemen at Rome uſed perfumes,
- La Genette Belon obſ. 74.
- Genetha Geſner quad. 549, 550.
- Genetta vel Ginetta. Raii ſyn. quad. 201.
- Coati, ginetta Hiſpanis. Klein quad. 73.
- Muſtela cauda ex annulis alternatim albidis et nigris variegata. Briſſon quad. 186.
- Viverra Genetta. V. cauda annulata, corpore fulvo-nigricante maculato Lin. ſyſt. 65.
- La Genette de Buffon, ix. 343. tab. xxxvi.
Inhabits Turkey, Syria, and Spain; frequents the banks of rivers; ſmells faintly of muſk, and, like the civet, has an orifice beneath the tail: is kept tame in the houſes at Conſtantinople, and is as uſefull as a cat in catching mice.
W. with a ſlender body: rounded ears: black eyes: body and legs covered with cinereous hair, mixed with tawny: ſides of the face black: from the hind part of the head, towards the back and ſhoulders, extend four black lines: ſhoulders, ſides, and thighs, black: tail annulated with black.
Inhabits Madagaſcar, and Guinea, Cochin-china, and the Philippine iſles: is fierce, and hard to be tamed: in Guinea is called Berbe; by the Europeans, Wine-bibber, being very greedy of Palm-wine *: deſtroys poultry: is, when young, reckoned very good to eat **.
- Lutra Agricola An. Subter. 482. Geſner quad. 687. Raii ſyn. quad. 187.
- Wydra Rzaczinſki Polon. 221.
- Otter Klein quad. 91.
- Muſtela Lutra. M. plantis palmatis nudis, cauda corpore dimidio breviore. Lin. ſyſt. 66. Utter, Faun. ſuec. No. 12.
- Lutra caſtanei coloris Briſſon quad 201.
- Le Loutre, Belon Aquat. 26. [...] Buffon, vii. 134. tab. xi.
- Otter, Br. Zool. I. 67. Br. Zool illuſtr. tab. c.
O. with ſhort ears: eyes placed near the noſe: lips thick: whiſkers large: whole color of a deep brown, except two ſmall ſpots each ſide the noſe, and another beneath the chin: legs ſhort and thick, and looſely joined to the body; capable of being brought on a line with the body, and performing the part of fins; each toe connected to the other by a broad ſtrong web: length twenty-three inches; tail ſixteen.
Inhabits all parts of Europe, N. and N. E. of Aſia, even as far as Kamtſchatka; abounds in North America, particularly in Canada, where the moſt valuable furs of this kind are produced: dwells in the banks of rivers; burrows, forming the entrance of its hole beneath the water; works upwards towards the ſurface of the earth, and makes a ſmall orifice, or air hole, in the midſt of ſome buſh: ſwims and dives with great eaſe; very deſtructive to fiſh: if they fail, makes excurſions on [Page 239] land, and preys on lambs and poultry: ſometimes breeds in ſinks and drains; brings four or five young at a time: hunts its prey againſt the ſtream; frequents not only freſh waters, but ſometimes preys in the ſea; but not remote from ſhore: is a fierce animal; its bite hard and dangerous: is capable of being tamed, to follow its maſter like a dog, and even to fiſh for him, and return with its prey.
- Noe [...]za Agricola An. Subter. 485. Geſner quad. 768.
- Latax; Germ. Nurtz. nobis Nurek Rzaczinſki Polon. 218.
- Muſtela Lutreola. M. plantis palmatis, hirſutis ore albo. Lin. ſyſt. 66. Fennis, Tichurt; Suecis, Moenk. Faun. ſuec. No. 13.
- Norka Ritchkoff orenb. Topogr. I. 295.
O. with roundiſh ears: white chin: top of the head hoary; in ſome tawny: body tawny and duſky; the ſhort hairs being yellowiſh; the long hairs black: the feet broad, webbed and covered with hair: tail duſky, and ends in a point: of the form of an otter, but thrice as ſmall.
[Page 240] Inhabits Poland, and the N. of Europe; and is found on the banks of all the rivers in the country N. of the Yaik; lives on fiſh; frogs, and water inſects: its fur very valuable, next in beauty to that of the ſable; caught in Baſhkiria with dogs and traps: is moſt exceſſively foetid.
The Minx of N. America is the ſame animal with this. The late worthy Mr. Peter Collinſon * favored me with the following account he received from John Bartram, of Penſylvania: ‘The Minx, (ſays he) frequents the water like the Otter, and very much reſembles it in ſhape and color, but is leſs; will abide longer under the water than the muſk quaſh, muſk rat, or little beaver: yet it will leave its watery haunts to come and rob our hen rooſts; bites off their heads and ſucks their blood: when vexed it has a ſtrong loathſome ſmell: ſo may be called the water pole cat: its length, from noſe to tail, twenty inches; the tail four: is of a fine ſhining dark brown color.’
From the conformity between the names this animal goes by, in America and Sueden, (Minx and Maenk) it ſeems as if ſome Suediſh coloniſt, who had ſeen it in his own country, firſt beſtowed the name it now goes by, a little changed from the original: the ſkins are often brought over to England.
- [...]iya, et Cariguibeiu Marcgrave Braſil, 234.
- [...]utra B [...]aſilienſis Raii ſyn. quad. 18 [...].
- Loutre ou Cariguibeju des Mar [...]la [...]s, III. 306.
- Gaachi, Gumilla Orenoque, III. 239.
- Le Saracovienne de Buffon, xiii. 310.
- Muſtela Lutris. M. plantis palmatis piloſis, cauda corpore quadruplo breviore. Lin. ſyſt. 66.
- Lutra atri coloris, macula ſub gutture flava. Briſſon quad. 202.
- Lutra marina, Kalan. Nov. Com. Petrop. II. 367. tab. xvi.
- Sea otter, hiſt. Kamtchatka, 122. Muller's voy. 57, 58.
O. with a black noſe: upper jaw longer and broader than the lower: long white whiſkers: irides hazel: ears ſmall, erect, conic: in each jaw four cutting teeth; the grinders broad, adapted for breaking and comminuting cruſtaceous animals, and ſhell fiſh: ſkin thick: hair thick and long, exceſſively black and gloſſy: beneath that a ſoft down: color ſometimes varies to ſilvery: legs thick and ſhort: toes covered with hair, and joined by a web: the hind feet exactly like thoſe of a ſeal, and have a membrane ſkirting the outſide of the exterior toe, like that of a gooſe: length, from noſe to tail, four feet two inches; tail thirteen inches, flat, fulleſt of hair in the middle; ſharp pointed. The biggeſt of theſe animals weigh ſeventy or eighty pounds.
Inhabits, in vaſt abundance, the coaſts of Kamtſchatka, and the parts of America diſcovered by the Ruſſians oppoſite to it: met with again in a moſt remote part of the continent of America, in the Braſilian * rivers, and that of Orenoque: are moſt harmleſs animals; moſt affectionate to their young, [Page 242] will pine to death at the loſs of them, and die o [...] the very ſpot where they have been taken from them before the young can ſwim, they carry them in thei [...] paws, lying in the water on their backs: run very ſwiftly; ſwim often on their back, their ſides, an [...] even in a perpendicular poſture: are very ſportive embrace each other, and even kiſs: inhabit th [...] ſhallows, or ſuch which abound with ſea weeds feed on lobſters, fiſh, Sepiae, and ſhell fiſh: bree [...] once a year, bring but one young at a time, ſuckl [...] it a year, bring it on ſhore: are dull ſighted, bu [...] quick ſcented: hunted for their ſkins, which are o [...] great value; ſold to the Chineſe for ſeventy or a hundred Rubels a-piece: each ſkin weighs 3 lb. and a half. The young are reckoned very delicate meat, ſcarce to be diſtinguiſhed from a ſucking lamb.
1.2.3. Div. II. Sect. III. DIGITATED QUADRUPEDS: without canine teeth; and with two cutting teeth in each jaw. Generally herbivorous, or frugivorous.[Page 243]
- Cuniculus vel Porcellus indicus Geſner quad. 367.
- Ca [...]a Cobaya. Marcgrave Braſil. 224. Piſo Braſil, 102.
- M [...]eu cuniculus Americanus et [...], Porcelli pilis et voce, Ca [...]ia Cobaya. Raii ſyn. quad. 223. Cavia Cobaya Braſil, quibuſdam [...] Pharaonis. Tatu piloſus, [...] quad. 49.
- Mus porcellus. M. cauda nulla, palmis tetradactylis, plantis tridactylis Lin. ſyſt. 79. Amaen. Acad. iv. 190. tab. ii.
- Cuniculus ecaudatus, auritus albus, aut rufus, aut ex utroque variegatus Briſſon quad. 102.
- Le Cochon d'lnde. de Buffon, viii. 1. tab. i.
C. with the upper lip half divided: ears very large, broad, and rounded at the ſides: hair erect, not unlike that of a young pig: color white, or white vari [...]d with orange, and black in irregular blotches: no tail: four toes on the fore feet; three on the hind.
Inhabits Braſil: no mention made by writers of its manners in a wild ſtate: domeſticated in Europe: a reſtleſs, grunting, little animal; perpetually running from corner to corner: feeds on bread grains, and vegetables: breeds when two months old: brings from four to twelve at a time; and breeds every two months: would be innumerable, but numbers of the young are eaten by cats, others killed by the males: are very tender, multitudes of young and old periſhing with cold: are called in [Page 244] England Guinea-Pigs, being ſuppoſed to come from that country. Rats are ſaid to avoid their haunts.
- Aperea. Braſilienſibus, nobis veldratte, vel Boſchratte Marcgrave Braſil, 223. Piſo Braſil, 103. Raii ſyn. quad. 206.
- Cavia Aperea Klein quad. 50.
- Cuniculus ecaudatus auritus, ex [...] cinereo rufus Briſſon quad. 103.
- L'Aperea de Buffon, xv. 160.
- Paca Marcgrave Braſil, 224. Piſo Braſil, 101. de Laet. 484.
- Mus Braſilienſis magnus, porcelli pilis et voce, Paca dictus. Raii ſyn. quad. 226.
- Cavia Paca. Klein quad. 50.
- Cuniculus major, paluſtris, faſciis albis notatus. Paca Marcgrave. Barrere France Aequin. 152.
- Mus Paca. M. cauda abbreviata▪ pedibus pentadactylss, lateribu [...] flaveſcenti-lineatis. Lin. ſyſt. 81.
- Cuniculus caudatus, auritus, pilis obſcure fulvis, rigidis, lineis ex albo flaveſcentibus ad latera diſtinctis. Briſſon quad. 99.
- Le Paca de Buffon, X. 269. tab. xliii.
C. with the upper jaw longer than the lower: noſtrils large: whiſkers long: ears ſhort and naked: neck thick: hairs ſhort, and hard: color of the upper part of the body dark brown; the lower part, or ſides, marked lengthways with lines of grey ſpots: the belly white; in ſome, perhaps young ones, the ſides and ſpots are of a pale yellow: five toes on each foot: only the meer rudiment of a tail: [Page 245] length about ten inches: is made like a pig, and in ſome parts is called the Hog-Rabbet *.
Inhabits Braſil, and Guiana: lives in fenny places: burrows under ground: grows very fat: is eſteemed in Braſil a great delicacy: grunts like a pig: eats its meat on the ground, not ſitting up, as ſome others of this genus do: are diſcovered by little dogs, who point out the places they lie in: the maſter digs over them, and when he comes near tranſfixes them with a knife; otherwiſe they are apt to eſcape: will bite dreadfully. There is a variety quite white, found on the banks of river St. Francis **.
- Aguti vel Acuti. Marcgrave Braſil, 224. Piſo Braſil, 102.
- [...] ou Agoutis, de Laet. 484. [...] Antilles, I. 287.
- [...] ſylveſtris americanus cunic [...]i magnitudine, pilis et voce P [...]celli, Aguti. Raii ſyn. quad. 226.
- Ca [...]a Aguti Klein quad. 50.
- M [...] Aguti. M. cauda abbrevia [...]. palmis tetradactylis, plantis t [...]a [...]tylis, abdomine flaveſcente. [...] ſyſt. 80.
- Cuniculus caudatus, auribus, pilis ex rufo et fuſco mixtis, rigidis veſtitus. Briſſon quad. 98.
- L'Agouti de Buffon, viii. 375. tab. L.
- Small Indian Coney, Brown's Jamaica, 484.
- Long-noſed Rabbet, Wafer's voy. in Dampier, III. 401.
- Cuniculus omnium vulgatiſſimus. Aguti vulgo Barrere France Aequin. 153 †.
C. with a long noſe: divided upper lip: ſhort rounded ears: black eyes: hair hard and ſhining; on the body mixed with red, brown and black; on the rump, of a bright orange color: belly yellow: [Page 246] legs almoſt naked, ſlender and black: four toes on the fore feet; three on the hind: tail ſhort, and naked: ſize of a Rabbet.
Inhabits Braſil, Guiana, &c. grunts like a pig: is very voracious: ſits on its hind legs, and holds its food with the fore feet when it eats: hides what it cannot conſume: hops like a hare: goes very faſt: when purſued, takes ſhelter in hollow trees: is capable of being tamed: when angry, ſets up the hair on its back, and ſtrikes the ground with its feet: is eat by the inhabitants of South America.
- Cuniculus minor caudatus, olivaceus, Akouchy. Barrere France Aequin. 153. Des Marchais, III. 303.
- L'Akouchi, de Buffon, xv. 1 [...]8.
- Java hare Cateſby Carolina App. tab. xviii.
- Cavia javenſis. Klein quad. 50.
- Cuniculus caudatus auritus, rufeſcens, fuſco admixto. [...] quad. 98.
- Mus leporinus Lin. ſyſt. 80.
C. with a ſlender ſmall head: prominent naked ears, rounded at the tops: color of the upper part of the body reddiſh: breaſt and belly white: legs long: hind parts large: four toes on the fore feet; three on the hind: tail ſhort: ſize of a hare.
- Cavia capenſis, Pallas Miſcel. Zool. [...]0. tab. ii. Spicil. 16. tab. ii.
- Africaanſch baſterd-mormeldier. Voſmaer Monogr.
C. with a thick head, and full cheeks: ears oval, half [...]d in the fur: head of the color of a hare: along the top of the back duſky, mixed with grey: ſides and belly of a whitiſh grey: four toes on the fore feet, three behind *: tail ſcarce viſible: ſhape of the body thick and clumſy: length ten inches.
Inhabits the mountains near the Cape of Good Hope, where it is called Kaapſche Daſs, Klip Daſs **, or Cape Badger: burrows under ground: is eſteemed very good meat.
C. of a black or tan color on the upper part of its body: white on the belly: tail very ſhort †: almoſt as big as a Rabbet.
- Lepus, Plinii, lib. viii. c. 55. Geſner quad. 605. Raii ſyn. quad. 204.
- Haſe, Klein quad. 51.
- Lepus timidus. L. cauda abbreviata auriculis apice nigris? Lin. ſpſt. 77. Haſe, Faun. ſuec. No. 25.
- Lepus caudatus ex cinereo rufus, Briſſon quad. 94.
- Le Lievre; de Buffon, vi. 246. tab. xxxviii. Br. Zool. I. 87.
H. with ears tipt with black: eyes very large and prominent: chin white: long white whiſkers: hair on the face, back and ſides, white at the bottom, black in the middle, and tipt with tawny red: throat and breaſt red: belly white: tail black above, white beneath: feet covered with hair even at the bottom: a large hare weighs eight pounds and a half: its length, from the noſe to the tail, two feet.
Inhabits all parts of Europe, moſt parts of Aſia, Japan, Ceylon *, Aegypt **, Barbary †, and North America: a watchfull, timid animal: always lean: ſwifter in running up hill than on even ground: when ſtarted, immediately endeavours to run up hill: eſcapes the hounds by various artfull doubles: lies the whole day on its ſeat: feeds by night: returns to its form by the ſame road that it had taken in leaving it: does not pair: the rutting ſeaſon is in February or March, when the male purſues the [Page 249] female by the ſagacity of its noſe: breeds often in the year; brings three or four at a time: are very ſubject to fleas: the Dalecarlians make a cloth of the fur, which preſerves the wearer from their attacks: the fur is of great uſe in the hat manufacture: many thouſands of the ſkins are for that uſe annually imported here from Ruſſia: feeds on vegetables: fond of the bark of young trees: great lover of birch, parſly and pinks: was a forbidden food among the Britons: the Romans, on the contrary, held it in great eſteem.‘Inter quadrupedes gloria prima lepus’
The hare of North America differs little in form or color, from that of Europe; but is leſs by a third: the legs are ſhorter in proportion; and the fur has a tinge of cinereous: when purſued, takes refuge in a hollow tree: frequents marſhes and meadows: very deſtructive to the turnip and cabbage fields.
- Lepus hieme albus. Forſter hiſt. [...] VOLGAE. Ph. Tranſ. LVII. 343.
- Alpine hare, Br. Zool. illuſtr. 40.184. tab. xlvii.
H. with ſoft hair, in ſummer grey, with a ſlight mixture of black and tawny: with ſhorter ears, and more ſlender legs, than the common hare: the feet [Page 250] of thoſe of Siberia moſt cloſely and warmly furred In winter, the whole animal changes to a ſnowy whiteneſs, except the tips and edges of the ears which remain black: leſs than the common ſpecies.
Inhabits the higheſt Scotiſh Alps, Norway, Lapland, Ruſſia, Siberia *, and the Banks of the Wolga ▪ In Scotland, keeps on the top of the higheſt hills never deſcends into the vales; never mixes with the common hare, which is common in its neighborhood: does not run faſt: apt to take ſhelter in clifts of rocks: is eaſily tamed: full of frolick: fond of honey and carraway comfits: eats its own dung before a ſtorm: changes its color in September: reſumes its grey coat in April: in the extreme cold or Greenland is always ** white. Both kinds of hares are common in Siberia, on the Banks of the Wolga, and in the Orenburg government. The one never changes color: the other, native of the ſame place, conſtantly aſſumes the whiteneſs of the ſnow during winter. They alſo collect together, and are ſeen in troops of five or ſix hundred, migrating ſouth in ſpring, and returning in autumn †. Mr. Muller ſays he once ſaw two black hares, in Siberia, of a wonderfull fine gloſs, and of as full a black as jet.
The animal called the Hare by our voyagers to Patagonia ‡, is at preſent of a doubtfull genus; perhaps belonging to the laſt, a ſort of Aguti, being [Page 251] ſaid to have only a naked ſtump, an inch in length, inſtead of a tail: ſome weigh twenty pounds *: they burrow under ground, and run into their holes when chaced.
- C [...]iculus, Plinii, lib. viii. c. 55. [...] quad. 362. Agricola An. [...]. 482.
- [...], or Coney, Raii ſyn. quad. 2 [...].
- L [...]ſculus, cuniculus terram [...], Kaninchen, Klein quad. 52.
- Lepus cuniculus. L. cauda abbreviata, auriculis nudis. Lin. ſyſt. 77. Kanin, Faun. ſuec. No. 26. Br. Zool. I. 90.
- Lepus caudatus, obſcuré cinereus Briſſon quad. 95.
- Le Lapin, de Buffon, vi. 303. tab. L. LI.
Inhabits, in a wild ſtate, the temperate and hot parts of Europe, and the hotteſt parts of Aſia and Africa: not originally Britiſh; but ſucceeds here admirably: will not live in Sueden, or the northern countries, except in houſes. Strabo † tells us, that they were firſt imported into Italy from Spain: not natives of America; but encreaſe greatly in S. America ‡.
Moſt prolific animals: breed ſeven times in a year: produce eight young at a time: ſuppoſing that to happen regularly, one pair may bring in f [...]ur years 1,274,840: in warrens, keep in their holes in the middle of the day; come out morning and night: the males apt to deſtroy the young: the [Page 252] ſkins a great article of commerce; numbers exporte [...] to China: the fur of great uſe in the hat manufacture.
