The history of the most noble Order of the Garter: Wherein is set forth an account of the town, castle, chappel, and college of Windsor; ... To which is prefix'd, a discourse of knighthood in general, ... Collected by Elias Ashmole, ... The whole illustrated with proper sculptures.

THE HISTORY Of the moſt NOBLE Order of the Garter. Wherein is ſet forth
  • An ACCOUNT of the Town, Caſtle, Chappel, and College of Windſor; with their ſeveral Officers: The Foundation of the ORDER by King Edward III. With the Statutes, and Annals at large, as they have been altered and amended.
  • An ACCOUNT of the Habits, Enſigns, and Officers of the Order. The Ceremonies of Election, Inveſtiture, and Inſtalment of Knights: The manner of their Feaſts, and the Duties and Fees, payable on theſe Occaſions. Some Account of the Founders, with an exact Liſt of all that have been inſtalled ſince the firſt Inſtitution, and their ſeveral Coats of Arms emblazon'd.
  • To which is prefix'd, A DISCOURSE of Knighthood in General, and the ſeveral ORDERS extant in Europe.
Collected by ELIAS ASHMOLE, Eſq Windſor Herald, at the Command of King Charles II. Now compared with the Author's Corrections in his Library at Oxford, faithfully digeſted, and continued down to the preſent Time.

The Whole illuſtrated with proper Sculptures.

LONDON, Printed for A. Bell at the Croſs-Keys and Bible in Cornhill, W. Taylor at the Ship, and J. Baker at the Black-Boy in Pater-Noſter-Row, and A. Collins at the Black-Boy in Fleet-ſtreet, 1715.

His Royal Highneſs GEORGE AUGUSTUS Prince of Wales, &c. And Knight of the most Noble Order of the Garter.



PARDON me, Mighty Prince, that in the Crowd of Your Joyful and Devoted Britons, one of an obſcure Fame preſumes to lay his Humble Offering at Your Feet.

IT is the Hiſtory of the MOST NOBLE ORDER of the GARTER; which, from its firſt Inſtitution, has been conſtantly worn by Perſons of the higheſt Birth, and moſt illuſtrious Merit.

[Page] IF the Stile and Manner, in which it is treated, were proportionable to the Dignity of the Subject, there would need no Apology for this Dedication. For to whom, next to the Great Sovereign of the Garter, whoſe true Heir You are, in all manner of Virtue and Honour, could this Treatiſe have recourſe for Protection, but to Your Royal Highneſs, who are the Premier Knight of this Moſt Noble Order, and the ſtanding Grace and Ornament of it.

BUT far above all particular Views, are the unſpeakable Bleſſings derived to theſe Kingdoms, by the SUCCESSION of Your Illuſtrious Royal Houſe: [Page] Every Briton ſeems new Born, and to have borrow'd freſh Influence from its Glorious Preſence.

THE Godlike Virtues of Your Royal Father, are not to be excelled; and ſhould we venture to expreſs an Equality, it can only be the Appearance of Your Royal Highneſ's imitating ſo Great a Pattern.

AS He is Wiſe and Good beyond Praiſe, ſo has He a Title to the Hearts of His People beyond Queſtion; which ſtands Confirmed by the higheſt Inſtances of Divine Providence, as well as the inconteſtible Authorities of Temporal Laws: On theſe Foundations, what glorious Proſpects may we not [Page] Build of future Happineſs?

IT were eaſy to dwell on this Subject, were it not waſting Moments of much more concern to Your Royal Highneſs, than what I am able to Expreſs.

MAY Your Royal Highneſs long Live to Adorn this MOST NOBLE ORDER, and to ſupport the Crown, by a bountiful and flouriſhing Iſſue, that there may never want one of Your Royal Line to ſit on the Throne of Great-Britain,

Is the Ardent Prayer of,


Your Royal Highneſs's Moſt Faithful, Moſt Obedient, and Humbly Devoted Servant, Thomas Walker.



THoſe who are acquainted with Mr. Aſhmole's Hiſtory of the moſt Noble Order of the Garter, will eaſily ſatisfy themſelves; that no Pains or Induſtry was wanting to Perfect and Complete ſo Voluminous a Work: He had the Encouragement of a very gracious Prince, and the uſe of publick Records, more particularly the ſeveral Books of the Order, with the Aſſiſtance of ſeveral MSS wrote by the Officers of Arms, who bore Part in the Ceremonies, or went on Embaſſies to Stranger Kings, Princes, &c. and by their conſtant Obſervations, were familiarly verſed in all its Laws and Cuſtoms.