γ. RUSSIAN RABBET. With a double ſkin over the back, into which it can withdraw its head: another under the throat, in which it can place its fore feet: has ſmall holes in the looſe ſkin on the back, to admit light to the eyes: color of the body cinereous; head and ears brown.
- Tapeti, Marcgrave Braſil, 223. Piſo Braſil, 102.
- Cuniculus Braſilienſis Tapeti dictus. Raii ſyn. quad. 205.
- Lepus Braſilienſis. L. cauda nulla. Lin. ſyſt 78.
- Lepus ecaudus Briſſon quad. 97.
- Le Tapeti de Buffon, xv. 162.
- Collar'd Rabbet, Wafer's voy. in Dampier, III. 401.
H. with very large ears: a white ring round the neck: face of a reddiſh color: chin white: black eyes: color of the body like the common hare, only darker: belly whitiſh: no tail: ſome want the white ring round the neck.
Inhabit Braſil: live in woods: do not burrow: are very prolific: very good meat: found alſo in Mexico *, where they are called Citli.
- Caniculus inſigniter caudatus, coloris Leporini. Nov. Com. Petrop. V. 357. tab. xi.
- Lepus cauda in ſupina parte nigra in prona alba. Briſſon quad. 97.
- Le Tolai de Buffon, XV. 138.
H. with a long tail *: fur of the color of the common hare: red about the neck and feet: tail black above, white beneath: larger than a rabbet.
Allied to this ſeems the Viſcachos, or Viſcachas, mentioned by Acoſta † and Feuillée ‡, in their accounts of Peru: they compare them to Hares or Rabbets. The laſt ſays they inhabit the colder parts of the country: their hair is very ſoft, and of a mouſe-color: the tail pretty long, and turns up: [Page 254] the ears and whiſkers like thoſe of the common rabbet. In the time of the Incas, the hair was ſpun and wove into cloth, which was ſo fine as to be uſed only by the nobility *.
- [...] Ariſt. hiſt. An. lib. viii. [...]. Opp [...]. Haheut, I. 398.
- [...] Fl [...]nn, lib. viii. c. 30. Agri [...]. [...]. 482 Belon Aquat. 25.
- [...] Geſner quad. 309. Rondel, 230 Schoneve [...], Icth. 34.
- [...], Raii ſyn. quad. 209.
- [...] [...]aczinſki Polon. 215.
- [...] quad. 91. Kramer Auſtr. [...]5.
- Caſtor caſtanei coloris, cauda horizontaliter plana. Briſſon quad. 90.
- Caſtor Fiber. C. cauda ovata plana. Lin. ſyſt. 78. Bafwer, Biur, Faun. ſuec. No. 27.
- Le Caſtor, ou Le Bievre, de Buffon, viii. 282. tab. xxxvi.
- Beaver Br. Zool. I. 70. tab. ii.
B. with ſtrong cutting teeth: ſhort ears, hid in the [...]: blunt noſe: hair of a deep cheſnut brown: tail broad, almoſt oval, compreſſed horizontally, covered with ſcales: the fore feet ſmall; the hind large: length, from noſe to tail, about three feet: tail, eleven inches long, three broad.
Inhabits Europe, from Lapland to Languedoc *: in great plenty in the North: a few are yet found in the Rhone †, the Gardon, the Danube, the Rhine, and the Viſtula: met with in abundance in the Ruſſian A [...]tic dominions; but no where in equal multi [...]des, than in North America.
The moſt induſtrious of animals: nothing equals the art with which they conſtruct their dwellings. They chuſe a level piece of ground with a ſmall riv [...]let running through it. This they form into a [...]nd, by making a dam acroſs; firſt, by driving into the ground ſtakes five or ſix feet long, placed [Page 256] rows, wattling each row with pliant twigs, and filling the interſtices with clay, ramming it down cloſe The ſide next the water is ſloped; the other perpendicular. The bottom is from ten to twelve fee [...] thick; but the thickneſs gradually diminiſhes to the top, which is about two or three. The length o [...] theſe dams is ſometimes not leſs than a hundred feet▪
Their houſes are made in the water collected by means of the dam, and are placed near the edge of the ſhore. They are built on piles; are either round or oval; but the tops are vaulted; ſo that their inſide reſembles an oven, the top a dome. The walls are two feet thick; made of earth, ſtones and ſticks, moſt artificially layed together; and the walls within as neatly plaiſtered as if with a trowel. In each houſe are two openings; one into the water, the other towards the land. The height of theſe houſes above the water is eight feet. They often make two or three ſtories in each dwelling, for the convenience of change, in caſe of floods. Each houſe contains from two to thirty beavers; and the number of houſes in each pond is from ten to twenty-five. Each beaver forms its bed of moſs; and each family forms its magazine of winter proviſion, which conſiſts of bark and boughs of trees. This they lodge under water, and fetch it into their apartments as their wants require. Lawſon ſays they are fondeſt of the ſaſſafras, aſh, and ſweet-gum. Their ſummer food is leaves, fruits, and ſometimes crabs and craw-fiſh; but they are not fond of fiſh.
To effect theſe works, a community of two or three hundred aſſembles; each bears his ſhare in the [Page 257] labor: ſome fall by gnawing with their teeth trees of great ſize, to form beams or piles; others roll the pieces along to the water; others dive, and with their feet ſcrape holes, in order to place them in; while others exert their efforts to rear them in their proper places: another party is employed in collecting twigs, to wattle the piles with; a third, in collecting earth, ſtones and clay; a fourth is buſied in beating and tempering the mortar; others, in carrying it on their broad tails to proper places, and with the ſame inſtrument ram it between the piles, or plaiſter the inſide of their houſes. A certain number of ſmart ſtrokes with their tail is a ſignal given by the overfeer, for repairing to ſuch or ſuch places, either for mending any defects, or at the approach of an enemy; and the whole ſociety attend to it with the utmoſt aſſiduity. Their time of building is early in the ſummer; for in winter they never ſtir but to their magazines of proviſions, and during that ſeaſon are very fat. They breed once a year, and bring forth, the latter end of the winter, two or three young at a birth.
Beſides theſe aſſociated beavers, is another ſort, which are called Terriers; which either want induſtry or ſagacity to form houſes like the others. [...] burrow in the banks of rivers, making their [...] beneath the freezing depth of the water, and [...] up for a great number of feet. Theſe alſo [...] their winter ſtock of proviſion.
Beavers vary in their colors: the fineſt are black; [...] the general color is a cheſnut brown; more or leſs dark: ſome have been found, but very rarely, [Page 258] white. The ſkins are a prodigious article of trade; being the foundation of the hat manufactory. In 1763 were ſold, in a ſingle ſale of the Hudſon's Bay Company, 54,670 ſkins. They are diſtinguiſhed by different names. Coat Beaver is what has been worn as coverlets by the Indians. Parchment Beaver, becauſe the lower ſide reſembles it. Stage Beaver is the worſt, and is that which the Indians kill out of ſeaſon, on their ſtages or journies. The valuable drug Caſtoreum * is taken from the inguinal glands of theſe animals. The antients had a notion it was lodged in the teſticles, and that the animal, when hard preſſed, would bite them off, and leave them to its purſuers, as if conſcious of what they wanted to deſtroy him for.‘Imitatus Caſtora, qui ſe Eunuchum ipſe facit, cupiens evadere damno Teſticulorum. JUVENAL, xii. 34. ’
B. with a thick blunt noſe: ears ſhort, and almoſt hid in the fur: eyes large: toes on each foot ſeparated; thoſe behind fringed on each ſide with ſtrong hairs, cloſely ſet together: tail compreſſed ſideways, and very thin at the edges, covered with ſmall ſcales, intermixed with a few hairs: color of the head and body a reddiſh brown: breaſt and belly, aſh-color, tinged with red: the fur very fine: length, from noſe to tail, one foot; of the tail, nine inches: in the form of its body, exactly reſembles a beaver.
Inhabits N. America: breeds 3 or 4 times in a year *, and brings from 3 to 6 young at a time: during ſummer, the male and female conſort together: at approach of winter, unite in families, and retire into ſmall round aedifices, covered with a dome, formed of herbs and reeds cemented with clay: at the bottom are ſeveral pipes, thro' which they paſs in ſearch of food; for they do not form magazines like the beavers: during winter, their habitations are covered many feet deep with ſnow and ice; but they creep out and feed on the roots that lie beneath: they quit their old habitations annually, and build new ones: t [...]e f [...]r is ſoft, and much eſteemed: the whole animal, [Page 260] during ſummer, has a moſt exquiſite muſky ſmell; which it loſes in winter: perhaps the ſcent is derived from the Calamus Aromaticus, a favorite food of this animal. Leſcarbot ſays they are very good to eat.
- Mus aquaticus Cluſii exot. 373. Worm. Mus. 334.
- Muſcovy or Muſk rat, Raii ſyn. quad, 217. Nov. Com. Petrop. iv. 373.
- Caſtor moſchatus. C. cauda longa compreſſo-lanceolata pedibu [...] palmatis, Lin. ſyſt. 79. Daeſma [...] Faun. ſuec. No. 28.
- Caſtor cauda verticaliter plana digitis omnibus membranis int [...] ſe connexis. Briſſon quad. 92.
B. with a long ſlender noſe, like that of a ſhrew mouſe: no external ears: very ſmall eyes: tail compreſſed ſideways: color of the head and back, duſky, the belly, whitiſh aſh-color: length, from noſe to tail, ſeven inches; tail eight.
Inhabits Lapland, Ruſſia, the banks of the rivers Volga and the Yaick: never wanders far from the ſides: is very ſlow in its pace: makes holes in the cliffs with the entrance far beneath the loweſt fall of the water; works upwards, but never to the ſurface, only high enough to lie beyond the higheſt flow of the river: feeds on fiſh: is devoured by the Pikes and Siluri, and gives thoſe fiſh ſo ſtrong a flavor of muſk, as to render them not eatable; has the ſame ſcent as the former, eſpecially about the tail; out of which is expreſſed a ſort of muſk very much reſembling the genuine kind *. The ſkins are put into cheſts among cloaths, to drive away moths†. [Page 261] At Orenburg, the ſkins and tails ſell for fifteen or twenty copecs per hundred. They are ſo common near Nizney Novogorod, that the peaſants bring five hundred a-piece to market, where they are ſold for one rubel per hundred. The German name for theſe animals is Bieſem-ratze; the Ruſſian, Wychozhol.
- [...]. Ariſtot. hiſt. An. lib. i. c. 6. Oppian Cyneg. III. 391.
- Hyſtrix, Plinii, lib. viii. c. 35. Geſner quad. 563. Raii ſyn. quad. 206.
- Acanthion criſtatus, Klein quad. 66.
- Hyſtrix orientalis criſtata, Seb. Muſ. I. 79. tab. L.
- Hyſtrix criſtata. H. palmis t [...] tradactylis, plantis pentadactylis capite criſtato, cauda abbreviat [...] Lin. ſyſt. 76. Haſſelquiſt. itin. 200.
- Hyſtrix capite criſtato. Briſ [...] quad. 85.
- Le Porc-epic de Buffon, xii. 402. tab. li. lii. Faunul. Sinens.
P. with a long creſt on the top of the head reclining backwards, formed of ſtiff briſtles: the body covered with long quils; thoſe on the hind part of the body nine inches in length, very ſharp at the ends, varied with black and white; between the quils a few hairs: the head, belly and legs, are covered with ſtrong briſtles, terminated with ſoft hair, of a duſky color: the whiſkers long: ears like the human: four toes before, five behind: tail ſhort, and covered with quils: length, from noſe to tail, two feet; tail, four inches.
Inhabits India, Perſia and Paleſtine, and all parts of Africa: is found wild in Italy; but is not originally a native of * Europe: is brought into the markets of Rome, where it is eat †. The Italian porcupines have ſhorter quils and a leſſer creſt, than thoſe [Page 263] of Aſia and Africa: is an harmleſs animal: lives on fruits, roots and vegetables: ſleeps by day, feeds by night: the report of its darting its quils fabulous: when angry, retires and runs its noſe into a corner, erects its ſpines, and oppoſes them to its aſſailant: makes a ſnorting noiſe.
Theſe animals produce a Bezoar; but, according to Seba, only thoſe which inhabit Java, Sumatra and Malacca. He has given the figure of one under the name of Porcus aculeatus, ſeu Hyſtrix Malaccenſis: it differs little from the African and Indian kind, and is allowed by him to be the ſame ſpecies *.
- P [...]cu [...] aculeatus ſylveſtris, ſeu Hyſtrix orientalis ſingularis. Seb. Muſ. I. 84. tab. lii.
- A [...]anthion cauda praelonga, acu [...] pilis horrida, in exitu quaſi panniculata. Klein quad. 67.
- Hyſtrix cauda longiſſima, aculeis undique obſita, in extremo panniculata. Briſſon quad. 89.
- Hyſtrix macroura. H. pedibus pentadactylis, cauda longiſſima: aculeis clavatis. Lin. ſyſt. 77.
P. with long whiſkers: ſhort naked ears: large bright eyes: body ſhort and thick, covered with long ſtiff hairs as ſharp as needles, of different colors, according as the rays of light fall on them: feet div [...]ded into five toes; that which ſerves as a thumb [...]urn backwards: the tail is as long as the body, very [...]nder to the end, which conſiſts of a thick tuft; the briſtles appearing as if jointed; are thick in the [...]ddle, and riſe one out of the other like grains of [...]; are tranſparent, and of a ſilvery appearance.
- Hoitzlacuatzin, ſeu Tlacuatzin ſpinoſus, Hyſtrix no [...] Hiſpaniae. Hernandez Mex. 322.
- Cuandu Braſilienſibus, Luſitanis Ourico cachiero. Mar [...]gra [...]e Braſil, 233. Piſo Braſil, 99.325.
- Iron Pig. Nieuhoff, 17.
- Hyſtrix Americanus, Raii ſyn. quad. 208.
- Hyſtrix prehenſilis. H. pedibus tetradactylis, cauda elongata prehenſili ſeminuda. Lin. ſyſt. 76.
- Hyſtrix novae Hiſpaniae. H. aculeis apparentibus, cauda brevi [...] craſſo. Briſſon quad. 8 [...]. H. [...] da longiflima, tenui, [...] extrema aculeorum expert [...], 87
- H. Americanus major, 88.
- Hyſtrix longius caudatus, [...] vioribus aculeis, Barrere [...] Aequin. 153.
- Hyſtrix minor leucophaeus, Gouandou. Ibid.
- Chat epineux, des Marchai [...], III. 303.
P. with a ſhort blunt noſe: long white whiſkers: beneath the noſe a bed of ſmall ſpines: top of the head, back, ſides and baſe of the tail, covered with ſpines; the longeſt on the lower part of the back and tail, are three inches in length, very ſharp, white, barred near their points with black; adhere cloſely to the ſkin, which is quite naked between them; are ſhorter and weaker as they approach the belly: on the breaſt, belly and lower part of the legs, are converted into dark brown briſtles: feet divided into four toes: claws very long: on the place of the thumb a great protuberance: tail eighteen inches long, ſlender and taper towards the end; the laſt ten inches is almoſt naked, having only a few hairs on it; has, for that length, a ſtrong prehenſile quality.
This ſpecies is very rarely brought into Europe. I had opportunity of deſcribing it from a ſpecimen ſome time in poſſeſſion of Mr. Greenwood; who was ſo obliging as to permit me to have a drawing made of it▪ from which a very faithfull figure is here given. M. de Buffon † has made an article of this animal in his work; and M. Daubenton deſcribes and figures one ſo different from this, and ſo like that of North America, that it ſeems to be the ſame with the ſpecies he deſcribes under the name of L'Urſon; for he gives both of them four toes before, five behind, and neither of them a tail half ſo long, and that covered with hairs and quils: each circumſtance agreeing with the following ſpecies; neither with this.
- Porcupine from Hudſon's bay. Edw. 52. Ellis's voy. 42. Clerk's voy. I. 177, 191.
- Cavia Hudſonis, Klein quad. 51.
- Hyſtrix dorſata. H. palmis tetradactylis, plantis pentadactylis, cauda mediocri, dorſo ſolo ſpinoſo. Lin. ſyſt. 76.
- Hyſtrix aculeis ſub pilis ocultis, cauda brevi et craſſa, Briſſon quad. 87.
- L'Urſon, de Buffon, xii. 426. tab. lv.
P. with ſhort ears, hid in the fur: head, body, legs and upper part of the tail, covered with ſoft, long, dark brown hair: on the upper part of the head, back, body and tail, numbers of ſharp ſtrong quils; the longeſt on the back, the leſt towards the head and ſides; the longeſt three inches; but all are hid in the hair: intermixed, are ſome ſtiff ſtraggling hairs, three inches longer than the reſt, tipt with dirty white: under ſide of the tail white: four toes on the fore feet, five behind, each armed with long claws, hollowed on their underſide: the form o [...] the body is exactly that of a beaver; but is not half the ſize: one, which Mr. Banks brought from New-foundland, was about the ſize of a hare, but more compactly made: the tail about ſix inches long.
Inhabits N. America, as high as Hudſon's Bay: makes its neſt under the roots of great trees, and will alſo climb among the boughs, which the Indians cut down when one is in them, and kill the animal by ſtriking it over the noſe: are very plentifull near Hudſon's Bay, and many of the trading Indians depend on them for food, eſteeming them both wholeſome and pleaſant: feed on wild fruits and bark of trees, eſpecially juniper: eat ſnow in w [...]nter, drink water in ſummer▪ [Page 267] but avoid going into it: when they cannot avoid their purſuer, will ſidle towards him, in order to touch him with the quils, which ſeem but weak weapons of offence; for, on ſtroking the hair, they will come out of the ſkin, ſticking to the hand. The Indians ſtick them in their noſes and ears, to make holes for the placing their ear-rings and other finery: they alſo trim the edges of their deer-ſkins habits with fringes made of the quils, or cover with them their bark-boxes.
- Mus Alpinus, Plinii, lib. viii. c. 37. Agricola An. Subter. 484. Geſner quad. 743. Raii ſyn. quad. 221.
- Bobak, Swiſſez, Rzaczinſki Polon. 233. Beauplan Ukraine, 600.
- Glis marinota, Klein quad. 56. Hiſt. Mur. Alp. 230.
- Murmelthier, Kramer Auſtr. 317.
- Mus marmota. M. cauda abbreviata ſubpiloſa, auriculis rotundatis, buccis gibbis, Lin. ſyſt. 81. Forſter Nat. Hiſt. VOLGAE. Ph [...] lvii. 343.
- Glis pilis e fuſco et flavican [...] mixtis veſtitus. Glis flavicana, capite rufeſcente. Briſſon quad. 116, 117.
- La Marmott [...], de Buffon, viii 219. tab. xxviii. Le Bobak, xiii. 130. tab. xviii.
M. with ſhort round ears, hid in the fur: cheeks large: color of the head and upper part of the body, browniſh aſh, mixt with tawny: legs and lower part of the body reddiſh: ſubject to vary in color; the Bobak, or Poliſh Marmot, being much more red and of a brighter hue: four toes before, five behind: tail pretty full of hair: length, from noſe to tail, about ſixteen inches; tail ſix: body thick.
Inhabits the Alps, Poland, Ukraine, and Chineſe Tartary: feeds on inſects, roots and vegetables: while they are at food place a centinel, who gives a whiſtle on ſeeing any ſign of danger, on which they inſtantly retire into their holes: form holes under ground with three chambers of the ſhape of a Y, with two entrances; line them well with moſs and hay; retire into them about Michaelmas, and ſtopping up the entrances with earth, continue in a torpid ſtate till April: when taken out remain inſenſible, [Page 269] except brought before a fire, which revives them: they lodge in ſociety from five to a dozen in a chamber: will walk on their hind feet: lift up their meat to their mouth with their fore feet, and eat it ſitting up: bring three or four young at a time: are very playfull: when angry, or before a ſtorm, make a moſt ſtrange noiſe; a whiſtle ſo loud and ſo acute, as quite to pierce the ear: grow very fat about the backs: are ſometimes eaten; but generally taken in order to be ſhewen, eſpecially by the Savoyards: grow very ſoon tame, and will then eat any thing: are very fond of milk, which they lap, making at the ſame time a murmuring noiſe, expreſſive of their ſatisfaction: very apt to gnaw any cloaths or linnen they find: will bite very hard.
In Chineſe Tartary are the propagators of Rhubarb * which grows among their burrows: the manure they leave about the roots contributes to its increaſe; and the looſe ſoil they fling up, proves a bed for the ripe ſeed; which, if ſcattered among the long graſs, periſhes without ever being able to reach the ground.
- Bahama Cony, Cateſby Carolina, II. 79.
- Monax, Cateſby Carolina App. xxviii.
- Monax, or Marmotte of America, Edw. 104.
- Glis Marmota, Americanus, Klein quad. 56.
- Glis fuſcus. Glis fuſcus, roſtro [...] cinereo caeruleſcente. Briſſon quad. 115.
- Mus Monax. M. cauda mediocri piloſa, corpore cinereo, auriculis ſubrotundis, palmis tetradactylis, plantis pentadactylis. Lin. ſyſt. 81.
M. with ſhort rounded ears: black prominent eyes: noſe ſharper than that of the laſt; noſe and cheeks of a bluiſh aſh-color: back, of a deep brown color; ſides and belly paler: tail half the length of the body, covered with pretty long duſky hair: toes divided and armed with ſharp claws: four toes before, five behind: feet and legs black: is about the ſize of a Rabbet.
Inhabits Virginia and Penſilvania: during winter ſleeps under the hollow roots of trees: is found alſo in the Bahama iſles: lives on wild fruits and other vegetables: its fleſh is very good, taſting like that of a pig: when ſurprized retreats to holes in the rocks: whether it ſleeps, during winter, in the climate of thoſe iſles, is not mentioned.
M. with a blunt noſe: ſhort rounded ears: cheeks puffed, and of a grey color: face duſky: noſe black: hair on the back grey at bottom, black in the middle, and the tips whitiſh: belly and legs of an orange color: toes black, naked, and quite divided; four, and the rudiments of another, on the fore feet; five behind: [Page 271] tail ſhort, and of a duſky color: was rather larger than a Rabbet.
Inhabits Hudſon's Bay and Canada. Mr. Brooks had one alive a few Years ago; it was very tame, and made a hiſſing noiſe: perhaps is the ſpecies which the French of Canada call Siffleur *.
- Hameſter, Cricetus, Agricola An. [...]. 486. Geſner quad. Raii ſyn. quad. 221. Meyer An. I. tab. lxxxi. 82.
- Skrzeczek, Chomik, Rzaczinſki Polon. 232.
- Porcellus frumentarius Schwenk [...]l [...]e Theriotroph. 118.
- Kri [...]tſch, Hamſter, Kramer Auſtr. 317.
- Mus cricetus. M. cauda mediocri, auriculis rotundatis, corpore ſubtus nigro, lateribus rufeſcentibus maculis tribus albis. Lin. ſyſt. 82.
- Glis ex cinereo rufus in dorſo, in ventre niger, maculis tribus ad latera albis. Briſſon quad. 117.
- Le Hamſter, de Buffon, xiii. 117. tab. xiv.xvi.
M. with large rounded ears: full black eyes: color on the head and back, reddiſh brown: cheeks white: beneath each ear a white ſpot, another on each ſhoulder, a third near the hind legs: breaſt, upper part of the fore legs, and the belly, black: tail ſhort, almoſt naked: four toes and a fifth claw on the fore feet; five behind: about nine inches long; tail three.
Inhabits Auſtria, Sileſia, and many parts of Germany, Poland, and Ukraine: very deſtructive to corn; eating great quantities, and carrying ſtill more to its winter's hoard: within its cheeks are two pouches, receptacles for its booty, which it fills till the cheeks ſeem ready to burſt: they live [Page 272] under ground; firſt form an entrance, burrowing down obliquely: at the end of that paſſage the male ſinks one perpendicular hole; the female ſeveral: at the end of theſe are formed various vaults, either as lodges for themſelves and young, or ſtore-houſes for their winter food; each young has its different apartment; each ſort of grain its different vault; the firſt they line with ſtraw or graſs: theſe vaults are of different depths, according to the age of the animal; a young Hamſter makes them ſcarce a foot deep; an old one ſinks them to the depth of four or five; and the whole diameter of the habitation, with all its communications, is ſometimes eight or ten feet.
They begin to lay in their proviſions in Auguſt; and will carry grains of corn, corn in the ear, and peas and beans in the pods, which they clean in their holes, and carry the huſks carefully out: the pouches above-mentioned are ſo capacious as to hold a quarter of a pint Engliſh. As ſoon as they have finiſhed their work, they ſtop up the mouth of their paſſage carefully. In winter, the peaſants go what they call a Hamſter-neſting; and when they diſcover the re-retreat, dig down till they diſcover the hoard, and are commonly well paid; for, beſides the ſkin of the animals, which are valuable furs, they find commonly two buſhels of good grain in the magazine. Theſe animals are very fierce; will jump at a horſe that happens to tread near them, and hang by its noſe ſo that it is difficult to diſengage them: they make a noiſe like the barking of a dog: breed twice or thrice a year, and bring five or ſix at a time: in [Page 273] ſome ſeaſons, are ſo numerous as to occaſion a dearth of corn. Pole-cats are their greateſt enemies; for they purſue them into their holes and deſtroy numbers. It is remarkable, that the hair ſticks ſo cloſe to the ſkin, as not to be plucked off without the utmoſt difficu [...]ty *.
Agricola deſcribes another animal under the name of [...]mela, which ſeems only a variety. It is, ſays he [...] leſs; the belly is black; the whole body marked, with yellow, and tawny ſpots: the tail cinereous and white, the end black **.
- Le S [...]ſ [...]k de Buffon, xv. 144, 195, [...]5.
- Mus Marmotta. Sp. 15. Forſter hiſt. Nat. Volga. Ph. Tr. lvii. 343.
M. with ſhort round ears: ſmooth hair of a yellowiſh brown color, marked with faint round ſpots of white: above and below the eye a bar of white: face, breaſt, belly and legs of a pale yellow: four toes before, five behind: tail half the length of the body, covered with ſhort hair of the color of the body: ſize of a large rat.
Inhabits the banks of the Volga, eſpecially near S [...]r [...]t [...]ff †: they burrow, and ſit in multitudes near their holes, like rabbets: often ſit upright: when alarmed, whiſtle with a low note: are very fond of [Page 274] ſalt: numbers taken on board the barges that load with that commodity, at Solikamſky, and fall down into the Volga below Caſan: the ſkins I have ſeen from thence are far more beautifull than one I received from Auſtria, of a deeper color, and the ſpots more diſtinct and bright.
- Lemmar vel Lemmus. Olai magni de gent. Sept [...]ntr. 358.
- Leem vel Lemmer. Geſner quad. 731.
- Mus norvegicus vulgò Leming Worm. Mus 321, 325. Scheffer Lapland, 136. Pontop. Norway, II. 30. Str [...]m Sondm [...]r. 154. Raii ſyn. quad. 227.
- Sable-mice Ph. Tr. abridg. II. 875.
- Cuniculus caudatus, auritus, ex flavo, rufo et nigro variegatus. Briſſon quad. 100.
- Mus Lemmus. M. cauda abbreviata, pedibus pentadactylis, corpore fulvo nigro vario. Lin. ſyſt. 80.
- Fial-Mus, Sabell-Mus. La [...]is Lummick. Faun. Suec. No. 29.
- Le Leming de Buffon, xiii. 314.
M. with two very long cutting teeth in each jaw: head pointed: long whiſkers; ſix of the hairs on each ſide longer and ſtronger than the reſt: eyes ſmall and black: mouth ſmall: upper lip divided: ears ſmall, blunt, and reclining backwards: fore legs very ſhort: four ſlender toes on the fore feet, covered with hairs; and in the place of the thumb, a ſharp claw, like a cock's ſpur: five toes behind: tail about half an inch long; the body and head about five: the ſkin very thin: the color of the head and body black, and tawny, diſpoſed in irregular blotches: belly white, tinged with yellow *.
[Page 275] Appear in numberleſs troops at very uncertain periods in Norway, and Lapland: are the peſt and wonder of the country: they march like the army of locuſts, ſo emphatically deſcribed by the prophet Joel: deſtroy every root of graſs * before them, and ſpread univerſal deſolation: they infect the very ground, and cattle are ſaid to periſh which taſte of the graſs which they have touched: they march by myriads, in regular lines: nothing ſtops their progreſs, neither fire, torrents, lake or moraſs; they bend their courſe ſtrait forward, with moſt amazing obſtinacy; they ſwim over the lakes; the greateſt rock gives them but a ſlight check, they go round it, and then reſume their march directly on, without the leſt deviation: if they meet a peaſant, they perſiſt in their courſe, and jump as high as his knees in defence of their progreſs: are ſo fierce as to lay hold of a ſtick, and ſuffer themſelves to be ſwung about before they quit their hold: if ſtruck, they turn about and bite, and will make a noiſe like a dog: are the prey of foxes, lynxes, and ermines, who follow them in great numbers: at length they periſh, either thro' want of food, or by deſtroying one another, or in ſome great water, or in the ſea: they are the dread of the country: in former times ſpiritual weapons were exerted againſt them, the prieſt exorciſed, and had a long form of prayer to avert the evil †: happily it does not occur frequently, [Page 276] once or twice in twenty years: it ſeems like a vaſt colony of emigrants, from a nation over-ſtocked; a diſcharge of animals from the great Northern hive, that once poured out its myriads of human creatures upon Southern Europe. Where the head quarters of theſe quadrupeds are, is not very certainly known: Linnaeus ſays, the Norwegian and Lapland Alps; Pontoppidan ſeems to think, that Kolens rock, which divides Nordland from Sueden, is their native place; but wherever they come from, none return. their courſe is praedeſtinated, and they purſue their fate.
- Mus Noricus aut Citellus Agricola An. Subter. 485. Geſner quad. 737. Raii ſyn. quad. 220.
- Zieſel Schwenkfelt. Theriotroph. 86.
- Mus citeilus. M. cauda abbreviata, corpore cinereo, auriculis nullis. Lin. ſyſt. 80.
- Cuniculus caudatus, auriculi [...] nullis, cinereus. Briſſon quad. 101.
- Le Zieſel, de Buffon, xv. 139.
The Yevraſhka, or Marmotta Minor *, is the ſame animal with this, but differs a little in color: the upper part of the body is grey, in ſome parts reddiſh ſpeckled with yellow: the feet yellow: the tail buſhy, three inches long; above is duſky, ſpeckled with yellow; beneath is red; the end black: length, from noſe to tail, one foot: is called by the Ruſſians, [Page 277] from the ſlenderneſs of its body, Yevraſhka, i. e. the weeſel.
Inhabits Bohemia, Auſtria, Hungary, and Siberia: burrows and forms its magazine * of corn, nuts, &c. for its winter food: ſits up like a ſquirrel when it eats. By Gmelin's account, ſome inhabit the fields in Siberia, others penetrate into the grainaries; the firſt form holes under ground with a double entrance, and ſleep during winter in the centre of their lodge: thoſe which inhabit the grainaries, are in motion during the whole cold ſeaſon; they couple the beginning of May, and bring from five to eight young, which they bring up in their burrows and cover with hay: whiſtle like the marmot: are very iraſcible, and bite very hard: their furs were once uſed by the ladies of Bohemia to make cloaks.
M. with the cutting teeth of the lower jaw half as long again as thoſe of the upper: eyes very minute, and as much hid in the fur as thoſe of a mole: four toes, and a claw inſtead of the fifth on the fore feet; five on the hind: tail ſhort: color cinereous: ſize of a ſquirrel.
Inhabits Podolia, Ukraine, Volhinia, and Perſia: burrows, and forms magazines for winter proviſion: feeds on corn, fruits, and garden ſtuff: lives under [Page 278] ground during winter, and is often turned up by the Peaſants with their ploughs: bites very hard *.
M. with ears like thoſe of mice: red ſparkling eyes: ſharp teeth: body long, and of an equal thickneſs: cheſnut-colored hair, long, eſpecially on the back: has ſharp claws: tail long and buſhy: fore feet ſhorter than the hind feet: ſize of the German marmot, No. 200.
Inhabits the neighborhood of the river Terek, which flows out of Circaſſia and falls into the Caſpian Sea: runs faſt up hill, very ſlowly down: burrows, and lives under ground. Deſcribed by Doctor Schober †.
- Sciurus, Geſner quad. 845. Raii ſyn. quad. 214.
- Wi [...]wiorka Rzaczinſki Polon. 225.
- Eichhorn Klein quad. 53.
- Sciurus vulgaris. Sc. auriculis apice barbatis, palmis tetradactylis, plantis p [...]ntadactylis. Lin. ſyſt. 86. Ikorn, Graſkin. Faun. ſu [...]c. No. 37.
- Sciurus rufus quandoque griſeo admixto. Briſſon quad. 104.
- L'Ecureuil de Buffon, vii. 258. tab. xxxii. Br. Zool. I. 93.
Sq. with ears terminated with long tufts of hair: large lively black eyes: head, body, legs and tail, of a bright reddiſh brown: breaſt and belly white: hair on each ſide the tail lies flat. In Sueden and Lapland *, changes in winter into grey. In Ruſſia †, is ſometimes found black. In many parts of England is a beautifull variety with milk-white tails.
Inhabits Europe and North America, the northern and the temperate parts of Aſia; and a variety is even found as far ſouth as the Iſle of Ceylon: is a neat, lively, active animal: lives always in woods: in the ſpring, the female is ſeen purſued from tree to tree by the males, feigning an eſcape from their embraces: makes its neſt: of moſs and dried leaves, between the fork of two branches: brings three or four young at a time: has two holes to its neſt: ſtops up that on the ſide the wind blows, as Pliny ‡ [Page 280] juſtly remarks: lays in a hoard of winter proviſion, ſuch as nuts, acorns, &c. in ſummer, feeds on buds and young ſhoots: is particularly fond of thoſe of fir, and the young cones: ſits up to eat, and uſes its fore-feet as hands: covers itſelf with its tail: leaps to a ſurpriſing diſtance: when diſpoſed to croſs a river, a piece of bark is its boat; its tail the ſail *.
α. HUDSON BAY SQ. Smaller than the European, marked along the middle of the back with a ferruginous line from head to tail: the ſides paler: belly of a pale aſh-color, mottled with black: tail not ſo long, or ſo full of hair, as the common kind; of a ferruginous color, barred with black, and towards the end is a broader band of the ſame color.
β. WHITE-LEGGED SQ. The head, whole upper part of the body, ſides and toes, of a reddiſh brown: face, noſe, under ſide of the neck, belly, fore-legs, inſide of the ears and thighs, white: ears ſlightly tufted with black: tail long, covered with duſky hairs much ſhorter than thoſe in the European kind. Br. Muſ. by the catalogue, ſaid to be brought from Ceylon.
- Sciurus Zeylanicus pilis in dorſo nigricantibus Rukkaia dictus a ſono. Raii ſyn. quad. 215.
- Sciurus macrourus, long-tailed Squirrel, Ind. Zool. tab. i.
Sq. with ears tufted with black: noſe fleſh-colored: cheeks, legs and belly of a pale yellow: between the ears a yellow ſpot: forehead, back, ſides, haunches black: cheeks marked with a bifurcated ſtroke of black: under ſide red: tail twice as long as the body, of a light grey, and very buſhy: the part next the body quite ſurrounded with hair: on the reſt the hairs are ſeparated and lie flat. Is thrice the ſize of the European ſquirrel.
Sq. with tufted ears: head, back, ſides, upper part of the legs and thighs and tail of a dull purple: the lower part of the legs and thighs, and the belly, yellow: end of the tail orange: length, from noſe to tail, near ſixteen inches; tail ſeventeen.
β. Sq. with a round fleſh-colored noſe: hair on the upper part of the body of a ruſty black: tail a foot and a half long: belly and fore feet grey: ſoles of the feet fleſh-colored. Three times the ſize of an European ſquirrel.
[Page 282] Deſcribed from Thevenot *, who ſays, it was bought at Moco from an Abiſſinian, that it was very good-natured, and ſportive like a ſquirrel; would eat any thing except fleſh, and would crack the hardeſt almonds. A variety of one of the above?
- Gray ſquirrel Joſſelyn's [...]y. Catesby Carolina, II. 74. Smith's voy. 27. Kalm's voy. 95. 310.
- Fox ſquirrel Lawſon's Carolina, 124.
- Sciurus cinereus virginianus major Raii ſyn. quad. 215.
- Sciurus cinereus Lin. ſyſt. 86.
- Sciurus cinereus. Auriculis ex albo flavicantibus, Briſſon quad. 107.
- Le Petit-Gris, de Buffon, X. 116. tab. xxv.
Sq. with plain ears: hair of a dull grey color, mixed with black; and often tinged with dirty yellow: belly and inſides of the legs white: tail long, buſhy, grey, and ſtriped with black, Size of a half grown rabbet.
Inhabits the woods of Northern Aſia **, N. America, Peru †, and Chili ‡; are very numerous in N. America, do incredible damage to the plantations [Page 283] of Mayz, run up the ſtalks, and eat the young ears; deſcend in vaſt flocks from the mountains, and join thoſe that inhabit the lower parts; are proſcribed by the provinces, and a reward of three pe [...]ce per head for every one that is killed; ſuch a number was deſtroyed one year, that Penſylvania alone paid in rewards 8000 l. of its currency.
Make their neſts in hollow trees with moſs, ſtraw, wool, &c. Feed on the mayz in the ſeaſon, and and on pine cones, acorns, and maſt of all kinds. Form holes under ground, and there depoſit a large ſtock of winter proviſion. Deſcend from the trees and viſit their magazines when in want of meat; are particularly buſy at the approach of bad weather; during the cold ſeaſon keep in their neſts for ſeveral days together; ſeldom leap from tree to tree, only [...] up and down the bodies; their hoards often deſtroyed by ſwine; when covered with deep ſnow, the ſquirrels often periſh for want of food; are not eaſily ſhot, nimbly changing their place, when they ſee the gun levelled; have the actions of the common ſquirrel; eaſily tamed; their fleſh eſteemed very delicate. The furs which are imported under the name of petit-gris are valuable, and uſed as linings to cloaks.
α. LESSER. Upper part of the body and ſides mixed with ruſt color, grey and white; belly white, ſeparated from the ſides by a ruſty line: lower part of the legs red: ſides of the tail whitiſh, the reſt brown mixed with black. Mr. Knaphan's collection.
- Quahtechalotl-thlitic. Hernandez Mex. 582. Fernandez Nov. Hiſp. 8.
- Black ſquirrel Cateſby Car. II. [...]3.
- L'Ecureuil noir. Briſſon quad. 10 [...].
- Sciurus niger Lin. ſyſt. 8 [...].
Inhabits the N. of Aſia *, N. America, and Mexi [...]. I ſhould have placed it as a variety of the laſt ſpecies, did not Mr. Cateſby expreſsly ſay, that it breeds and aſſociates in ſeparate troops; is equally numerous with the former; commits as great ravages among the Mayz; makes its neſt in the ſame manner, and forms like them, magazines for winter food.