Theſe were very great helps to him, and it muſt be confeſſed his own elaborate Study had not leſs owing to it. There is nothing that has relation to this moſt Noble Order, which he has not touched on; and indeed [Page] it is a Work ſo very copious, that he does himſelf acknowledge he has inſerted ſome things of little importance; which he deſires may be conſidered to be done, to gratify ſome few, who have a more immediate concern therein.

The Reader will in this Treatiſe find little elſe omitted: A very painful and exact Abridgment has been made, many Corrections of the Author's, which he ſaw before his Death, and left among his other Books in his Library at Oxford, are here carefully altered; ſome Additions are made, a Liſt continued, of the ſeveral Knights-Companions, as well as Officers of the Order, for above forty Years; and the Coats of Arms of abundance of the Knights-Companions viſibly corrected from good Authorities; and every diſtinct Chapter treated of at large; ſo that this Work has not been compleated but at great Labour as well as Expence, which could not have been ſupported, but for the Encouragement ſome of the Knights-Companions of the moſt Noble Order were pleaſed to give it; as well in their Subſcriptions, as in the good Opinion they ſeemed to Expreſs of the Deſign.


1. 1


IT was, undoubtedly, a good Sentiment in the firſt Collector of this Learned Work, to introduce, as well as a Diſcourſe of Knighthood in general, a Treatiſe of all the ſeveral Orders that have prevail'd in other Parts of the World; for theſe in their Riſe and Inſtitutions, having a relative Senſe to the particular Subject he was to illuſtrate, ſeemed to afford him a very good Opportunity of doing it, by building on ſo convenient a Foundation.

I ſhall therefore, (tho' much more confin'd to brevity) follow the ſame Method, making it ſerve as a proper Introduction; there being many Things in the voluminous Original, which I conceive may with leſs Inconveniency be diſpenc'd with.

IT was a conſtant Maxim in all well-regulated Governments, to give a juſt Encouragement to Merit, and this by proportioning Rewards to the Service done; for Merit muſt be ſuppos'd to conſiſt in the Performance [Page 2] of ſome Vertuous or Heroick Action, directed for the publick Good: And as Vertue is either Military or Civil, ſo the Diſtribution of Rewards is different; either by beſtowing Degrees and Titles of Honour, or by Donations of Wealth; ſo that in either Conſtruction, Vertue may have its proper and ſuitable Reward.

BUT the proper Reward of Military Vertue, is Honour: (to which diſtinct Head this Work is confin'd.) Honour, which Ariſtotle calls the Greateſt of exteriour Goods: And being an Object of a nobler Ambition than the Accumulation of Wealth, is principally the Aim of that Vertue we underſtand by Valour; which ſprings from more generous Spirits, and hath been the conſtant Foundation of raiſing Men to the higheſt Eminence of Glory, and ſuperiour Dignity.

BUT that Fame might not loſe it ſelf in an unbounded Notion, it was at length thought fit to reduce Honour into Form and Order, by inveſting the Perſon meriting with ſome particular Title or Appellation of Excellence, (the Original of all Nobility;) of which Knighthood, as it hath been accounted the moſt ſuitable Reward to the greateſt Vertue, ſo it hath been eſteemed the chief and primary Honour among many Nations.

THE Romans held Honour and Vertue in that Eſteem, that they deify'd, and dedicated Temples to them: They made them ſo contiguous in their Situation, that there was no other Paſſage to that of Honour, but thro' the Temple of Vertue, myſtically admoniſhing, that Honour was not to be attained by any other Way.

IN ſeveral of the Roman Coins we ſee Honour and Vertue repreſented together in one Reverſe, and in one Medal; the Face of Honour ſo ſhadows that of Vertue, that but a little of it appears, Honour being the more illuſtrious of the two; and where we behold any Perſon outwardly adorned with it, we are to judge him inwardly endued with Vertue, inaſmuch as Honour is his due, and juſtly beſtowed upon him.