β. Sq. with plain ears: coarſe fur mixed with dirty white, and black: throat and inſide of the legs and thighs black: tail much ſhorter than thoſe of ſquirrels uſually are: of a dull yellow color: mixed with black: body of the ſize of the grey ſquirrel.
- Q [...]auhtecollotlquapachtli, Fernandez Nov. Hiſp. 8.
- Le Coquallin. de Buffon, xiii. 109. tab. xiii.
Sq. with plain ears; upper part of the body varied with black, white and brown: the belly tawny *: twice the ſize of the common ſquirrel.
Inhabits the woods near Amadabad, the capital of Guzarat, in great abundance, leaping from tree to tree †. Linnaeus ſays it is an inhabitant of South America.
- Sciurus Braſilienſis? Marcgrave Braſil, 230.
- Sciurus coloris ex flavo et fuſco mixti taenii [...] in lateribus albis. Briſſon quad 107.
- Sciurus aeſtuans. Sc. griſens, ſubtus flaveſcens, Lin. ſyſt. 88.
Sq. with plain ears, and rounded tail: head, body, and ſides covered with ſoft duſky hairs, tipt with yellow: tail rounded: the hairs annulated with black and yellow: throat cinereous: inſide of the legs, and the belly yellow: the belly divided lengthways with a white line; which begins on the breaſt: is interrupted for a ſmall ſpace in the middle, and is then continued to the tail: length from noſe to tail, eight inches one quarter: tail ten.
- Tlalmototli Fernandez. Nov. Hiſp. [...].
- Sciurus rariſſimus ex Nov. Hiſpania Seb. Muſ. I. tab. xlvii. Briſſſon quad. 108.
Sq. of a mouſe color: the male marked on the back with ſeven white lines, which extend along the tail; the female, with only five: the tail of the male divided into four parts at the end; perhaps accidentally: its ſ [...]rotum pendulous, like a goat's.
- M ſte [...] Africana Clus. Exot. 112. [...]. quad. 216.
- [...] p [...]imarum. Sc. ſubgriſeus [...] flavicantibus, cauda [...] [...] nigroque lineata. Lin. ſyſt. 86.
- Sc. palmarum. Sc. Sc. colori [...] ex ruſ [...] et nigro mixti. taeniis in dor [...]o flavioantibus Briſſon quad. 109.
- Le Palmiſte, de Buffon, X. 126. tab. xxvi.
Sq. with plain ears: an obſcure pale yellow ſtripe on the middle of the back, another on each ſide, a third on each ſide the belly; the two laſt very diſtinct: reſt of the hair on the ſides, back and head, black and red, very cloſely mixed; that on the thighs and legs more red: belly, pale yellow: hair on the tail does not lie flat, but encircles it; is coarſe, and of a dirty yellow, barred with black. Authors deſcribe this kind with only three ſtripes: this had five, ſo poſſibly they vary.
- β. BAR [...]ARY. Sciurus getulus [...]anopuſ [...]. 77. Geſner quad. 847.
- Sc. getulus. Sc. fuſcus ſtriis [...] albis longitudinaiibus Lin. ſyſt. 87. Klein quad. 84. Briſſon quad. 10 [...].
- Barbarian ſquirrel. Edw. 198.
- Le Barbareſque de Buffon, X. 126. tab. xxvii.
Sq. with full black eyes and white orbits: head, body, feet and tail, cinereous, inclining to red: lighteſt on the legs: ſides marked lengthways with two white ſtripes: belly white: tail buſhy, marked regularly with ſhades of black, one beneath the other: ſize of the common ſquirrel.
- Mouſe ſquirrel Joſſelyn's voy. 86.
- Ground ſquirrel Lawſon Carolina, 124. Cat [...]ſby Carolina, II. 75. Edw. 181. Kalm. I. 322. tab. i.
- Sciurus Liſteri. Raii ſyn. quad. 216.
- Sciurus minor virgatus Nov. Com. Petrop. V. 344.
- Boern-doeſkie Le Brun. voy. Moſcov. II. 432.
- Sciurus ſtriatus. Sc. flavus ſtri [...] quinque fuſcis fongitudinalibus Lin. ſyſt. 87. Klein. quad. 53.
- Sciurus Carolinenſis, Briſſon quad
- Le Suiſſe de Buffon, X. 126. tab. xxviii. Charlevoix Nouv. France, V. 198.
Sq. with plain ears: ridge of the back marked with a black ſtreak: each ſide with a pale yellow ſtripe, bounded above and below with a line of black: head, body and tail, of a reddiſh brown; the tail the darkeſt: breaſt and belly white: noſe and feet pale red: eyes full.
Inhabits the North of Aſia; but found in the greateſt abundance in the foreſts of North America: they never run up trees except purſued, and find no other means of eſcaping: they burrow, and form their habitations under ground with two entrances, that they may get acceſs to the one, in caſe the other is ſtopped up. Their retreats are formed with great ſkill, in form of a long gallery, with branches on each ſide, each of which terminates in an enlarged chamber, as a magazine to ſtore their winter proviſion in; in one they lodge the acorns, in another the mayz, in a third the hickery nuts, and in the laſt, their favorite food the chinquapin cheſnut. They very ſeldom ſtir out during winter, at leſt as long as their proviſions laſt; but if that fails, they will dig into cellars where apples are kept, or barns where mayz is ſtored, and do a great deal of miſchief; [Page 289] but at that time the cat deſtroys great numbers, and is as great an enemy to them as to mice.
During the mayz harveſt, theſe ſquirrels are very buſy in biting off the ears, and filling their mouths ſo full with the corn, that their cheeks are quite diſtended. It is obſervable, that they give great preference to certain food; for if, after filling their mouths with rye, they happen to meet with wheat, they fling away the firſt, that they may indulge in the laſt. They are very wild, bite ſeverely, and are ſcarcely ever tamed: the ſkins are of little uſe; but are ſometimes brought over to line cloaks.
- Glis Geſner quad. 550. Raii ſyn. quad. 229.
- Glis vulgaris Klein quad. 56.
- Glis [...] obſcurè cinereus, in [...] ex [...] cinereſcente Briſſon quad. 113.
- Sciurus Glis. Sc. canus ſubtus albidus Lin. ſyſt. 87.
- Le Loir de Buffon, viii, 158. tab. xxiv.
Sq. with thin naked ears: body covered with ſoft aſh-colored hair: belly whitiſh: tail full of long hair: from noſe to tail, near ſix inches; tail four and a half: thicker in the body than the ſquirrel.
Inhabits France and the South of Europe. The late Doctor Kramer favored me with one from Auſtria. Lives in trees, and leaps from bough to bough, feeds on fruits and acorns: lodges in the hollows of trees: remains in a torpid ſtate during winter, and grows very fat,
Tota mihi dormitur hyems, et pinguior illoTempore ſum, quo me nil niſi ſomnus alit *.
[Page 290] Was eſteemed a great delicacy by the Romans, who had their Gliraria * places conſtructed to keep and feed them in. I think that the Italians at preſent eat them.
- Mus avellanarum major Geſner quad. 735.
- Greater Dormouſe, or Sleeper, Raii ſyn. quad. 219.
- Glis ſupra obſcurè cinereus, infra ex albo cinereſcens, macula ad oculos nigra Briſſon quad. 114.
- Mus quercinus. M. cauda elongata piloſa, macula nigra ſub oculos. Lin. ſyſt. 84.
- Le Lerot de Buffon, viii. 181. tab. xxv.
Sq. with the eyes ſurrounded with a large ſpot of black, reaching to the baſe of the ears, and another behind the ears: head and whole body of a tawny color: the throat and whole under-ſide of the body white, tinged with yellow: the tail long: the hairs at the beginning very ſhort, at the end buſhy: length, from noſe to tail, not five inches; the tail four.
Inhabits France and the South of Europe: infeſts gardens, and is very deſtructive to fruits of all kind: is particularly fond of peaches: lodges in holes in the walls: brings five or ſix young at a time: like the former, remains torpid during winter: has a ſtrong ſmell, like a rat.
- Mus ayellanarum minor, the Dormouſe or Sleeper, Raii ſyn. quad. 220.
- Rothe Wald Mauſs Kramer Auſtria, 317.
- Glis ſupra rufus, infra albicans Briſſon quad.
- Mus avellanarius. M. cauda elongata piloſa, corpore rufo, gula albicante, pollicibus poſticis muticis, Lin. ſyſt. 83. Faun. Suec. No. 35.
- Le Muſcardin de Buffon, viii. 193. tab. xxvi.
- Dormouſe Edw. 266. Br. Zool. I. 95.
Inhabits Europe: lives in thick hedges: makes its neſt in the hollow of a low tree, or in a thick buſh near the bottom, of graſs, moſs, or dead leaves: brings three or four young at a time: ſeldom appears far from its retreat: forms magazines of nuts: eats its food ſitting up, like a ſquirrel: at approach of winter, retires and rolls itſelf up, lying torpid: ſometimes in a warm day revives, takes a little food, and relapſes into its former ſtate.
- Sciurus Sagitta. Sc. hypochondriis prolixis volitans, cauda plano-pinnata lanceolata. Lin. ſyſt. 88.
- Sciurus petauriſta Pallas Miſcel. Zool. 54. tab. vi.
- Sciurus maximus volans, feu felis volans. Sc. caſtanei coloris, in parte corporis ſuperiore, in inferiore vero eximié flaveſcentis; cute ab anticis cruribus ad poſtica membranae in modum extenſa volans, Briſſon quad. 112. Mus. Roy. Society. *.
Sq. with a ſmall rounded head: cloven upper lip: ſmall blunt ears: two ſmall warts at the outmoſt corner of each eye, with hairs growing out of them: neck ſhort: four toes on the fore feet; and inſtead of a thumb, a ſlender bone, two inches and a half long, lodged under the lateral membrane, ſerving to ſtretch it out: from thence to the hind legs extends the membrane, which is broad, and a continuation of the ſkin of the ſides and belly: five toes on the hind feet, and on all the toes ſharp compreſſed bent claws: tail covered with long hairs diſpoſed horizontally: color of the head, body and tail, a bright bay; in ſome parts inclining to orange: breaſt and belly of a yellowiſh white: length, from noſe to tail, eighteen inches; tail fifteen.
- Mus Ponticus vel Scythicus Geſner quad. 743.
- A [...]apanick Smith's Virginia, 27. [...] voy. 86. de Laet, 88.
- Sciurus americanus volans Raii ſyn. quad. 215.
- Sciurus petauriſta volans, Klein quad. 54.
- P [...]y [...]ng ſquirrel Phil. Trans. abridg. [...]. [...]6. tab. v. Lawſon's Carolina, 124. Cateſby Carolina, II. 76, 77.
- Edw. 191. Kalm. I. 321. tab. i. du Pratz, II. 69.
- Sciurus volans. Sc. hypochondriis prolixis volitans, cauda rotundata. Lin. ſyſt. 88. Faun. ſuec. No. 38.
- Sciurus volans Briſſon quad. 110, iii. No. 12, 13.
- La Poulatouche, de Buffon, X. 95.
Sq. with round naked ears: full black eyes: a lateral membrane from fore to hind legs: tail with long hairs diſpoſed horizontally, longeſt in the middle: color above, a browniſh aſh: beneath, white, tinged with yellow: much leſs than the common ſquirrel.
Inhabits Finland, Lapland, Poland, Ruſſia, North America, and New Spain *: lives in hollow trees: [...]eeps in the day: during the night very lively: is gregarious, numbers being found in one tree: leaps from bough to bough ſometimes at the diſtance of t [...]n yards: this action improperly called flying, for the animal cannot go in any other direction than forward; and even then cannot keep an even line, [Page 294] but ſinks conſiderably before it can reach the place it aims at: ſenſible of this, the ſquirrel mounts the higher, in proportion to the diſtance it wiſhes to reach: when it would leap it ſtretches out the fore-legs, and extending the membranes, becomes ſpecifically lighter than it would otherwiſe be; and thus is enabled to ſpring further than other ſquirrels that have not this apparatus. When numbers leap at a time, they ſeem like leaves blown off by the wind. Their food the ſame as the other American ſquirrels: are eaſily tamed: bring three or four young at a time.
- β. HOODED. Sciurus virginianus volans. Seb. Muſ. I. tab. xliv. Briſſon quad. III.
- Mus volans. Lin. ſyſt. 85.
- [...] Theophr. opuſc. 295.
- A [...]lian hiſt. an. lib. xv. c. 26.
- M [...]s hipes Plinii, lib. x. c. 65.
- [...], or Yerbôa, Shaw's Travels, 248. Texeira's Travels, 21.
- Ge [...]bua Edw. 219. Plaiſted's journal, 59.
- Mus jaculus. M. cauda elongata floccoſa, palmis ſubpentadactylis, femoribus longiſſimis, brachiis breviſ [...]imis. Lin. ſyſt. 85. Haſſelquiſt itin. 198.
- Le Jerbo de Buffon, xiii. 141.
J. with thin erect and broad ears: full and dark eyes: long whiſkers: fore legs an inch long; five toes on each; the inner, or thumb, ſcarce apparent; but that, as well as the reſt, furniſhed with a ſharp claw: hind legs two inches and a quarter long, thin covered with ſhort hair, and exactly reſembling thoſe of a bird; three toes on each, covered above and below with hair; the middle toe the longeſt, on each a pretty long ſharp claw: length, from noſe to tail, ſeven inces and one quarter; tail ten inches, terminated with a thick black tuft of hair; the tip white; the reſt of the tail covered with very ſhort coarſe hair: the upper part of the body thin, or compreſſed ſideways: the part about the rump and loins large: the head, back, ſides and thighs, covered with long hair, aſh-colored at the bottom, pale tawny at the ends: breaſt and belly whitiſh: the hair long and ſoft.
[Page 296] Inhabits Aegypt, Barbary, Paleſtine, the deſerts between Balſora and Aleppo: as ſingular in its motions as in its form: always ſtands on its hind feet; the fore feet performing the office of hands: runs faſt; and when purſued, jumps five or ſix feet from the ground: burrows like rabbets: keeps cloſe in the day, lively during night: feeds on vegetables: has great ſtrength in its fore feet. Two that were living laſt winter in London, burrowed almoſt through the brick wall of the room they were in; came out of their hole at night for food, and when caught were much fatter and ſleeker than when confined to their box: eaten by the Arabs *.
The ſpecies deſcribed by Mr. Edwards ſeems only to be a variety of this, with a black band croſs the upper part of the thighs. Doctor Shaw mentions a ſpur placed about an inch above the toes of the hind feet; which was wanting in theſe, as well as in Mr. Edwards's.
- Cuniculus pumilio ſaliens cauda longiſſima. Nov. Com. Petrop. V. 351. tab. ix. fig. 1.
- Cuniculus pumilio ſaliens, cauda anomola longiſſima. Briſſon quad. 103.
- Flying hare. Strahlenberg's [...]iſt. Ruſs. 370.
J. with very long tranſparent narrow ears: long whiſkers: five toes on the fore feet, three on the hind feet pointing forward, and a fourth behind, about an inch above the heel: color of the upper [Page 297] part of the body tawny; lower whitiſh: in form of the body, legs and tail, agrees with the laſt.
Inhabits Siberia * where it is called Alagtaga: like the former, very active: digs holes in the ground with vaſt agility with its fore feet: tears the roots with its teeth, and flings back the earth with its hind feet; if purſued, and finds it cannot eſcape by leaping, attempts to make a new hole: the burrows, in ſome places, ſo thick, as to be dangerous to travellers, the horſes perpetually falling in them: provides againſt winter: cuts graſs, and leaves it in heaps a foot ſquare to dry, and afterwards carries it into the burrow.
J. with naked oval ears: long whiskers: four toes on the fore feet: the hind feet the length of the body, thick, ſtrong, and thinly haired: five toes on each foot: ſcarce any neck: tail the length of the body, with very little hair on it: color of the upper part of the body yellow; the lower white: ſize of a common mouſe.
Inhabits, according to Linnaeus, the torrid zone †: mentioned by no other writer.
J. with a ſlender noſe bilobated at the end: eyes large and prominent: ears erect, broad, naked, ſemitranſparent, an inch and an half long: between them on the top of the head a tuft of long hairs: two ſlender cutting teeth and two canine teeth in each jaw, which is peculiar to this ſpecies: long hairs each ſide the noſe and on the upper eyebrow: four long ſlender toes and a diſtinct thumb like the ape kind, on each foot: the lower part of the end of each toe tuberous: the claws ſharp pointed; but, except on the two interior toes of the hind feet, are attached to the ſkin: the thumbs of the hind feet broad and greatly dilated at their ends: hairs on the legs and feet ſhort, white and thinly ſcattered: tail almoſt naked, on the greater part round and ſcaly like that of a rat; but grows hairy towards the end which is tufted: penis pendulous: ſcrotum and teſticles of a vaſt ſize in proportion to the animal.
- Mus domeſticus major quem vulgo Ratt [...]m vo [...]ant. Geſner quad. 731. Raii ſyn. quad. 217.
- Mus rat [...]us, Mus ciſtrinarius. Klein quad. 57.
- Ratze. Kramer Auſtr. 316.
- Mus cauda longiſſima obſcurè cinerea. Briſſon quad. 118.
- Mus Rattus. M. cauda elongata ſubnuda, palmis tetradactylis cum unguiculo pollicari, plantis pentadactylis Lin. ſyſt. Ratta Faun. ſuec. No. 33. Br. Zool. I. 97.
- Le Rat de Buffon, vii. 278. tab. xxxvi.
Inhabits moſt parts of Europe of late, the numbers much leſſened, and in many places extirpated by the next ſpecies: very deſtructive to corn, furniture, young poultry, rabbets and pigeons: will gnaw the extremities of infants when aſleep: breeds often in a year: brings ſix or ſeven young at a time: makes its neſt, in a hole near a chimney, of wool, bits of cloth, or ſtraw: will deſtroy and devour one another: its greateſt enemy is the weeſel. Firſt introduced into America by the Europeans; into S. America *, about the year 1544, in the time of the Viceroy Blaſco Nunnez. Is now the peſt of all that continent.
- Mus cauda longiſſima, ſupra dilutè fulvus, infra albicans. Le Rat de Bois. Briſſon quad. 120.
- Le Surmulot. de Buffon, viii. 206 tab. xxvii.
- Norway rat. Br. Zool. I. 99.
R. with the head, back and ſides, of a light brown color, mixed with tawny and aſh-color: breaſt and belly dirty white: feet naked, and of a dirty fleſh-color: fore feet furniſhed with four toes, and a claw inſtead of the fifth: length, from noſe to tail, nine inches; tail the ſame: weight eleven ounces: is ſtronger made than the laſt.
Inhabits moſt parts of Europe; but was a ſtranger to that continent 'till the preſent century: came into Great Britain about forty years ago: not known in the neighborhood of Paris half that time. The ſame animal with what is called in the Eaſt-Indies a Bandicote, a large rat, which burrows under ground; ſo probably the ſpecies was brought from thence in ſome of the Indian ſhips * · has reached Pruſſia, but not the oppoſite ſide of the Baltic; for Linnaeus takes no notice of it.
Burrows like the water rat on the ſides of ponds and ditches: ſwims well, and dives readily: lives on grain and fruits, and will deſtroy rabbets, poultry and game: encreaſes faſt; brings from fourteen to eighteen young at a time: is very bold and fierce; [Page 301] will turn when cloſe purſued, and faſten on the ſtick or hand of thoſe who offer to ſtrike it: has deſtroyed the common black rat in moſt places.
- Le Rat d'Eau, Belon Aquat. 30. [...]. xx [...]i.