1.2. 2

§. 2. IN tracing the Original of Knighthood, we are not ſo vain to ſay, with the French, that S. Michael was the premier Chevalier; yet thus much we may aſſert, that [...]tis near as ancient as Valour and Heroic Vertue, notwithſtanding the Ceremonies and Circumſtances of [...] have varied according to ſeveral Ages and Nations: And therefore, with much Probability, we may derive the [Page 3] Original of Military Honour from the Trojans and Greeks; among whom, as Knights of great Renown, were Hector, Troilus, Aene [...]s, Antenor, Agamemnon, Menelaus, Pel [...]us, Tydeus, &c. And thus Homer uſes the Word [...] in the ſame Senſe as Eques was afterwards among the Latins.


'Mong whom thus Neſtor ſpake, that honour'd Knight.

1.3. 3

§. 3. UPON a more ſubſtantial Baſis we ſhall deſcend to the Romans; among whom, in the very Infancy of their Military Glory, a Society of Knights was inſtituted, immediately after their Union with the Sabines. Romulus inrolled Centuriae tres Equitum, three Centuries of Knights, out of the chiefeſt Families, whom he appointed to be his Life-guard, and called them C [...]leres, from their Activity and Diſpatch in Martial Affairs.

Tarquinius Priſcus made an Addition to theſe Centuries; the like did Servius Tullius, who ordained, that thoſe who ſhould ſucceed in that Body, ſhould be elected ex cenſu, viz. from a conſiderable and certain Valuation of their Eſtates, who had the greateſt Cenſ [...], and were of the moſt Noble Families, ſays Dyonyſ. Halicarn. And ſoon after, the Equeſtrian Claſs began to be formed and conſtituted one of the three Orders of the Commonwealth, which were thus rank'd, according to Livy: Senatus, Ordo Equeſtris & Plebs; which in the Roman Literal Notes is ſet down after this Manner: CON. SEN. E. ORD. P. Q. R. And foraſmuch as this Degree is placed between the Patricians, or Senators, and the Plebeians, it anſwers exactly the State of our Knights between the Nobility and Commonalty: And from this Order, to the Height of Nobility which reſided in the Senators, was the Way prepared; Junius Brutus being the firſt who was raiſed to a Senator from the Equeſtrian Order.

IT was a Conſtitution, as old as Tib [...]rius's Reign, that none ſhould be admitted, unleſs Free-born, or a Gentleman for three Generations; and, indeed, for a long Time none were elected Knights but the beſt Sort of Gentlemen, and Perſons of Extraction, as was the illuſtrious Ma [...]cenas.

[Page 4] A [...]avis regibus ortns eques, Mart.

who aſpired no higher, not out of any Incapacity of attaining greater Honours, but that he deſired them not, ſays Paterculus: Yet at length, thro' Corruption of Times, Plebeians and Freedmen being too frequently received into this Degree (too near a Parallel among the Knights of this Age) occaſion'd their Power to grow leſs and leſs, 'till it ſhrunk to nothing; ſo that the Places and Offices of Judges which they before had executed, became conferrable upon the Publicans. And when Cicero was Conſul, anno ab urbe conditi 690, the Equeſtrian Order ſtood in need of Re-eſtabliſhment, whereupon they were then incorporated into that Commonwealth in the third Degree, all Acts paſſing in the Name of the Senate, the People of Rome, and the Equeſtrian Order.

They often enjoy'd Abroad the Government of ſeveral Provinces, whereof Egypt had this peculiar to itſelf, that none of the Senators were admitted, but only thoſe of the Equeſtrian Order, whoſe Decrees Auguſtus commanded to be had in like Regard, as if the Magiſtrates of Rome, or Kings, Conſuls, or Praetors, had pronounced them.

AS a Mark of Eminence, they had the Titles of Splendidi and Illuſtres beſtowed upon them, and ſometimes have been called moſt ſacred Knights.

AND beſides other Privileges, they had Seats with the Senators in the Circus Maximus; and by the Roſcian Law, ſat next them in the Theatres: They had likewiſe a College called Collegium Equitum; and Temples were dedicated to the Goddeſs Fortune, under the Title of Equeſtri Fortunae.

HAVING ſhewn the Dignity and Honours of the Equeſtrian Order among the Romans, we ſhall now touch upon the Degrees of Knighthood which have been Perſonal, and may be comprehended under the Modern Title of Equites Aurati, or Milites Simplices, (as diſtinguiſh'd from the ſeveral Orders of Chivalry, inſtituted in Chriſtendom.) In the Circumſtance of whoſe Creation we confeſs, nothing in the Roman Ordo Equeſtris hath place, tho' that might be the Ground and Original of the Dignity, and one common End in both, namely, the Purſuit of Military Exploits, and Service in the Wars.

1.4. 4

[Page 5]

§. 4. OF the Degrees of Knighthood. We ſhall firſt of the Monozons, i. e. Knights begirt with the Military Girdle, a Cuſtom devolved to the Germans and Gauls from ancient Times, and from them to After-Ages.

SIR Henry Spelman notes, That the late Emperors conferred the Dignity af Knighthood with the Military Girdle inſtead of all other Arms, becauſe that Part more eminent amongst them girdeth, ſupporteth, and adorneth the reſt; whence Selden calls this Girding the moſt eſſential part of the Ceremony. Nor do we find among the various Ceremonies of Knighthood any that have continued ſo conſtant in Practice as the endowing with Girdle and Sword, Ornaments proper to the Dignity and Marks of Honour and Vertue, with which the Statues and Portraitures of Knights, on their Grave-ſtones have been adorned.

FOR as at this Day Knights are ſtyled Equites Aurati, from the Golden Spurs, heretofore put on at their Creation, ſo were they more anciently Singulo Miletari donati, in reſpect, when any one was Knighted, he was not only ſmitten with the Sword, but inveſted with Sword and Belt, yet retain'd at the creating our Knights of the Bath, as the old Formulary thus hath it; Then ſhall the King of great Favour take the Sword, and gi [...]d the [...]quire therewith.

Secondly, The Baccalaurei or Knights Batchelors, are to be conſider'd, who are indifferently ſtyled Chevaliers, Milites, Equites Aurati, and Knights. This Degree is truly accounted the firſt of all Military Dignity, and the Foundation of all Honours in our Nation, and is derived from, if not the ſame with that immediately preceding. For as the Ceremony of a gentle Touch on the Shoulder with the flat Side of the Sword hath been ſince uſed, inſtead of girting with the Sword and Belt, (eſpecially in Times of War, or in Haſte) as an Initiation into the Military Order; ſo on the contrary, it is not unuſual now-adays, for the Prince, at leaſt Gladi [...], if not Cingulo donare; for he oftentimes beſtows the Sword upon the Perſon he Knigh [...]e [...].

Miraeus gives them the Epithet Aurati, from the Privilege of wearing Gold upon their Swords and Spurs, omitting Tiraquel's fanciful Diſtinction between Miles and Eques Auratus, who allows the former to ſignify a Knight Noble before, and the other to deno [...]e one whom we call a Knight and no Gentleman, or applicable to the Neapo [...]an Gentlemen, (uſually called Cavali [...]ri) who [Page 6] are all ſtyled Equites, tho' they never have attained the Knightly Dignity.

THE third Sort were Knights Banerets, who ſo well deſerv'd in the Wars, that they were afterwards permitted to uſe Vexillum quadratum, a ſquare Banner, whence they were called Equites vexillarii, or Chevaliers a Buniere from the Dutch Banerheere, Lord or Maſter of the Banner.

Camden conceives this Title firſt devis'd by K. Edward 3. in Recompence of Martial Proweſs; a Recital of which Dignity is mention'd in a Patenr 20 E. 3. to John Coupland, for his Service, in taking David King of Scots Priſoner. But it was much more ancient with us, as well as in France; and they had particular Robes, and other Ornaments given them from the Crown, ad apparatum ſuum pro militia, tanquam pro Baneretto, a Rege ſuſcipienda, &c. viz. ad unum Tunicam, &c. after which is ſet down the particular Robes, and other Ornaments appointed for his Creation.

To ſhew this Dignity yet more ancient, there is the Evidence of a Writ in K. Edw. 3d's Time, for furniſhing Thomas Bardolf with the Robes of a Baneret. It is an Honour eſteemed the laſt among the Greateſt, viz. Nobilitum Majorum, or the Firſt of the Second Rank; and is placed in the Middle between the Barons and the other Knights; in which reſpect the Baneret may be called Vexillarius minor, as if he were the leſſer Banner-Bearer; to the End he might be ſo differenced from the Greater, namely the Baron, to whom the Right of bearing a ſquare Banner doth belong.

BUT there are ſome remarkable differences between theſe Knights and Knights-Batchelors; as in the Occaſions and Circumſtances of their Creations, the Baneret being not Created, unleſs at a Time when the King's Standard is erected, and that he bears his own Banner in the Field; whilſt the Knight-Batchelor follows that which is anothers.