- [...] aquatiiis Agricola An. Subter. 4 [...]8. Geſner quad. 732. Raii ſyn. quad 217. Klein quad. 57.
- Wa [...]er-maus Kramer Auſtr. 316.
- M [...]s Amphibius. M. cauda elongata piloſa plantis palmatis. Lin. ſyſt. 82. Faun. ſuec. No. 32.
- M. cauda longa pilis ſupra ex nigro et flaveſcente mixtis, infra cinereis veſtitus. Briſſon quad. 124.
- Le Rat d'Eau de Buffon, vii. 348. tab. xliii.
R. with a thick blunt noſe: ears hid in the fur: eyes ſmall: teeth yellow: on each foot five toes; inner toe of the fore foot very ſmall; the firſt joint very flexible: head and body covered with long hairs, black mixed with a few ferruginous hairs: belly of an iron grey: tail covered with ſhort black hairs; the tip whitiſh: weight nine ounces: length, from noſe to tail, ſeven inches; tail only five: ſhape of the head and body more compact than the former ſpecies *.
Inhabits Europe and North America †: burrows in the banks of rivers, ponds and wet ditches: feeds on ſmall fiſh and the fry of greater, on frogs, inſects and roots: is itſelf the prey of pike: ſwims and dives admirably, though it is not web-footed, as Mr. Ray ſuppoſed, and Linnaeus copied after him: brings ſix young at a time. This animal and the Otter eat in France on maigre days.
- Mus domeſticus communis ſeu minor. Geſner quad. 714. Raii ſyn. quad. 218.
- Mus minor, muſculus vulgaris. Klein quad.
- Mauſs. Kramer Auſtr. 316.
- Mus muſculus. M. cauda elongata, palmis tetradactylis, plantis pentadactylis. Lin. ſyſt. 83. Mus▪ Faun. ſuec. No. 34.
- Mus cauda longi [...]ima, obſcurè cinereus, ventre ſubalbeſcente. Briſſon quad. 119.
- La [...] de Buffon. vii. 309. tab. lix. Br. Zool. I. 105. Br. Zool. [...]. tab. cii.
- Mus agreſtis minor. Geſner quad. 733.
- Mus doraeſticus medius Raii ſyn. quad. 218.
- Mauſs mit weiſſen bauch. Kramer Auſtr. 317.
- Mus cauda longa ſupra e fuſco flaveſcens, infra ex albo cinereſcens. Briſſon quad. 123.
- Mus ſylvaticus. M. cauda longa, palmis tetradactylis, plantis p [...]ntadactylis, corpore griſeo pilis nigris abdomine albo. Lin. ſyſt. 84. Faun. Suec. No. 36.
- Le Mulot de Buſſon, vii. 325. tab. xli.
- Long-tailed field-mouſe Br. Zool I. 103.
R. with full and black eyes: head, back and ſides, of a yellowiſh brown, mixed with ſome duſky hairs: breaſt of an ochre color: belly white: length, from the tip of the noſe to the tail, four inches and a half; tail four inches, ſlightly covered with hair.
Inhabits Europe: found only in fields and gardens: feeds on nuts, acorns and corn: forms great magazines of winter proviſion: hogs, tempted by the ſmell, do much damage in the fields, by rooting up the hoards: makes a neſt for its young very [Page 303] near the ſurface, and often in a thick tuft of graſs: brings from ſeven to ten at a time: called, in ſome parts of England, Bean mouſe, from the havoke it makes among the beans when juſt ſown.
α. AMERICAN. R. with very long whiſkers, ſome white, others black: ears large, naked and open: from the head to the tail, along the middle of the back, a broad dark ſtripe, ferruginous and duſky: the cheeks, ſpace beneath the ears, and ſides, quite to the tail, orange-colored: underſide, from noſe to tail, of a ſnowy whiteneſs: feet white: hind legs longer than thoſe of the European kind: tail duſky above, whitiſh beneath. New York.
R. with eyes leſs prominent than thoſe of the former: ears prominent, of a full ferruginous color above, white beneath: a ſtrait line along the ſides divides the colors: tail a little hairy: length, from noſe to tail, two inches and a half: tail two inches: weight one-ſixth of an ounce.
Inhabits Hampſhire; where it appears in greateſt numbers during harveſt: never enters houſes; but is carried into the ricks of corn in the ſheaves; and often hundreds are killed on breaking up the ricks: during winter, ſhelters itſelf under ground: burrows very deep, and forms a warm bed of dead graſs: makes its neſt for its young above ground, between [Page 304] the ſtraws of ſtanding corn; it is of a round ſhape, and compoſed of blades of corn: brings about eight young at a time.
- Mus orientalis. Seb. Muſ. II. 22. tab. xxi. fig. 2.
- M. cauda mediocri ſubnuda, palmis tetradactylis, plantis pentadactylis, corporis ſtriis punctatis. Lin. ſyſt. 84.
- M. cauda longa, ſtriis corpori [...] longitudinalibus et punctis albis. Muſ. Ad. Fred. 10.
- Mus cauda longa, rufus. lineis in dorſo albicantibus, margaritarum aemulis. Briſſon quad. 124.
R. with round naked ears: of a grey color: the back and ſides elegantly marked with twelve rows of ſmall pearl-colored ſpots, extending from the head to the rump: tail the length of the body: in ſize, half that of a common mouſe.
Inhabits India. In the ſame country and in Guinea is another very ſmall ſpecies, which ſmells of muſk. The Portugueſe living in India call it Cheroſo, and ſay its bite is venomous. Boullaye la Gouz. 256. Barbot's Guinea, 214.
- Mus agreſtis capite grandi bracaiurus Raii ſyn. quad. 218.
- Mus terreſtris. M. cauda medio [...]i [...]bpiloſa, palmis ſubtetradactylis, plantis pentadactylis, au [...]culis, vellere brevioribus Lin. ſyſt. 82. Molle Faun. ſuec. No. [...]1. *.
- Mus cauda brevi, pilis e nigricante et ſordidè luteo mixtis in dorſo, et ſaturatè cinereis in ventre veſtitis. Briſſon quad. 125.
- Le Campagnol de Buffon, vii. 369. tab. xlvii.
- The ſhort-tailed Field-mouſe Br. Zool. 104.
- Erdzeiſl. Kramer Auſtr. 316.
R. with a large head: blunt noſe: ears ſhort, and hid in the fur: eyes prominent: tail ſhort: color of the head and upper part of the body ferruginous, mixed with black: belly deep aſh-color: length, from noſe to tail, ſix inches: tail only one and a half, thinly covered with hair, terminated by a ſmall tuft.
Inhabits Europe: alſo great abundance in New-foundland, where it does much miſchief in the gardens: in England, ſeldom infeſts gardens: makes its neſt in moiſt meadows: brings eight young at a time: has a ſtrong affection for them: reſides under ground: lives on nuts, acorns and corn.
R. with a ſmall mouth and blunt noſe: ears naked, and appearing above the fur: hair on the upper part of the body black at the roots and tips, ferruginous [Page 306] in the middle: throat, belly and feet, whitiſh: tail thrice as ſhort as the body, covered with thin white hairs; the end black and aſh-color: is a little larger than the common mouſe.
- [...]. Aelian hiſt. An. lib. vi. c. 22. [...]. Dioſcorid. lib. ii. c. 42.
- Mus Araneus Agricola An. Subter. 485. Geſner quad. 747.
- Mus araneus, mus caecus. Geſner [...]. 116.
- Mus araneus, Shrew, Shrew-mouſe, or hardy Shrew. Raii ſyn. quad. 233.
- Mus araneus roſtro productiore Spitſmaus Klein quad. 57. Kramer Auſtr. 317.
- Sorex araneus. S. cauda mediocri, corpore ſubtus albido. Lin. ſyſt. 74. Nabbmus Faun. ſuec. No. 24.
- Mus araneus ſupra ex fuſco rufus infra albicans. Briſſon quad. 126.
- La Muſaraigne. de Buffon, viii. 57. tab. x.
- Shrew mouſe Br. Zool. I. 112.
Shr. with ſhort rounded ears: eyes ſmall, and almoſt hid in the fur: noſe long and ſlender, upper part the longeſt: head and upper part of the body of a browniſh red: belly of a dirty white: length, from noſe to tail, two inches and a half; tail one and a half.
Inhabits Europe: lives in old walls, heaps of ſtones, or holes in the earth: is frequently near hay-ricks, dunghills, and neceſſary-houſes: lives on corn, inſects, and any filth: is often obſerved rooting in ordure, like a hog: from its food, or the places it frequents, has a diſagreeable ſmell: cats will kill, but not eat it: brings four or five young at a time. The antients believed it was injurious to cattle, an error now detected. There ſeems to be an annual mortality of theſe animals in Auguſt, numbers being then found dead in the paths.
- Mus araneus dorſo nigro, ventreque albo. Merret Pinax. 167.
- Sorex fodiens Pallas *.
- La Muſaraigne d'Eau de Buffon, viii. 64. tab. xi.
- Water Shrew-mouſe Br. Zool. luſtr. tab. cii.
Sh. with a long ſlender noſe: very minute ears very ſmall eyes, hid in the fur: color of the head and upper part of the body black: throat, breaſt and belly, of a light aſh-color: beneath the tail [...] triangular duſky ſpot: much larger than the laſt length, from noſe to tail, three inches three quarters▪ tail two inches.
Inhabits Europe: long ſince known in England, but loſt till May 1768, when it was diſcovered in the fens near Reveſly Abby, Lincolnſhire: burrows in the banks near the water: is called by the Fen-men the Blind Mouſe.
Sh. with a head near as big as the body: very ſlender noſe: broad ſhort naked ears: whiſkers reaching to the eyes: eyes ſmall, and capable of being drawn in: hair very fine and ſhining; grey above, white beneath: no tail: the leſt of quadrupeds, according to Linnaeus.
Sh. with a long noſe, hollowed beneath: very long hairs about the noſtrils: ears rounded, and rather naked: of an aſh-color: body of the ſize of a common mouſe: tail a little ſhorter than the body, and not ſo hairy.
Sh. with a ſharp noſe: ſmall round ears: without ſight: two long fore teeth above and below: thick, fat and fleſhy body: ſhort legs, ſo that the belly almoſt touches the ground: long crooked claws: [Page 310] tawny hair: ſhort tail: length, from noſe to tail, nine inches.
Inhabits Mexico: burrows, and makes ſuch a number of cavities, that travellers can ſcarce tread with ſafety: if it gets out of its hole, does not know how to return, but begins to dig another: grows very fat, and is eatable: feeds on roots, kidney-beans, and other ſeeds. M. de Buffon thinks it a mole; but by the ears, it ſhould be claſſed here.
- Talpa Agricola An. Subter. 490. Geſner quad. 931. Klein quad. 60.
- Talpa, the mole, mold-warp, or want. Raii ſyn. quad. 236.
- Kret. Rzaczinſki Polon. 236.
- Scheer, Scheer-mauſs, Maulwurf. Kramer Auſtr. 314.
- Talp [...] Europaeus. T. caudata, pedibus pentadactylis. Lin. ſyſt. 73.
- Mullvad, Surk. Faun. ſuec. No. 23. Br. Zool. I. 108.
- Talpa caudata, nigricans pedibus anticis et poſticis pentadactylis. Briſſon quad. 203.
- La Taupe de Buffon, viii. 81. tab. xii.
M. with very minute eyes, hid in the fur: long ſnout: ſix cutting teeth in the upper, eight in the lower jaw, and two canine in each: no external ears, only an orifice: fore part of the body thick and muſcular; hind part taper: fore feet placed obliquely, broad, and like hands: five toes, each terminated by ſtrong claws: hind feet very ſmall, with five toes to each: tail ſhort: ſkin very tough, ſo as ſcarce to be cut through: hair ſhort, cloſe ſet, ſofter than the fineſt velvet; uſually black, ſometimes ſpotted * with white; ſometimes quite white: length five inches three quarters; tail one.
Inhabits Europe: lives under ground: burrows with vaſt rapidity with its fore feet; flings the earth back with its hind feet: has the ſenſe of ſmelling exquiſite, which directs it to its food, worms, inſects [Page 312] and roots: does vaſt damage in gardens, by flinging up the ſoil and looſening the roots of plants: is moſt active before rain, and in winter before a [...]haw, worms being then in motion: breeds in the [...]ing: brings four or five young at a time: makes [...] of moſs, a little beneath the ſurface of the ground, under the greateſt hillock: raiſes no [...] in dry weather, being then obliged to pene [...] deep after its prey: makes a great ſcream [...] taken. Palma chriſti and white hellebore, [...] into a paſte, and laid in their holes, deſtroys them. None in Ireland.
β. YELLOW. M. in form reſembling the European; but larger, being ſix inches two-tenths long; the tall one inch: hair ſoft, ſilky and gloſſy, of a yellowiſh brown color at the ends; dark grey at the roots: brighteſt about the head; darkeſt about the rump: belly of a deep cinereous brown: feet and tail white.
- Talpa ſibericus verſicolor, Aſpalax dictus. Seb. Muſ. I. 51. tab. xxxii. fig. 4, 5. Klein quad. 60.
- Talpa aſiatica. T. ecaudata, palmis tridactylis. Lin. ſyſt. 73.
- Talpa ecaudata; ex viridi aurea, pedibus anticis tridactylis, poſticis tetradactylis Briſſon quad. 206.
- La Taupe dorèe. de Buffon, xv. 145.
M. with a very ſhort noſe: no ears: three toes on the fore feet, on the outmoſt toe a very large claw; four toes on the hind feet: body of an equal thickneſs: rump quite round: no tail: of a beautifull green and gold color, variable with the light.
M. with ſmall but broad fore legs; five long white claws on each: noſe long; the edges beſet with radiated tendrils: hair on the body duſky, very ſhort, fine and compact; on the noſe longer: the hind legs ſcaly: five toes on each foot: length, from noſe to tail, three inches three quarters: tail ſlender, round and taper, one inch three-tenths long.
Inhabits N. America. Forms ſubterraneous paſſages in different directions in uncultivated fields; raiſes walks about two inches high and a palm broad: the holes often give way and let in the walkers: feeds on roots: has great ſtrength in its legs.
M. with the fore feet pretty broad, hind feet very ſcaly, with a few ſhort hairs on them: the claws on the fore feet like thoſe of the common mole; on the hind very long and ſlender: hair on the noſe and and body ſoft, long, and of a ruſty brown color: tail covered with ſhort hair; the length two inches; that of noſe and body four inches ſix-tenths.
M. with a ſlender noſe: upper jaw much longer than the lower; two cutting teeth in the upper, four in the lower, the two middle of which are very ſmall: no canine teeth: fore feet very broad: nails long: hind feet ſmall; five claws on each: hair very ſoft and gloſſy, brown at the ends, deep grey at the bottom: tail and feet white: length, from noſe to tail, five inches and a half: tail very ſlender, not an inch long.
Inhabits N. America: called there the Brown Mole: ſent from New York by Mr. A. Blackburne, with β. Yellow Mole and No. 243 and 244. The black and ſhining purple Virginian mole, deſcribed by Seba *, as the ſame with the common kind, was not among thoſe that gentleman favored us with. Linnaeus places this and our radiated mole in his [Page 315] claſs of SOREX, or SHREW, on account of the difference of the teeth; but as theſe animals poſſeſs the ſtronger characters of the MOLE, ſuch as form of noſe and body, ſhape of feet, and even the manners, we think them better adapted to this genus than to the preceding.
- Erinaceus Agricola An. Subter. 481.
- Echinus terreſtris Geſner quad. 368.
- Echinus ſc. Erinaceus terreſtris.
- Urchin, or Hedge-hog, Raii ſyn. quad. 231.
- Jez Rzaczinſki Polon. 233.
- Acanthion vulgaris noſtras. Klein quad. 66.
- Igel. Kramer Auſtr. 314.
- Erinaceus Europeus. E. auriculis rotundatis naribus criſtatis. Lin. ſyſt. 75. Igelkott. Faun. ſuec. No. 22. Br. Zool. I. 106.
- Erinaceus auriculis erectis. Briſſon quad. 128. Seb. Muſ. I. 78. tab. xlix.
- L'Heriſſon de Buffon, viii. 28. tab. vi.
H. with a long noſe: noſtrils bordered on each ſide with a looſe flap: ears rounded, broad and naked: eyes ſmall: legs ſhort, naked and duſky: inner toe the ſhorteſt: claws weak: upper part of the face, the ſides and rump, covered with ſtrong coarſe hair of a yellowiſh and cinereous color; the back, with ſtrong ſharp ſpines of a whitiſh color, with a bar of black through their middle: tail an inch long: length, from noſe to tail, ten inches.
H. with a long ſlender noſe: ſhort rounded ears: ſhort legs: the upper part of the body covered with ſhort ſpines, white, marked croſs the middle with ruſt color: the face, throat, belly, buttocks and legs, thinly covered with whitiſh fine but hard hair: tail very ſhort, covered with ſpines: about the noſe ſome hairs above two inches long: ſize of a mole. This is the ſpecies M. de Buffon calls Le Tendrac.
The other, or the Tanrec, is rather larger: covered with ſpines only on the top and hind part of the head, the top and ſides of the neck, and the ſhoulders; the longeſt were on the upper part of the neck, and ſtood erect: the reſt of the body was covered with yellowiſh briſtles, among which were intermixed ſome that were black, and much longer than the others. Each of theſe animals, which are varieties of the ſame ſpecies, had five toes on each foot.
Inhabit the iſles of India, and that of Madagaſcar: are, when of their full growth, of the ſize of * Rabbets: grunt like hogs: grow very fat: multiply greatly: frequent † ſhallow pieces of freſh or ſalt [Page 318] water: they burrow on land: lie torpid during ſix months, during which time their old hair falls off. Their fleſh is eaten by the Indians, but is very flabby and inſipid.
- American hedge-hog. Bancroft Guiana, 144.
- Erinaceus inauris. E. auriculis nullis, Lin. ſyſt. 75. Briſſon quad. 131.
- Erinaceus americanus albus. Seb. Muſ. I. 78. tab. xlix. fig. 3.
H. without external ears, having only two orifices for hearing: has a ſhort thick head: back and ſides covered with ſhort ſpines of an aſh-color tinged with yellow: face, belly, legs and tail, covered with ſoft whitiſh hair: above the eyes, of a cheſnut color; back part and ſides of the head of a deeper color: length, from noſe to tail, eight inches: tail ſhort: claws long and crooked.
- Arctopithecus Geſner quad. 869. Icon quad. 96.
- Ignavus ſive per [...], Agilis. Clus. exot. 110.372.
- Ai, ſive ignavus Marcgrave Braſil, 221.
- Sloth, Raii ſyn. quad. 245. Edw. 310.
- Ignavus americanus, riſum fletu miſcens. Klein quad. 43.
- Tardigradus pedibus anticis et poſticis tridactylis Briſſon quad. 21.
- Ai, ſive Tardigradus gracilis americanus Seb. Muſ. xxxiii. fig. 2.
- Ouaikarè, Pareſſeux. Barrere France Aequin. 154.
- Bradypus tridactylus. B. pedibus tridactylis cauda brevi. Lin. ſyſt. 50.
- L'Ai de Buffon, xiii. 34. tab. v. v [...]; Br. Muſ.
Sl. with a blunt black noſe, a little lengthened: very ſmall external ears: eyes ſmall, black and heavy; from the corner of each a duſky line: color of the face and throat a dirty white: hair on the limbs and body long and very uneven, of a cinereous brown color: tail ſhort, a meer ſtump: legs thick, long, and aukwardly placed: face naked: three toes and three very long claws on each foot. Length of that in the Britiſh Muſeum, twelve inches; but it grows to the ſize of a middle-ſixed fox *.