THIS farther difference is obſerved between them, that the Knight-Baneret had ſo many Gentlemen his Servants at Command, as that he could raiſe a Banner, and make up a Company of Soldiers to be maintained at his Table, and with his own Pay: But the Knight-Batchelor had not ſufficient for this, and therefore marched under the Banner of another; and the Wages of the Baneret were double.

[Page 7] N [...]XT to theſe, we are to mention Knights of the Bath, which is a Degree that hath the Inveſtiture and Title of Knight, with an additional Denomination, derived from Part of the Ceremony of his Creation. It is the general receiv'd Opinion, that our K. Hen. 4. firſt inſtituted theſe Knights, which is juſtify'd by Sir John Froiſard, who ſays he created 46 of them at his Coronation, chuſing them from ſuch, as were either his Favorites, or had pretenſions to it from their perſonal Merits, or Services.

BUT if the Ceremonies and Circumſtances of their Creation be well conſider'd, it may be inferr'd, that he rather reſtor'd the ancient way of making Knights, than Inſtituted them; and conſequently that the Knights of the Bath, are really no other than Knights-Batchelors; that is, ſuch as are created with thoſe Ceremonies, wherewith Knights-Batchelors were formerly created by Eccleſiaſticks: But ſome of them having been laid aſide, were then brought again into Uſe, and made peculiar to this Degree, and ſince continued to them upon ſome ſolemn and great Occaſion.

AT the firſt View they look like a diſtinct Order of Knighthood; but cannot be ſo accounted, becauſe they have no Statutes aſſigned them, nor are in Caſe of Vacancy, ſupply'd, (the Eſſentials of diſtinct Orders) nor do they wear their Robes beyond the Time of that Occaſion upon which they were created; as chiefly, the Coronation of a King or Queen, the Creation of a Prince of Wales, Duke of York, and the like; whereas alſo their Number is uncertain, and always at the Pleaſure of the King.

Favine calls them Knights of the Crown, becauſe, to diſtinguiſh them from Eſquires, they wore upon their Left Shoulder an Eſcutcheon of Black Silk embroider'd with three Crowns of Gold; but therein he miſtakes, for they never uſed only a Silk Lace, and the Jewel they wore was made of Gold, containing three Crowns, with this Motto Tria juncta in una, hanging down under the left Arm at a Carnation Ribbon worn croſs the Body.

THIS leads us to the Degree of Baronets, who ſeem allied to Knighthood, by having granted them the Addition of Sir to be ſet before their Names: But this gives them not the Dignity of Knighthood; nor can they properly be flyled Knights, until they be actually Knighted.

[Page 8] IT is a Degree erected Anno 9. Jac. 1. and the Grant made by Letters Patents under the Great Seal of England. It is Hereditary to them, and the Heirs Male of their Bodies lawfully begotten, for ever; and by a ſubſequent Decree of the ſaid King, Precedence is granted to them before all Banerets, except ſuch as ſhould be made by the King under his Standard, diſplay'd in an Army Royal in open War, and the King perſonally preſent, and next to and immediately after the younger Sons of Viſcount and Barons.

THE Ground for erecting this Degree was partly Martial; for tho' themſelves were not enjoined perſonal Service in the Wars, yet each Baronet was to maintain thirty Foot Soldiers for three Years in Ireland, after the rate of Eight Pence per Day, for the Defence of that Kingdom, and chiefly to ſecure the Plantation of Ulſter.

THEY were at leaſt to be deſcended from a Grandfather, on the Father's Side, that bore Arms, and had a Revenue of 1000 l. per Ann. or Lands of old Rents of equal Value with 1000 l. per Ann. of improv'd Lands, or at leaſt two Parts of three of ſuch Eſtate in Poſſeſſion; the other third in Reverſion Expectant upon one Life held only in Jointure.

THE Year after, King James I. added ſome new Privileges and Ornaments, viz. to Knight thoſe already made that were no Knights; and the Heirs hereafter of every Baronet ſhould, at the Age of One and Twenty Years, receive Knighthood; likewiſe that all Baronets might bear in Canton, or in an Ineſcutcheon, the Arms of Ulſter; and farther, to have place in the Armies of the King in the Groſs, near about the Royal Standard.