[Page 320] Inhabits moſt parts of the eaſtern ſide of South America: the moſt ſluggiſh and moſt ſlow of all animals; ſeems to move with the utmoſt pain; makes a great progreſs if it can go a quarter of a league in a day *: aſcends trees, in which it generally lives, with much difficulty: its food is fruit, or the leaves of trees; if it cannot find fruit on the ground, looks out for a tree well loaded, and with great pains climbs up: to ſave the trouble of deſcending, flings off the fruit, and forming itſelf into a ball, drops from the branches; continues at the foot till it has devoured all; nor ever ſtirs, till compelled by hunger **: its motion is attended with a moſt moving and plaintive cry, which at once produces pity and diſguſt; is its only defence; for every beaſt of prey is ſo affected by the noiſe, as to quit it with horror †: its note, according to Kircher, is an aſcending and deſcending hexachord ‡, which it utters only by night: its look is ſo piteous as to move compaſſion; it is alſo accompanied with tears, that diſſuade every body from injuring ſo wretched a being: its abſtinence from food is remarkably powerfull; one that had faſtened itſelf by its feet to a pole, and was ſo ſuſpended croſs two beams, remained forty days without meat, drink or ſleep §: the ſtrength in its feet is ſo great, that whatſoever it ſeizes on cannot poſſibly be freed from its claws. A dog was let looſe at the above-mentioned animal, when it was [Page 321] taken from the pole; after ſome time the Sloth layed hold of the dog with its feet, and held him four days, till he periſhed with hunger *.
- Tardigradus Ceilonicus faemina. Seb. Myſ. I. tab. xxxiv.
- Bradypus didactylus. Br. manibus didactylis cauda nulla Lin. ſyſt. 51.
- Tardigradus pedibus anticis didactylis, poſticis tridactylis. Briſſon quad. 22.
- L'Unau. de Buffon, xiii. 34. tab. I. Br. Muſ.
Sl. with a round head: ſhort projecting noſe: ears like the human, lying flat to the head: two long ſtrong claws on the fore feet, three on the hind: hair on the body long and rough; on ſome parts curled and woolly: in ſome, of a pale red above, cinereous below; in others, of a yellowiſh white below, cinereous brown above. Length of that in the Britiſh Muſeum eleven inches: I believe a young one; no tail.
Inhabits S. America and the iſle of Ceylon. The laſt is ſtrenuouſly denied by M. de Buffon, who has fixed the reſidence of this genus to America only: but, beſides the authority of Seba, who expreſsly ſays his ſpecimen was brought from Ceylon, a gentleman, long reſident in India, and much diſtinguiſhed in the literary world, has informed me he has ſeen this animal brought from the Paliacat mountains that lie in ſight of Madraſs; which ſatisfies me that it is common to both continents.
There is reaſon to think that it is met with alſo in Guinea, or at le [...]t ſome ſpecies of this genus; for [Page 322] Barbot and Boſman deſcribe an animal by the name of Potto, to which they give the attributes of the former, and deſcribe as being grey when young, red, and covered with a ſort of hair as thick ſet as flocks of wool. Both theſe writers were ſenſible men, and tho' not naturaliſts, were too obſervant of the animals of Guinea to miſtake one whoſe characters are ſo ſtrongly marked as thoſe of the Sloth *.
- Tatu apara Marcgrave Braſil, 232. Raii ſyn. quad. 234.
- Armadillo ſeu Tatu genus alterum [...]lus. Exot. 109. Klein. quad. [...]8.
- Tatu ſeu armadillo orientalis. Seb. Muſ. I. tab. xxxviii. fig. 2, 3.
- Daſypus tricinctus. D. cingulis tribus, pedibus pentadactylis. Lin. ſyſt. 53.
- Cataphractus ſcutis duobus cingulis tribus. Briſſon quad. 24.
- L'Apar ou le Tatou a trois bandes. de Buffon, X. 206.
The whole genus inhabits S. America: the manners of all much the ſame: burrows under ground; the ſmaller ſpecies in moiſt places, the larger in dry, and at a diſtance from the ſea; keeps in its hole in the day, rambles out at night; when overtaken, rolls itſelf into the form of a ball, which it does by means of the pliant bands on its middle, and thus becomes invulnerable; when ſurprized, runs to its hole, and thinks itſelf ſecure if it can hide its head and ſome part of its body. The Indians take it by the tail, when the animal fixes its claws in the earth ſo ſtrongly that there is no moving it till the Indian tickles it with a ſtick: is hunted with little dogs, [Page 324] who give notice to their maſter of its haunts by barking, who digs it out; to take it out incautiouſly is very dangerous, on account of the ſnakes that commonly lurk in the burrows: feeds on potatoes, melons and roots, and does great damage to plantations: drinks much: grows very fat, and is reckoned very delicious eating when young; but when old, has a muſky diſagreeable taſte: is very numerous, breeds every month, and brings four at a time: is very inoffenſive *.
- Tatou Belon obſ. 211. Portraits, 106.
- Tatu et Tatu paba Braſil: Armadillo Hiſpanis, Luſitanis, Encuberto Marcgrave Braſil, 131.
- Cataphractus ſcutis duobus, cingulis ſex Briſſon quad. 25.
- Daſypus ſex cinctus. D. cingulis ſenis, pedibus pentadactylis Lin. ſyſt. 54.
- L'Encourbert, ou Le Tatou a [...] bandes. de Buffon, X. 209. tab xlii.
A. with the cruſt of the head, ſhoulders and rump, formed of angular pieces: the bands on the back ſix; between which, alſo on the neck and belly, are a few ſcattered hairs: tail not the length of the body, very thick at the baſe, tapering to a point: five toes on each foot.
- Ayotochtli? Hernandez Mex. 314.
- Tatuete Braſilienſibus, Verdadeiro Luſitanis Marcgrave Braſil, 231. Clus. exot. 330.
- Cataphractus ſcutis duobus cingulis octo. Briſſon quad. 26.
- Erinaceus loricatus cingulis ſeptenis palmis tetradactylis, plantis pentadactylis. Amaen. Acad. I. 560.
- Daſypus ſeptem cinctus Lin. ſyſt. 54.
- Le Tatuete, ou Tatou a huit bandes, de Buffon, X. 212.
- Armadillo Worm. Muſ. 335.
- Tatu porcinus, Schildverkel. Klein quad. 48.
- Pig-headed Armadillo Grew's rarities, 18. Raii ſyn. quad. 233.
- Tatu ſive Armadillo Americanus Seb. Muſ. tab. xxix. fig. 1.
- D [...]ſyrus novem cinctus. D. cingulis novem, palmis tetradactylis, plantis pentadactylis Lin. ſyſt. 54.
- Cataphractus ſcutis duobus, cingulis novem. Briſſon quad. 27.
- Le Cachichame, ou Tatou a neuf bandes de Buffon, X. 215. tab. xxxvii.
- American Armadillo Phil. Tranſ. LIV. 57. tab. vii.
A. with long ear: cruſt on the ſhoulders and rump marked with hexangular figures: nine bands on the ſides, diſtinguiſhed by tranſverſe cuneiform marks: breaſt and belly covered with long hairs: four toes on the fore feet, five on the hind: tail long and taper: length of the whole animal three feet.
Inhabits South America. One was brought a few years ago to England, from the Moſquito ſhore, and [Page 326] lived here ſome time: it was fed with raw beef and milk, but refuſed our grains and fruit *.
- Tatu ſive Armadillo Africanus Seb. Muſ. I. tab. xxx. fig. 3, 4.
- Le Kabaſſou, ou Tatou a douze bandes de Buffon, X. 218. tab. xl.
- Cataphractus ſcutis duobus, [...]ingulis duodecim Briſſon quad. 27.
A. with broad upright ears: the cruſt on the ſhoulders marked with oblong pieces; that of the rump hexangular: twelve bands on the ſides: five toes, with very large claws, on the fore feet; five leſſer on the hind: tail ſhorter than the body: ſome hairs ſcattered over the body.
M. de Buffon † mentions another of twelve bands, with a tail covered with rhomboid figures, which he is doubtfull whether to refer to this ſpecies. It is the largeſt I ever heard of, being from noſe to tail two feet ten inches long; the tail about one foot eight: by the figure, (for I never ſaw the animal) it varies greatly from the other.
- Weeſle-headed Armadillo, Grew's rarities, 19.
- Tatu Muſtelinus Raii ſyn. quad. 235.
- Daſypus unicinctus. D. tegmine tripartito, pedibus pentadactylis. Lin. ſyſt. 53.
- Cataphractus ſcuto unico, cingulis octode [...]im Briſſon quad. 23.
- Le Cirquinçon, ou Tatou a dixhuit bandes de Buffon, X. 220. tab. xlii.
A. with a very ſlender head: ſmall erect ears: the cruſt on the ſhoulders and rump conſiſting of ſquare pieces: eighteen bands on the ſides: five toes on each foot: length, from noſe to tail, about fifteen inches; tail five and a half.
- Lacertus peregrinus ſquamoſus, C [...]us. exot. 374. Raii ſyn. quad. 27 [...].
- S [...]ly Lizard, Grew's rarities, 46.
- [...] tetradactyla. M. pedibus tetradactylis, Lin. ſyſt. 53.
- Pholidotus pedibus anticis et poſticistetradactylis, ſquamis mucronatis, cauda longiſſima, Briſquad. 19.
- Le Phatagin de Buffon, X. 180. tab. xxxiv. Aſh. Muſ.
M. with a ſlender noſe; that and the head ſmooth: body, legs and tail, guarded by large ſharp-pointed ſtriated ſcales: the throat and belly covered with hair ſhort legs: four claws on each foot, one of which is very ſmall: tail a little taper, but ends blu [...]t: length, from noſe to tail, fourteen inches and a [...]al [...]: tail three feet four inches and a half.
- Lacertus ſquamoſus, Bontius Java, 60. Pet. Gaz. tab. xx. fig. 11.
- Armadillus ſquamatus major, Ceilan [...]cus, ſeu Diabolus Tajovanicus dictus Seb. Muſ. I. tab. liii. liv. Klein quad. 47.
- Pholidotus pedibus anticis et poſticis pentadactylis, ſquamis ſubrotundis. Briſſon quad. 18.
- Manis pentadactyla, Lin. ſyſt. 52.
- Le Pangolin de Buffon, X. 180. tab. xxxiv. Aſh. Muſ.
M. with back, ſides and legs, covered with blunt ſcales, with briſtles between each: five toes on each foot: tail not longer than the body: ears not unlike the human: chin, belly and inſide of the legs, hairy.
Inhabits the iſlands of India, and that of Formoſa. The Indians call it Pangoelling; and the Chineſe, Chin Chion Seick *. Feeds on lizards and inſects: turns up the ground with its noſe: walks with its claws bent under its feet: grows very fat: is eſteemed very delicate eating: makes no noiſe, only a ſnorting.
Perhaps is a native of Guinea: the Quogelo of the Negroes; which Des Marchais † ſays grows to the length of eight feet, of which the tail is four: lives in woods and marſhy places: feeds on ants, which it takes by laying its long tongue croſs their paths, that member being covered with a ſticky ſaliva, ſo the inſects that attempt to paſs over it cannot extricate themſelves: walks very ſlowly: would be the prey of every ravenous beaſt, had it not the power of rolling itſelf up, and oppoſing to its adverſary a [Page 330] formidable row of erected ſcales. In vain does the Leopard attack it with its vaſt claws, for at laſt it is obliged to leave it in ſafety *. The Negroes kill theſe animals for the ſake of the fleſh, which they reckon excellent.
- Tam [...]nd [...]a-guacu, Marcgrave [...]. 225.
- Tam [...]ndua guacu ſive major, Piſo [...], 3 [...]0.
- Piſmire- [...]ater, Nieuhoff, 19.
- T [...]mandua major cauda panniculata [...]arrere France Aequin. 162.
- Mange- [...]ourmis des Marchais, III. 307.
- Great Ant-Bear, Raii ſyn. quad. 241.
- Myrmecophaga roſtro longiſſimo, pedibus anticis tetradactylis, poſticis pentadactylis, cauda longiſfimis pilis veſtita. Briſſon quad. 15.
- Myrmecophaga jubata. M. palmis tetradactylis, plantis pentadactylis, Lin. ſyſt. 52. Klein quad. 45. tab. v.
- Le Tamanoir, de Buffon, x. 141. tab. xxix. Br. Muſ.
A. E. with a long ſlender noſe: ſmall black eyes: ſhort round ears: ſlender tongue, two feet and a half long, which lies double in the mouth: legs ſlender: four toes on the fore feet, five on the hind: the two middle claws on the fore feet very large, ſtrong and hooked: the hair on the upper part of the body is half a foot long, black mixed with grey: from the neck croſs the ſhoulders to the ſides is a black line bounded above with white: the fore legs are whitiſh, marked above the feet with a black ſpot: the tail is cloathed with very coarſe black hairs a foot long: length, from noſe to tail, about three feet ten inches; the tail two and a half.
Inhabits Braſil and Guiana: runs ſlowly: lives on ants; as ſoon as it diſcovers their neſts, overturns them, or digs them up with its feet; then thruſts its long tongue into their retreats, and penetrating all the paſſages of the neſt, withdraws it into its [Page 332] mouth loaded with prey: is fearfull of rain, and protects itſelf againſt wet by covering its body with its long tail. The fleſh has a ſtrong diſagreeable taſte, but is eaten by the Indians. Notwithſtanding this animal wants teeth, it is fierce and dangerous; nothing that gets within its fore feet can diſengage itſelf. The very Panthers of America * are often unequal in the combat; for if the Ant-eater once has opportunity of embracing them, it fixes its talons in their ſides, and both fall together, and both periſh; for ſuch is the obſtinacy and ſtupidity of this animal, that it will not extricate itſelf even from a dead adverſary †: ſleeps in the day; preys by night.
- Tamandua-i, Marcgrave Braſil, 225. Raii ſyn. quad. 242.
- Tamandua minor, Piſo Braſil, 320. Barrere France Aequin. 162.
- Tamandua-guacu, Nieuhoff, 19.
- Myrmecophaga roſtro longiſſimo, pedibus anticis tetradactylis, poſticis pentadactylis, cauda [...]erè nuda, Briſſon quad. 16.
- Myrmecophaga tetradactyla, Lin. ſyſt. 52. Zooph. Gronov. No. 2.
- Le Tamandua, de Buffon, x. 144.
A. E. with a long ſlender noſe, bending a little down: ſmall black mouth and eyes: ſmall upright ears: bottoms of the fore feet round; four claws on each, like thoſe of the former; five on the hind feet: hair ſhining and hard, of a pale yellow color: along the middle of the back, and on the hind legs, duſky: each ſide the neck is a black line, that croſſes the ſhoulders and meets at the lower end of the back: the tail is covered with longer hair than the [Page 333] back, is taper and bald at the end: length, from noſe to tail, one foot ſeven inches; the tail ten inches.
- Tamandua minor flavejcens; Ouatiriouaou, Barrere France Aequin. 163.
- Tamandua ſive Coati Americana alba. Seb. Muſ. I. tab. xxxvii.
- Myrmecophaga roſtro brevi, pedibus anticis didactylis, poſticis tetradactylis, Briſſon quad. 17.
- Myrmecophaga didactyla. M. palmis didactylis, plantis tetradactylis, cauda villoſa, Lin. ſyſt. 51. Zooph. Gronov. No. 1.
- Little Ant-eater, Edw. 220.
- Le Fourmillir, de Buffon, x. 144. tab. xxx.
A. E. with a conic noſe, bending a little down: ears ſmall, and hid in the fur: two hooked claws on the fore feet, the exterior much the largeſt; four on the hind feet: head, body, limbs, and upper part and ſides of the tail, covered with long ſoft ſilky hair, or rather wool, of a yellowiſh brown color: from noſe to tail ſeven inches and a half; tail eight and a half; the laſt four inches of which, on the under-ſide, naked: the tail is thick at the baſe, and tapers to a point.
There is a fourth ſpecies found at the Cape of Good Hope and in Ceylon; but being deſcribed from [Page 334] a meer faetus *, we ſhall avoid giving a tranſcript of Dr. Pallas's account of it, but wait for further information. We ſhall only ſay, that it has four toes on the fore feet and pendulous ears, which diſtinguiſhes it from other kinds. Kolben † deſcribes their manners particularly, and ſays they have long heads and tongues, and are toothleſs; and that they ſometimes weigh 100 lb. ‡ That if they faſten their claws in the ground, the ſtrongeſt man cannot pull them away: that they thruſt out their clammy tongue into the ants neſt, and draw it into their mouth covered with inſects. Mr. Strachan, in his account of Ceylon §, gives the ſame account of what the natives call the Talgoi, or Ant-Bear: it is not therefore to be doubted, but that theſe animals are common to the old and new continents.
1.3. Div. III. PINNATED QUADRUPEDS: having fin-like feet: fore legs buried deep in the ſkin: hind legs pointing quite backwards.[Page 335]
- Roſmarus, Geſner Piſc. [...]11. Klein quad. 92.
- Walrus, Mors, Roſmarus, Wor [...]. Muſ. 289. Raii ſyn. quad. 191.
- Sea-horſe, or Morſe, Marten's Spitzberg, 107, 182. Egede Gre [...]nland, 82.
- Sea-Cow, Crantz Greenl. I. 125.
- Odobenus. La vache marine, Briſſon quad. 30.
- Trichechus Roſmarus. T. dentibus laniariis ſuperioribus exſertis, Lin. ſyſt. 49.
- Le Morſe, de Buffon, xiii. 358▪ tab. liv. Br. Muſ. Aſh. Muſ.
W. with a round head: ſmall mouth: very thick lips, covered above and below with pellucid briſtles as thick as a ſtraw: ſmall fiery eyes: two ſmall orifices inſtead of ears: ſhort neck: body thick in the middle, tapering towards the tail: ſkin thick, wrinkled, with ſhort browniſh hairs thinly diſperſed: legs ſhort; five toes on each, all connected by webs, and ſmall nails on each: the hind feet very broad; each leg looſely articulated: the hind legs generally extended on a line with the body: tail very ſhort: penis long: length, from noſe to tail, ſometimes eighteen feet, and ten or twelve round in the [Page 336] thickeſt part: the teeth have been ſometimes found of the weight * of 20 lb. each.
Inhabit the coaſt of Spitzbergen, Nova Zembla Hudſon's Bay, and the gulph of St. Laurence; and th [...] Icy Sea, as far as Cape Tſchuktſchi: are gregarious in ſome places appear in herds of hundreds: are ſhy animals, and avoid places which are much haunte [...] by mankind †: are very fierce; if wounded in the water, they attempt to ſink the boat, either by riſing under it, or by ſtriking their great teeth into th [...] ſides; roar very loud, and will follow the boat till i [...] gets out of ſight: numbers of them are often ſee [...] ſleeping on an iſland of ice; if awoke, fling themſelves with great impetuoſity into the ſea; a [...] which time it is dangerous to approach the ice, leaſt they ſhould tumble into the boat and overſet it: d [...] not go upon the land till the coaſt is clear of ice▪ At particular times, they land in amazing numbers the moment the firſt gets on ſhore, ſo as to lie dry it will not ſtir till another comes and forces it forward by beating it with its great teeth; this is ſerved in the ſame manner by the next, and ſo i [...] ſucceſſion till the whole is landed, continuing tumbling over one another, and forcing the foremoſt for the ſake of quiet, to remove further up. The method of killing them on the Magdalene iſles, in the [Page 337] gulph of St. Laurence, as I am informed, is thus: [Note: CHACE.] The Hunters watch their landing, and as ſoon as they find a ſufficient number for what they call a cut, go on ſhore, each armed with a ſpear ſharp on one ſide like a knife, with which they cut their throats: great care muſt be taken not to ſtand in the way of thoſe which attempt to get again to ſea, which they do with great agility by tumbling headlong; for they would cruſh any body to death by their vaſt weight. They are killed for the ſake of their oil, one Walrus producing about half a tun. The knowlege of this chace is of great antiquity; Octher, the Norwegian, about the year 890, made a report of it to King Alfred, having, as he ſays, made the voyage beyond Norway, for the more commoditie of fiſhing of horſe-whales, which have in their teeth [...]nes of great price and excellencie, whereof he brought ſ [...]me at his returne unto the King *. In fact, it was, in the northern world, in early times, the ſubſtitute to ivory, being very white and very hard. Their ſkins, Octher ſays, were good to cut into cables. I do not know whether we make any uſes of the ſkin; but M. de Buffon ſays, he has ſeen braces for coaches made of it, which were both ſtrong and elaſtic.
They bring one, or at moſt two young † at a time: feed on ſea herbs and fiſh; alſo on ſhells, which they dig out of the ſand with their teeth: are [...] alſo to make uſe of their teeth to aſcend rocks [...] pieces of ice, faſtening them to the cracks, and [Page 338] drawing their bodies up by that means. Beſides mankind, they ſeem to have no other enemy than the white Bear, with whom they have terrible combats; but generally come off victorious, by means of their great teeth.
W. with two ſhort canine teeth, or tuſks, placed in the upper jaw pretty cloſe to each other: in the upper jaw four grinders on each ſide, placed at a diſtance from the tuſks; in the lower, three on each ſide.
Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope and the Philippine iſles. The head deſcribed above being ſuppoſed to belong to an animal reſembling a Walrus, found in the ſeas of Africa and India, as appears from ſome citations from travellers, too unſatisfactory to merit repetition. It is ſaid by one, that it goes upon land to feed on the green moſs, and that it is called in the Philippines, the Dugung *.
- [...] Ariſt. hiſt. An. lib. vi. c. 12. Oppian Halient. V. 376.
- Vitulus maris mediterranei—et o [...]ani Rondeletii, 453.458.
- Le Veau marin ou loup de mer P [...]lon Poiſſons. 25.
- P [...]oc [...] Geſner Piſc. 830. Worm. Muſ. 289. Klein quad. 93. Briſſon quad. 162.
- Seal. Seoile, or Sea Calf, Phoca ſive vitulus marinus. Raii ſyn. quad. 189. Phil. Tranſ. abridg. Vol. XLVII. 120. tab. vi. fig. 3.
- Kaſſigiak, Crantz hiſt. Greenl. I. 123.
- Phoca vitulina. Ph. capite laevi inauriculato. Lin. ſyſt. 56. Sial▪ Faun. ſuec. No. 4.
- Le Phoque de Buffon, xiii. 333. tab. xlv.
- Seal Br. Zool. I. 71. Br. Zool. illuſtr. xlviii.
S. with large black eyes: large whiſkers: oblong noſtrils: flat head and noſe: tongue forked at the end: two canine teeth in each jaw: ſix cutting teeth in the upper jaw; four in the lower: no external ears: body covered with thick ſhort hair: ſhort tail: toes furniſhed with ſtrong ſharp claws: uſual length from five to ſix feet: color very various, duſky, brinded, or ſpotted with white or yellow.
Inhabit moſt quarters of the Globe, but in greateſt multitudes towards the North and the South; ſwarm [...] the Arctic circle, and the lower parts of South America * in both oceans. Found in the Caſpian † Sea, in the lake Aral, and lake ‡ Baikal, which are [Page 340] freſh waters. In the laſt, are covered with ſilvery hairs: bring two young at a time, which for ſome ſhort ſpace are white and woolly; bring forth in autumn, and ſuckle their young in caverns, or in rocks, till they are ſix or ſeven weeks old, when they take to ſea: cannot continue long under water; are therefore very frequendy obliged to riſe to take breath, and often float on the waves. In ſummer, ſleep on rocks, or on ſand-banks: if ſurprized, precipitate into the ſea; or if at any diſtance, ſcramble along and fling up the ſand and gravel with great force with their hind feet, making a piteous moaning: if overtaken, will make a vigorous defence with their feet and teeth: a ſlight blow on the noſe kills them, otherwiſe will bear numbers of wounds.
Swim with vaſt ſtrength and ſwiftneſs; frolick greatly in their element, and will ſport without fear about ſhips * and boats; never go any great diſtance from land: feed on all ſorts of fiſh: are themſelves good food, and often eaten by voyagers: killed for the ſake of the oil made from their fat; a young ſeal will yield eight gallons: their ſkins very uſeful in making waiſtcoats, covers for trunks, and other conveniences: thoſe of the lake Baikal are ſold to the Chineſe, who dye them, and ſell them to the Mongals † to face their fur-coats: are the wealth of the Greenlanders, ſupplying them with every neceſſary of life.
- Sea Calf, Phil. Tranſ. IX. 74. tab. v.
- Le grand Phoque de Buffon, xiii. 345.
- Utſuk? Crantz Greenl. I. 125.
S. reſembling the common, but grow to the length of twelve * feet: that deſcribed in the Phil. Tranſ. was ſeven feet and a half long, yet ſo young as to have ſcarce any teeth; the common ſeal is at full growth when it has attained the length of ſix.
Inhabits the coaſt of Scotland, and the South of Greenland: the ſkin is thick, and is uſed by the Greenlanders to cut thongs out of for their Seal fiſhery. Perhaps is the ſame with the great Kamtſchatkan Seal, called by the Ruſſians, Lachtach, weighing 800 lb. †
Inhabits Greenland: the natives make garments of its ſkin, turning the hairy ſide inmoſt. Perhaps what our Newfoundland Seal-hunters call Square Phipper; whoſe coat, they ſay, is like that of a water dog, and weighs ſometimes 500 lb.
S. with a ſtrong folded ſkin on the forehead, which it can fling over its eyes and noſe, to defend them againſt ſtones and ſand in ſtormy weather: its hair white, with a thick coat of thick black wool under, which makes it appear of a fine grey.
S. with a pointed head and thick body, of a whitiſh grey color, marked on the ſides with two black creſcents, the horns pointing upwards towards each other; does not attain this mark till the fifth year; till that period, changes its color annually, and is diſtinguiſhed by the Greenlanders by different names each year.
Inhabits Greenland and Newfoundland: is the moſt valuable kind; the ſkin the thickeſt and beſt, and its produce of oil the greateſt: grows to the length of nine feet. Our Fiſhers call this the Harp, or Heart Seal, and ſtyle the marks on the ſides the ſaddle. [Page 243] There is a blackiſh variety, which they ſay is a young harp, called Bedlemer *.
S. with the four middle cutting teeth of the upper jaw bifurcated; the two middle of the lower jaw ſlightly trifurcated: a rudiment of an ear: the webs of the feet extending far beyond the toes and nails: hair ſoft, ſmooth, and longer than in the common Seal: color duſky on the head and back; beneath, browniſh: length, from two to three feet.
Inhabits the ſea near the iſle of Juan Fernandez †; and our ſeal-hunters affirm, that they often obſerve, on the coaſt of Newfoundland, a ſmall ſpecies not exceeding two feet, or two feet and a half, in length. M. de Buffon ſays the ſpecimen in the cabinet of the French King came from India; but from the authority of Dampier, and of modern voyagers to the Eaſt Indies, who have aſſured me they never ſaw any ſeals ‡ there, I ſuſpect he was impoſed on.
- Urſus marinus Steller. Nov. Com. Petrop. II. 331. tab. xv.
- Sea Cat, Hiſt. Kamtſchatka, 123. Muller's Exped. 59.
- Phoca Urſina. Ph. capite auriculato. Lin. ſyſt. 55.
- L'Ours marin Briſſon quad. 166.
There are three marine animals, which keep a particular ſituation, and ſeem divided between the N. E. of Aſia, and N. W. of America, in the narrow ſeas between thoſe vaſt continents. Theſe are what are called the Sea Lion and Sea Bear, and the Manati *. They inhabit, from June to September, the iſles that are ſcattered in the ſeas between Kamtſchatka and America, in order to copulate, and bring forth their young in full ſecurity. The accurate and indefatigable naturaliſt Steller was the firſt who gave an exact deſcription of them; he and his companions, in the Ruſſian expedition of 1742, were in all probability the firſt Europeans who gave them any diſturbance in thoſe their retreats. In September, theſe animals quit their ſtations, vaſtly emaciated; ſome return to the Aſiatic, others to the American ſhores; but like the Sea Otters, are confined in thoſe ſeas between lat. 50 and 56.
The Urſine Seal, a name we ſubſtitute for the Sea Bear, leads, during the three months in ſummer, a moſt indolent life: it arrives at the iſlands vaſtly fat; but during that time they are ſcarce ever in motion, confine themſelves for whole weeks to one [Page 345] ſpot, ſleep a great part of the time, eat nothing, and, except the employment the females have in ſuckling their young, are totally inactive: they live in families; each male has from eight to fifty females, whom he guards with the jealouſy of an eaſtern monarch; and though they lie by thouſands on the ſhores, each family keeps itſelf ſeparate from the reſt, and ſometimes, with the young and unmarried ones, amount to a hundred and twenty. The old animals, which are deſtitute of females, or deſerted by them, live apart, and are exceſſively ſplenetic, peeviſh and quarrelſome: are exceſſively fierce, and ſo attached to their old haunts, that they would die ſooner than quit them. They are monſtrouſly fat, and have a moſt hircine ſmell. If another approaches their ſtation, they are rouzed from their indolence and inſtantly ſnap at it, and a battle enſues; in the conflict, they perhaps intrude on the ſeat of another: this gives new cauſe of offence, ſo in the end the diſcord becomes univerſal, and is ſpread thro' the whole ſhore.
The other males are alſo very iraſcible: the cauſes of their diſputes are generally theſe. The firſt and the moſt terrible is, when an attempt is made by another to ſeduce one of their miſtreſſes, or a young female of the family. This inſult produces a combat, and the conqueror is immediately followed by the whole ſeraglio, who are ſure of deſerting the unhappy vanquiſhed. The ſecond reaſon of a quarrel is, when one invades the ſeat of another: the third ariſes from their interfering in the diſputes of others. Theſe battles are very violent; the wounds [Page 346] they receive are very deep, and reſemble the cuts of a ſabre. At the end of a fight they fling themſelves into the ſea, to waſh away the blood.
The males are very fond of their young; but very tyrannical towards the females: if any body attempts to take their cub, the male ſtands on the defenſive, while the female makes off with the young in her mouth; ſhould ſhe drop it, the former inſtantly quits his enemy, falls on her, and beats her againſt the ſtones, till he leaves her for dead. As ſoon as ſhe recovers, ſhe comes in the moſt ſuppliant manner to the male, crawls to his feet, and waſhes them with her tears: he, in the mean time, ſtalks about in the moſt inſulting manner; but in caſe the young one is carried off, he melts into the deepeſt affliction, and ſhews all ſigns of deep concern. It is probable that he feels his misfortune the more ſenſiſibly, as the female generally brings but one at a time; never more than two.
They ſwim very ſwiftly, at the rate of ſeven miles an hour. If wounded, will ſeize on the boat, and carry it along with vaſt impetuoſity, and oftentimes fink it. They can continue a long time under water. When they want to climb the rocks they faſten with the fore paws, and ſo draw themſelves up. They are very tenacious of life, and will live for a fortnight after receiving ſuch wounds as would immediately deſtroy any other animal.
[Note: DESCR.]The male of this ſpecies is vaſtly ſuperior in ſize to the female. The bodies of each are of a conic form, very thick before, and taper to the tail. The length of a large one is eight feet; the greateſt circumference [Page 347] five feet; near the tail, twenty inches. The weight 800 lb. The noſe projects like that of a pug dog, but the head riſes ſuddenly: noſtrils oval, and divided by a ſeptum: the lips thick; their inſide red and ſerrated: whiſkers long and white.
The teeth lock into each other when the mouth is cloſed: in the upper jaw are four cutting teeth, each bifurcated; on both ſides is a ſmall ſharp canine tooth bending inwards; near that another, larger: the grinders reſemble canine teeth, and are ſix in number in each jaw: in the lower jaw are alſo four cutting teeth and two canine: but only four grinders in each jaw: in all, thirty-ſix teeth.
Tongue bifid: eyes large and prominent: iris black, pupil ſmaragdine: the eyes may be covered at pleaſure with a fleſhy membrane: the ears are ſmall, ſharp-pointed; hairy without, ſmooth and poliſhed within.
The length of the fore-legs is twenty-four inches, like thoſe of other quadrupeds, not immerſed in the body like thoſe of ſeals: the feet are formed with toes as thoſe of other animals, but are covered with a naked ſkin, ſo that externally they ſeem a ſhapeleſs maſs, and have only the rudiments of nails to five latent toes: the hind legs are twenty-two inches long, are fixed to the body quite behind, like thoſe of ſeals, but are capable of being brought forward, ſo that the animal makes uſe of them to ſcratch its head: theſe feet are divided into five toes, each divided by a great web, and are a foot broad: the tail is only two inches long.
[Page 348] The hair is long and rough; beneath which is a ſoft down, of a bay color: on the neck of the old males the hair is erect, and a little longer than the reſt. The general color of theſe animals is black, but the hairs of the old ones are tipt with grey. The females are cinereous. The ſkins of the young, cut out of the bellies of their dams, are very uſeful for cloathing, and coſt about 3s. 4d. each; the ſkin of an old one, 4s.
- Sea Lion, Dampier's voy. I. 90. IV. 15. Roger's voy. 136. Anſon's voy. 122.
- Leo marinus ruſſis Siwutcha, Steller Nov. Com. Petrop. II. 361. Hiſt. Kamtſchatka, 120. Muller's exped. 60.
- Phoca leonina. Ph. capite anticè criſtato, Lin. ſyſt. 55.
- Le Lion marin, Briſſon quad. 167. de Buffon, xiii. 351.
S. (the male) with an arched projecting ſnout, hanging five or ſix inches below the lower jaw: the feet ſhort and duſky; five toes on each, furniſhed with nails: the hind feet have the appearance of great laciniated fins: large eyes: great whiſkers: hair on the body ſhort, and of a dun color; that on the neck a little longer: the ſkin very thick: length of an old male twenty feet; greateſt circumference, fifteen.
Female. Noſe blunt, tuberous at the top: noſtrils wide: mouth breaking very little into the jaws; two ſmall cutting teeth below, two ſmall and two [Page 349] larger above; two canine teeth, remote from the preceding; five grinders in each jaw; all the teeth conic: eyes oblique and ſmall: auricles none: fore legs twenty inches long: toes furniſhed with flat oblong nails: hind parts, inſtead oi legs, divided into two great bifurcated fins: no tail: the whole covered with ſhort ruſt-colored hair: length, from noſe to the end of the fins, four yards: greateſt circumference two yards and a half *.
Inhabits the ſeas between Kamtſchatka and America; in the laſt, not higher than lat. 56 N. are not found again nearer than the iſle of Juan Fernandez, S. lat. 33—40. Are ſeen in great numbers, in June and July, the breeding ſeaſon, on the iſlands, which they reſort to for the purpoſe of ſuckling their young on ſhore. Couple in Auguſt and September, and bring two at a time. The male ſhew little attachment to its young, but the female is exceſſively fond of it: the former will † ſuffer it to be killed before his face without ſhewing any reſentment. Towards evening, both male and female ſwim a little way to ſea, the laſt with the young on its back, which the male will puſh off, as if to teach it to ſwim.
They arrive on the breeding iſlands very fat and full of blood: when they are in motion they ſeem like a great ſkin full of oil, from the tremulous movement of the blubber, which has been found to be a foot thick. The Spaniards therefore call them [Page 350] Lobos de Aceyte *, or wolves of oil. One has been known to yield a but of oil; and ſo full of blood, that what has run out of a ſingle animal † has filled two hogſheads. The fleſh is eatable; Lord Anſon's people eat it under the denomination of beef, to diſtinguiſh it from that of ſeal, which they called lamb.
The old animals have a tremendous appearance, yet are exceſſively timid, except at the breeding ſeaſon, when they ſeem to loſe their apprehenſions, and are leſs diſturbed at the ſight of man. At other times, they hurry into the water; or, if awakened out of their ſleep by a loud noiſe, or by blows, fall into vaſt confuſion, tumble down, and tremble in every part, thro' fear: but if once they find it impoſſible to eſcape ‡, grow deſperate, roar dreadfully, and attack their enemy with great fury. The Kamtſchatkans either kill them in their ſleep with launces, or ſhoot them with poiſoned arrows. They cut the ſkin into cords, or make ſhoes of it: they eſteem the blubber and fleſh very palatable; but the feet makes a jelly, which the Kamtſchatkans think a great delicacy.
Theſe animals aſſociate in families like the former, but not in ſuch great numbers: the males ſhew equal jealouſy about their miſtreſſes, and have bloody combats on their accounts: oftimes there is one of ſuperior courage to the reſt, and procures by dint of valour a greater number of females than [Page 351] the others. In the Kamtſchatkan ſeas, they generally chuſe ſome inſulated rock for their ſtation, where they roar ſo loud as to be heard at two miles diſtance: the young bleat like ſheep. They are of a very lethargic diſpoſition, fond of wallowing in miry places, and will lie like ſwine on one another, grunting like thoſe animals, and ſometimes ſnorting like horſes in full vigor. They are very inactive on land: to prevent a ſurprize, each herd places a ſentinel, who gives certain ſignals of the appearance of danger: during the breeding ſeaſon they * abſtain from food, and before that is elapſed become very lean: at other times, they feed on ſeals, ſea-otters, and fiſh †.
- Manati Hernandez Mex. 323 De Laet. 6.
- Manatus Rondeletius, 490. Geſner Piſc. 213. Clus exot. 132. Raii ſyn. quad. 193. Klein quad. 94. Steller Nov. Com. Petrop. II. 294.
- Le Lamentin, Briſſon quad. 164 de Buffon, xiii. 277. tab. 57.
- Trichechus Arted. gen. 79. Sy [...] 109.
- Trichechus manatus, Lin. ſyſt 49.
This animal, in nature, ſo nearly approaches the cetaceous tribe, that it is meerly in conformity to the ſyſtematic writers, that I continue it in this claſs: it ſcarce deſerves the name of a biped; what are called feet are little more than pectoral fins; they ſerve only for ſwimming; they are never uſed to aſſiſt the animal in walking, or landing; for it never goes aſhore, nor ever attempts to climb the rocks, like the walrus and ſeal. It brings forth in the water, and, like the whale, ſuckles its young in that element: like the whale, it has no voice; and like that animal, has an horizontal broad tail, without even the rudiments of hind feet.
Inhabits the ſhores of Kamtſchatka, and of the oppoſite coaſt of America, and of the intervening iſlands. Is found again on that of Mindanao *, one of the Philippine iſlands, and on the coaſt of New Holland †; on that of the iſle of France ‡, and on that of Senegal §; on the Moſquito ſhore, in the river [Page 353] of Orenoque, and the lakes formed by it; and laſtly, in the river of Amazons *; but in no other part of the Atlantic Ocean.
They live perpetually in the water, and frequent the edges of the ſhores; and in calm weather ſwim in great droves near the mouths of rivers: in the time of flood they come ſo near the land that a perſon may ſtroke them with his hand: if hurt, they ſwim out to ſea; but preſently return again. They live in families, one near another; each conſiſts of a male, a female, a half-grown young one, and a very ſmall one. The females oblige the young to ſwim before them, while the other old ones ſurround, and, as it were, guard them on all ſides. The affection between the male and female is very great; for if ſhe is attacked he will defend her to the utmoſt, and if ſhe is killed will follow her corps to the very ſhore, and ſwim for ſome days near the place it has been landed at.