SINCE the Inſtitution of Baronets in England, there have been made divers in Ireland after the like Form: And the Knights of Nova Scotia in the Weſt-Indies were ordained in Imitation of Baronets in England by the ſaid King James, A. D. 1622. for the Planting that Country by Scotch Colonies, and the Degree made likewiſe Hereditary.

THESE latter wear an Orange Tawny Ribbon as their Badge, to diſtinguiſh them from other Knights; and it appears, there was an Intention, 1627. to move his then Majeſty, that all Baronets and Knights Bachelors might wear Ribbons of ſeveral Colours, ſome Badge or Jewel, in ſuch Sort as did the Knights of the Bath, to diſtinguiſh the one from the other: But that Matter dropt.

1.5. 5

[Page 9]

§. 5. WE ſhall now obſerve the Etymology of Eques, Miles, Chevalier, Ritter, and Sir. The Grecians had a Title of Honour equivalent to the Signification of Eques in the Latin, from Equ [...]s, an Horſe, becauſe one Part of the Ceremony, whereby this Honour became conferred, was the giving of an Horſe; or becauſe having an Horſe at the Publick Charge, they received the Stipend of an Horſeman to ſerve in the Wars, Horſes being Symbols of War, Bello armantur equi. It is to be noted, That the Degree of Knighthood in the Dialects of other Nations hath rhe ſame Derivation: For in the French, a Knight is called Chevalier; in the German, Ridder, or Ritter, q. d. Rider; ſo the Gheſlagen Ridder is interpreted, The dubbed Knight; in the Italian, it is Cavagliero; in the old Britiſh, Morchog; concerning which, hear one of Jeffery Chaucer's Scholars.

Eques ab Equo is ſaid of very right,
And Chevalier is ſaid of Chevalrie,
In which a Rider called is a Knight;
Arragoners done alſo ſpecifie
Caballiero through all that Partie,
Is Dame of Worſhip, and ſo took his 'ginning
Of Spurs of Gold, and chiefly Riding.

AND tho' the Word Miles ſignified at firſt any legally inrolled for the War, which Inrolment was twofold, Honoraria and Vulgaris; yet upon the Decay of the Roman Empire, upon the Irruption of the innumerable Forces of the Alani, Goths, Vandals, &c. which conſiſted in Horſe, their Foot was rendred uſeleſs. Miles was no longer ſaid of him that ſerved on Foot in the Wars, but began to be properly ſpoken of the Horſeman; whence it came into Vogue, That among the Titles of Nobility, he who had that of Miles beſtowed on him, was underſtood to be Horſeman, or Eques, that is, of the Equeſtrian Dignity.

Selden obſerves Miles to be equivocal: and that in the old feodal Laws of the Empire it ſignify'd a Gentleman, as the Word Gentleman is ſignify'd in Nobilis; and with us it hath been frequently uſed to denote both Gentlemen, and Knights; for Milites denotes Gentlemen, or great Freeholders, and not dubbed Knights, viz. ſuch who hold by Knights Service from a Lord of [Page 10] a Mannour, and ſuch who are choſen from the ſeveral Counties to ſerve in the High Courts of Parliament.

Miles, even in the Saxon Times, denoted ſometimes a Dignity. But about the Year 1046, becoming a Title of Honour, it is ſince moſt generally appropriated to Perſons who have received Knighthood correſpondent to Eques and Chevalier, tho' indeed leſs proper; in regard Knighthood is the Dignity of Horſemanſhip, and the Tenure of Lands by Knights Fees here in England, anciently called Regale Servitium, is in truth Horſe Service; and the Tenants ſuch as ſerved the King on Horſeback in Wars, are Gentlemen at leaſt (if not of Noble Extraction.)

Minſhew ſays, the Equites, which heretofore followed and accompanied the Emperor, are, in the German Tongue, called Knechtes, that is, Servitors, or Miniſters; but Camden ſays, Knecht, in Saxon Cniht, was in far more ancient Times accepted as an honorary Title; and, among the old Germans, ſignify'd a Perſon arm'd with Spear and Lance, (the Enſigns of their Knighthood) as in After-Times ſuch were, among other Nations, adorned with a Girdle and Belt, ſince called Equites aurati, and ſometimes ſimply Milites.

THE Addition Sir to the Names of all Knights Banerets, Knights of the Bath, and Batchelor Knights, pronounced at the Time when they are created, with this Compellation: Ariſe, Sir John, or Sir Thomas, &c. is accounted Parcel of their Style, which the Banerets enjoy by virtue of a Clauſe in their Patent. It is a Contraction of the Old French Sire, taken for Seigneur, or Lord, from the Greek [...]. But how it came to be firſt given, we cannot find; nevertheleſs, our Engliſh Writers have beſtowed it upon the major Part of the Nobility, after they had been received into the Order of Knighthood; and in the Life of St. Thomas Becker, written about the Time of King Edw. 1. we meet with the Title prefix'd to the Names of the four Knights, who ſlew the ſaid St. Thomas.

1.6. 6

§. 6. THE Enſigns of the Equeſtrian Order among the Romans, by which they were made, was a Publick Horſe, or a Gold Ring; yet ſtill, to thoſe who had Equeſtrian Cenſe, the Horſe was the ancienter Badge of the two; but when thro' the Multitude of theſe Knights no Publick Horſes were aſſigned, but to ſuch who were ready to enter upon Military Service, and to [Page 11] fight in the Legions, ſuch were called Legionary Knights, to diſtinguiſh them from the reſt, who had only receiv'd the Honour of a Gold-Ring; for they were not all employ'd in Wars.

THE Cenſor (after the Inſtitution of that Offiee ab urbe condita, 310.) and afterwards the Emperor, were the Perſons who beſtowed this Equus Militaris, or Publicus, as it was called from the Annual Allowance, to keep him, which they gave unto thoſe of known Vertue and approv'd Life, compelling him to ſerve in the Wars, tho' againſt his Will; (but in the more ancient Method of Election, Conſtraint was not uſed.) And upon Negligence in the Care of theſe Horſes, or any Blemiſh, Reproach, or Infamy, or Loſs of Patrimony in the Knights, the Horſes were not only taken away, but the Knights wholly disfranchis'd. Roſinus laying down the Manner and Order uſed in ejecting ſuch Knights, adds, A Recital being made of all the Knights that were inrolled, thoſe whoſe Names he omitted, were thereby underſtood to be depriv'd of that Dignity.

WHEN they had ſerved in the Wars the Time appointed by Law, it was the Cuſtom to lead their Horſes by the Bridle into the Forum, before the Duumvirs [Cenſors,] and giving an Account under whom and what Generals or Captains they had ſerved; they were thereupon diſmiſſed from farther Service in the Wars: An Example whereof Plutarch relates to have been given by Pompey himſelf.

BUT whereas among the Roman Inſcriptions we find Equo publico honoratus donatus, ornatus, and exornatus, ſuch is not to be conſtrued to be of Equeſtrian Dignity, but only to have received the praemia militaria, with which the Emperors uſed to recompenſe ſome particular Exploit, by the Honour of ſuch a Gift, according to Salmaſius. Equus Publicus, by a wondrous, nevertheleſs an accuſtom'd Speech, among the Romans, is the Knight, qui equo publico meret. And qui equo publico donatus, the other deſerving Perſon.

AS to the Ring: In Geneſis we read of Pharoah's taking off his Ring, and putting it upon Joſeph's Hand. When they came in Faſhion with the Romans, the Senators at firſt wore Iron ones, which were accounted the Enſign of Military Vertue, received upon a Publick Account. Howbeit, in Proceſs of Time, when Gold Rings were drawn into Uſe, none but Senators and Knights had [Page 12] them. The Difference among the Rings of the three Orders in the State were, as Licetus obſerves, Gold Rings ſet with precious Stones were given to the Senators only; Plain Rings without Stones to the Knights, and Iron Rings to the Plebeians, or Free-born-men; inſomuch that Equeſtri dignitate donare, and annulo honorare, is a promiſcuous Phraſe in Tacitus, to give the Dignity of Knighthood; and at the Battle of Cannae, by the two Meaſures or Buſhels of Gold Rings ſent to Carthage, the Number of the Roman Knights there ſlain was computed.

1.7. 7

§. 7. AT length Freed-Men being created Knights, the Jus annulorum, the Right of wearing Gold Rings, became promiſcuous.

AMONG the Germans, the Shield and Lance were accounted the grand Badges of Military Honour, or Knighthood. This the Lombards, the Franks, and our Country-men, all deſcending out of Germany, uſed, and was to us (in the Opinion of Sir Hen. Spelman) the Foundation of the Knightly Order. Much like the ancient Germans was the Cuſtom of making Knights among the Iriſh: And Favine notes the Shield and Lance were the proper Arms appertaining to a French Knight, which Eſquires, Armigers, carried always after their Maſters, Shields and Scutes (as they are vulgarly called) i. e. Equeſtrian Targets, inclining to an Oval, not Shields or Bucklers of Foot Soldiers.