They copulate in the ſpring, in the ſame manner as the human kind, eſpecially in calm weather, towards the evening. The female ſwims gently about; the male purſues; till tired with wantoning ſhe flings herſelf on her back, and admits his embraces †. Steller thinks they go with young above a year: it is [Page 354] certain that they bring but one young at a time, which they ſuckle by two teats placed between the breaſt.
They are vaſtly voracious and gluttonous, and feed not only on the fuci that grow in the ſea, but ſuch as are flung on the edges of the ſhore. When they are filled they fall aſleep on their backs. During their meals, they are ſo intent on their food, that any one may go among them and chuſe which he likes beſt. Peter Martyr gives an inſtance of one that lived in a lake of Hiſpaniola for five and twenty years, and was ſo tame as to come to the edge of the ſhore on being called; and would even perform the part of a ferry, and carry ſeveral people at a time on its back to the oppoſite ſhore *.
Their back and their ſides are generally above water, and as their ſkin is filled with a ſpecies of louſe peculiar to them, numbers of gulls are continually perching on their backs and picking out the inſects.
They continue in the Kamtſchatkan and American ſeas the whole year; but in winter are very lean, ſo that you may count their ribs. They are taken by harpoons faſtened to a ſtrong cord, and after they are ſtruck it requires the united force of thirty men to draw them on ſhore. Sometimes when they are transfixed they will lay hold of the rocks with their paws, and ſtick ſo faſt as to leave the ſkin behind before they can be forced off. When a Manati is ſtruck its companions ſwim to its aſſiſtance; ſome [Page 355] will attempt to overturn the boat by getting under it; others will preſs down the rope, in order to break it; and others will ſtrike at the harpoon with their tails, with a view of getting it out, which they often ſucceed in. They have not any voice, but make a noiſe by hard breathing, like the ſnorting of a horſe.
[Note: DESCR.]They are of an enormous ſize; ſome are 28 feet long, and 8000 lb. * in weight. The head, in proportion to the bulk of the animal, is ſmall, oblong, and almoſt ſquare: the noſtrils are filled with ſhort briſtles: the gape, or rictus, is ſmall: the lips are double: near the junction of the two jaws the mouth is full of white tubular briſtles, which ſerve the ſame uſe as the laminae in whales, to prevent the food running out with the water: the lips are alſo full of briſtles, which ſerve inſtead of teeth to cut the ſtrong roots of the ſea plants, which floating aſhore are a ſign of the vicinity of theſe animals. In the mouth are no teeth, only two flat white bones, one in each jaw; one above, another below, with undulated ſurfaces, which ſerve inſtead of grinders.
The eyes are extremely ſmall, not larger than thoſe of a ſheep: the iris black: it is deſtitute of ears, having only two orifices, ſo ſmall that a quill will ſcarce enter them: the tongue is pointed, and but ſmall: the neck is thick, and its junction with [Page 356] the head ſcarce diſtinguiſhable; and the laſt always hangs down: the circumference of the body near the ſhoulders is twelve feet, about the belly twenty, near the tail only four feet eight: the head thirty-one inches: the neck near ſeven feet: and from theſe meaſurements may be collected the deformity of this animal: near the ſhoulders are two feet, or rather ſins, which are only two feet two inches long, and have neither fingers nor nails; beneath are concave, and covered with hard briſtles: the tail is thick, ſtrong, and horizontal, ending in a ſtiff black fin, and like, the ſubſtance of whalebone, and much ſplit in the fore part; the end ſlightly divided.
The ſkin is very thick, black, and full of inequalities, like the bark of oak, and ſo hard as ſcarce to be cut with an ax, and has no hair on it: beneath the ſkin is a thick blubber, which taſte like oil of almonds. The fleſh is coarſer than beef, and will not ſoon putrify. The young ones taſte like v [...]l. The ſkin uſed for ſhoes, and for covering the ſides of boats.
Beſides theſe, Mr. Steller ſaw on the coaſt of [Note: [...] ] [...] * another very ſingular animal, which he [...] Sea Ape: it was five feet long▪ the head like [...]; ears ſharp and erect; eyes large; on both [...] of beard; the form of its body thick and [...] thick [...]t near the head, tapering to the tail, [...] [...]urcated, the upper lobe the longeſt; [...] covered with thick hair, grey on the back, [Page 357] red on the belly. Steller could diſcover neither feet nor paws. It was full of frolick, and played a thouſand monky tricks; ſometimes ſwimming on one ſide, ſometimes on the other ſide of the ſhip, looking at it with great amazement. It would come ſo near the ſhip that it might be touched with a pole; but if any body ſtirred, would immediately retire. It often raiſed one-third of its body above the water, and ſtand erect for a conſiderable time; then ſuddenly dart under the ſhip, and appear in the ſame attitude on the other ſide; and would repeat this for thirty times together. It would frequently bring up a ſea plant not unlike the bottle gourd, which it would toſs about and catch again in its mouth, playing numberleſs fantaſtic tricks with it.
[Note: BELUGA.]Another obſcure animal of this claſs is the Beluga *, found in the gulph of Ochotſk, or the ſea between Kamtſchatka and Tartary; in that between Kamtſchatka and America, oppoſite to the river Anadir, and in the frozen ſea near the mouth of the Jeneſei. It is 15 or 20 feet long, and three or four thick: it agrees with the ſeal in its feet and tail: its teeth are like a cow's: on the neck are two holes, through which it ſpouts water: there is hair on the body, but ſo thin that the white ſkin appears thro' it: lives on fiſh: is gregarious: carries its young on its back: ſhuns ſhallow places; ſeldom goes near the ſhore, or up rivers: yet the celebrated Witſch, in his book called Norden op Tartarye, ſays that it [Page 358] goes and returns with the tide up and down the rivers Meſen and Jeſma; where the fiſhermen take them in nets of ropes and kill them with ſpears, and each yields two vats and a half of train oil; ſo that if the capture is lucky a ſhip of 200 tuns may be loaded in two tides *.
- Veſpertilio ingens Clus exot. 94.
- Canis volans ternatanus orientalis Seb. Muſ. I. 91. tab. lvii.
- Veſpertilio vampyrus. V. ecaudatus, naſo ſimplici, membrana inter femora diviſa. Lin. ſyſt. 46.
- La Rouſſette and la Rougette, de Buffon, x. 55. tab. xiv. xvii.
- Pteropus rufus aut niger auriculis brevibus acutiuſculis, Briſſon quad. 153, and 154, No. 2.
- Great Bat, Edw. 180. Br. Muſ. Aſh. Muſ.
B. with large canine teeth: four cutting teeth above, the ſame below: ſharp black noſe: large naked ears: the tongue is pointed, terminated by ſharp aculeated papillae: exterior toe detached from the membrane: the claw ſtrong, and hooked: five toes on the hind feet: talons very crooked, ſtrong, and compreſſed ſideways: no tail: the membrane divided behind quite to the rump: head of a dark ferruginous color: on the neck, ſhoulders, and underſide, of a much lighter and brighter red: on the back the hair ſhorter, duſky and ſmooth: the membranes of the wings duſky: varies in color; ſome entirely of a reddiſh brown; others duſky. This now deſcribed was one foot long: its extent from tip to tip of the wings four feet; but they are found vaſtly larger.
[Page 360] Theſe monſters inhabit Guinea, Madagaſcar, an [...] all the iſlands from thence to the remoteſt in the Indian ocean. They fly in flocks, and perfectly obſcure the air with their numbers: they begin thei [...] flight from one neighboring iſland to another immediately on ſun-ſet, and return in clouds from th [...] time it is light till ſun-riſe *. They live on fruits▪ and are ſo fond of the juice of the palm tree, that they will intoxicate themſelves with it till they drop on the ground **. It is moſt likely, from the ſize of their teeth, they are carnivorous. Mr. Edwards relates, that they will dip into the ſea for fiſh. They ſwarm like bees, hanging by one another from the trees in great cluſters †. The Indians eat them, and declare the fleſh to be very good: they grow exceſſively fat at certain times of the year. The French, who live in the Iſle de Bourbon, boil them in their Bouillon, to give it a reliſh ‡. The Negroes have them in abhorrence ‡. Many are of an enormous ſize: Beckman § meaſured one, whole extent from tip to tip of the wing was five feet four inches; and Dampier ‖ another, which extended further than he could reach with ſtretched-out arms. Their bodies are from the ſize of a pullet to that of a dove: their cry is dreadfull; their ſmell rank; their bite, reſiſtance and fierceneſs great when taken.
[Page 361] The antients had ſome knowlege of theſe animals. Herodotus * mentions certain winged wild beaſts, like bats, that moleſted the Arabs, who collected the Caſſia to ſuch a degree that they were obliged to cover their bodies and faces, all but their eyes, with ſkins. It is very probable, as M. de Buffon remarks, it was from ſuch relations the Poets formed their fictions of Harpies.
Linnaeus gives this ſpecies the title of Vampyre, conjecturing it to be the kind which draws blood from people in their ſleep. M. de Buffon denies it, aſcribing that faculty to a ſpecies only found in S. America: but there is reaſon to imagine, that this thirſt after blood is not confined to the bats of one continent, nor to one ſpecies; for Bontius and Nieuhoff inform us, that they of Java ** ſeldom fail attacking thoſe who lie with their feet uncovered, whenever they can get acceſs; and Gumilla †, after mentioning a greater and leſſer ſpecies, found on the banks of the Orenoque, declares them to be equally greedy after human blood. Perſons thus attacked have been known to be near paſſing from a ſound ſleep into eternity. The Bat is ſo dexterous a bleeder as to inſinuate its aculeated tongue into a vein without being perceived, and then ſuck the blood till it is ſatiated; all the while fanning with its wings, and [Page 362] agitating the air, in that hot climate, in ſo pleaſing a manner, as to fling the ſufferer into a ſtill ſounder ſleep *. It is therefore very unſafe to reſt either in the open air, or to leave open any entrance to theſe dangerous animals: but they do not confine themſelves to human blood; for M. Condamine † ſays, that in certain parts of America they have deſtroyed all the great cattle introduced there by the miſſionaries.
β. LESSER. B. with head like a grehound: large teeth like the former: ears long, broad, and naked: whole body covered with ſoft ſhort hair of a ſtraw color: ſhaped like the other in all reſpects: length, eight inches three quarters; extent, two feet two inches. Place unknown to the gentleman who favored me with it.
- Andira-guacu, veſpertilio cornutus, Piſo Braſil, 190. Marcgrave Braſil, 213.
- Canis volans maxima aurita ſaem. ex Nov. Hiſpania. Seb. Muſ. I. tab. lvii.
- Veſpertilio ſpectrum. V. ecaudatus, naſo infundibuliformi Lanceolato. Lin. ſyſt. 46. Klein quad. 62.
- Pteropus auriculis longis, patulis, naſo membrana antrorſum inflexa aucto. Briſſon quad. 154.
- Le Vampire, de Buffon, X. 55.
Inhabits South America: lives in the palm trees: grows very fat: called Vampyre by M. de Buffon, who ſuppoſes it to be the ſpecies that ſucks human blood: but neither Piſo, or any other writers who mention the fact, give the leſt deſcription of the kind.
- Veſpertilio americanus vulgaris, Seb. Muſ. I. tab. lv. fig. 2.
- Veſpertilio. V. ecaudatus, naſo foliato acuminato. Lin. ſyſt. 47.
- V. murini coloris pedibus anticis tetradactylis, poſticis pentadactylis. Briſſon quad. 161.
- La chauve ſouris ſer de Lance, de Buffon. xiii. 226. tab. xxxiii.
B. with large pointed ears: an erect membrane at the end of the noſe in form of the head of an antient javelin, having on each ſide two upright proceſſes: no tail: fur cinereous: ſize of a common bat.
- Veſpertilio, roſtro appendice auriculae forma donata. Sloane Jam. II. 330.
- Small bat. Edw. 201. fig. I.
- La Feuille de Buffon, xiii. 227.
- Veſpertilio ſoricinus, Pallas Miſcel. 48. tab. v. *
- Glis volans Ternatanus Seb. Muſ. I. tab. lvi. fig. 1.
- Veſpertilio ſpaſina. V. ecaudatus naſo foliato obcordato Lin. ſyſt. 47.
B. with a head like a pug-dog: large ſtrait-pointed ears: two canine teeth, and two ſmall cutting teeth between each, in each jaw: tail encloſed in the membrane, which joins to each hind leg, and is alſo ſupported by two long cartilaginous ligaments involved in the membrane: color of the fur iron grey: body equal to that of a middle-ſized Rat: extent of wings two feet five inches.
β. With a large head and hanging lips, like the chops of a maſtiff: noſe bilobated: upper lip divided: ſtrait, long, and narrow ears, ſharp-pointed: teeth like the former: tail ſhort; a few joints of it ſtand cut of the membrane, which extends far beyond it; is angular, and ends in a point: claws on the hind feet large, hooked, and compreſſed ſideways: membranes of the wings duſky, very thin: fur on the head and back brown; on the belly, cinereous: length, from the noſe to the end of the membrane, above five inches; extent of wings, twenty.
[Page 366] Linnaeus, carried away by love of ſyſtem, places this, on account of its having only two cutting teeth in each jaw, among the Glires, next to the ſquirrels, under the name of Noctilio Americanus. But ſuch is the variety in the number and diſpoſition of the teeth in the animals of this genus, that he might form almoſt as many genera out of it as there are ſpecies. But as the Bats have other ſuch ſtriking characters, it is unneceſſary to have recourſe to the more latent marks to form its definition. The ſame may be ſaid of ſeveral other animals.
B. with broad round ears, the edges touching each other in front: noſe thick: lips pendulous: upper part of the body of a deep aſh-color; the lower paler: tail long; the five laſt joints quite diſengaged from the membrane: length above two inches; extent nine and a half.
B. with a long head: noſe a little pointed: ears ſhort, and pointed: head and body a tawny brown mixed with aſh-color: belly paler: two laſt joints of the tail extend beyond the membrane: length, from noſe to rump, above four inches; extent 21.
B. with the noſtrils open for a great way up the noſe: hair on the forehead and under the chin very long: ears long and narrow: upper part of the head and body of a reddiſh brown; the lower of a dirty white tinged with yellow: tail included in the membrane. A ſmall ſpecies.
B. with a head ſhaped like that of a mouſe: top of the noſe a little bifid: ears ſhort, broad, and rounded: no cutting teeth; two canine in each jaw: tail very long, incloſed in the membrane, which is of a conic ſhape: head, body, and the whole upper ſide of the membrane, which incloſes the tail, covered with long very ſoft hair of a bright tawny color; lighteſt on on the head and beginning of the back; the belly paler: at the baſe of each wing a white ſpot: wings thin, naked and duſky: bones of the hind legs very ſlender: length, from noſe to tail, ten inches and a half; tail one inch eight-tenths; extent of wings ten and a half.
Inhabits North America. Communicated by Mr. Aſ [...]ton Blackburne *.
B. with a ſmall ſhort noſe: ears ſhort, broad and pointing forward: body brown: wings ſtriped with black, and ſometimes with tawny and brown: length, from noſe to the end of the tail, two inches: varies in color, the upper part of the body being ſometimes of a clear reddiſh brown, the lower whitiſh.
Inhabits Ceylon; called there, Kiriwoula *.
B. with a large head: thick noſe: ſmall ears: tubular noſtrils, terminating outwards in form of a ſcrew: upper lip divided: tongue covered with papillae and minute ſpines: claw, or thumb, joined to the wing by a membrane: firſt ray of the wing terminated by a claw: end of the tail reaches beyond the membrane: color of the head and back greyiſh aſh-color; the belly dull white: length, from noſe to rump, three inches three quarters; extent of wings about fifteen.
B. with a membrane at the end of the noſe in form of a horſe-ſhoe: ears large, broad at their baſe, and ſharp-pointed, inclining backward: wants the little or internal ear: color of the upper part of the body deep cinereous; of the lower, whitiſh. There is a greater and leſſer variety; the greater is above three inches and a half long from the noſe to the tip of the tail: its extent above fourteen. This and all the following have the tail incloſed in the membrane.
B. with the noſe ſlightly bilobated: ears ſmall and rounded: on the chin a minute verruca: hair a reddiſh aſh-color: length to the rump two inches eight-tenths; tail one ſeven-tenths; extent of wings thirteen.
Inhabits Great Britain and France: flies high in ſearch of food, not ſkimming near the ground. A gentleman informed me of the following fact, relating to thoſe animals, which he was witneſs to: That he ſaw taken under the eaves of Queen's College, Cambridge, in one night, one hundred and eighty-five; the ſecond night ſixty-three; the third [Page 370] night two; and that each that was meaſured ha [...] fifteen inches extent of wings *.
B. with a ſmall noſe: the upper lip ſwelling out a little on each ſide: the ears broad: the forehead covered with long hair: color of the upper part of the body a yellowiſh brown; the lower part duſky: the lips yellow. The leſt of Bats; not an inch and a quarter long to the rump: extent of wings ſix and a half.
B. with a ſunk forehead: long and broad ears: the lower part of the inner ſides touching each other [Page 371] conceal the face and head when looked at in front: the noſe ſhort, the end flatted: cheeks full: the upper part of the body of a duſky brown; the lower aſh-colored and brown: its length to the rump about two inches; its extent ten and a half.
- [...] Ariſt. hiſt. an. lib. I. c. 5.
- Veſpertilio, Plinii, lib. x. c. 61. Geſner quad. 766. Agricola Anim. Subter. 483.
- Bat, Flitter-mouſe, Raii ſyn. quad. 243.
- Rear-mouſe, Charlton Ex. 80.
- Veſpertilio major. Speck-maus, Fleder-maus, Klein quad. 61.
- Veſpertilio murinus. V. caudatus naſo oreque ſimplici, auribus capite minoribus, Lin. ſyſt. 47.
- Laderlap, Fladermus, Faun. ſuec. No. 2.
- La grande Chauve-ſouris de notre pais, Briſſon quad. 158. de Buffon, viii. 113. tab. xvi.
- Short-eared Bat, Br. Zool. I. 114. Edw. 201.
- Souris Chauve, Ratte-penade, Belon oyſ. 147.
- Veſpertilio auritus. V. naſo oreque ſimplici, auriculis duplicatis, capite majoribus, Lin. ſyſt. 47. Faun. ſuec. No. 3. Klein quad. 61.
- La petite Chauve-ſouris de notre pais, Briſſon quad. 160.
- L'Oreillar, de Buffon, viii. 118. tab. xvii.
- Long-eared Bat, Edw. 201. Br. Zool. I. 116. Br. Zool. illuſtr. tab. ciii.
B. with ears above an inch long, thin, and almoſt pellucid: body and tail only one inch three quarters long. This and all other Bats, except the Ternate and the Horſe-ſhoe, have a leſſer or internal ear, ſerving as a valve to cloſe the greater when the animal is aſleep.
[Page 372] Inhabits Europe, and is found in Great Britain. Bats appear abroad in this country early in the ſpring; ſometimes are tempted by a warm day to ſally out in winter; fly in the evenings; live on moths and other nocturnal inſects; ſkim along the water in queſt of gnats; fly by jerks, not with the regular motion of birds, for which the antients miſtake them; frequent glades and ſhady places; will go into larders, and gnaw any meat they find: bring two young at a time, which they ſuckle at their breaſt: retire at the end of ſummer into caves, the eaves of houſes, and into ruined buildings, in vaſt multitudes, where they generally remain torpid, ſuſpended by the hind legs, enveloped in their wings: are the prey of owls: their voice weak. Ovid takes notice both of that and the origin of the latin name:
Minimam pro corpore vocemEmittunt; peraguntque leves ſtridore querelas.Tectaque, non ſylvas celebrant: lucemque peroſaeNocte volant: ſeroque trahunt a veſpere nomen.