ANOTHER Enſign and Ornament of Knightly Honour is, the Cingulum militare. or Balteus, which, Varro ſays, is Tuſcan, ſignifying a military Girdle, which were garniſhed with great Buckles, Studs, and Rings of pure Gold, to ſhew their Dignity and Power in military Commands; and with ſuch a Belt, ſet with Pearls and precious Stones, young Athelſtan was girded, when he receiv'd Knighthood from his Grandfather King Alfred. Our Knights were no leſs anciently known by theſe Belts, than by their gilt Swords, Spurs, &c. Howbeit the Uſe now only appears in Knights of the Bath.

To this Belt was alſo added a Sword, not of Ordinary Uſe; and therefore termed the Sword of a Knight, which was hallowed with great Ceremony.

ANOTHER eminent Badge is the Golden Spurs, wherewith, at the Time of their Creation, Knights Spurs were wont to be adorned; and to theſe, a little after the Conqueſt, were added far more and greater Oruaments. They were uſually put on after the Perſon had been [Page 13] preſented to the Prince who gave the Honour, to ſignify, that the new-made Knight ſhould not only declare his Valour by his Sword, but alſo by the Management of his Horſe, which he ſhould encourage and excite with his Spurs, to the carrying on his valiant Deſigns. Theſe Spurs have been of that Eſteem, that Knight Batchelors are latinized Equites aurati; among the Germans, Ritter deſs Gulden Sporns; and with us heretofore, Knights of the Spurs: And ſeveral Families by the Name of Knight, bear for their Arms the Spurs on a Canton.

IT is farther certify'd among the Rights of a Knight Baneret, that upon the Account of his Knighthood he may wear gilt Spurs, as well as a gilt Sword; and that the Spurs are eſſential, may be collected from the Degradation of a Knight, where his gilt Spurs are firſt cut off with an Hatchet, the Caſe of Sir Andra Harcla. In the laſt Place is the Collar, an Enſign of Knightly Dignity among the Germans, Gauls, Britons, Danes and Goths, among whom it was cuſtomary to wear them, as denoting ſuch as were remarkable for their Valour. But in lat [...]r Times, it was the peculiar Faſhion of Knights among us to wear Golden Collars compoſed of S S. or other various Devices; ſo that thoſe Monuments are known to be erected for Knights on whoſe Portraitures ſuch Ornaments are found.

1.8. 8

§. 8. THE Qualifications for Knighthood are principally three. 1. Merit, the bare mentioning whereof ſhall ſuffice here. 2. Birth, viz. that the Parties who enter thereinto ought firſt to make appear they be Gentlemen of three Paternal Deſcents, bearing Coat Armour; and much the ſame was the Law of the Empire under Frederick 2. A. D. 1212. Some think it alſo inſufficient, unleſs deſcended ſo by the Mother's Side; at leaſt ſhe muſt be a freed Woman. And, 3. Eſtate, which alſo ſerves to ſupport the Dignity.

THUS Wealth was ſo much regarded among the Chal [...]donians, that thoſe who were rich, bore the Name of Knights. It was Eſtate that entitled a Man to this Honour among the Romans; for the Cenſor might compel any Citizen equal to the Equeſtrian Cenſe, whom he thought fit to take that Order: And this conſiſted of 400000 Seſterces, i. e. 3025 l. of our Money.

AND as in Old Rome, ſo here in England, not long after the Conqueſt, they who held a Knights Fee, viz. 680 Acres of Land might claim it, ſays Camden. But it appears from Selden, that no certain Number, or Extent [Page 14] of Acres, made a Knight's Fee [...] and Temp. Hen. 3. and Edw. 1. and 1 Edw. 2. the Cenſus militis was meaſured by 20 l. by the Year, or more; and by the Royal Prerogative, ſome who held 15, then 20, at other times 30, then 40, and ſometimes 50 l. Lands, were required to accept this Honour by Writs directed to the Sheriffs of the Counties, and were excuſed only by Reaſon of old Age, irrecoverable Weakneſs, Loſs of Limbs, or being in Holy Orders; and upon all other Cauſes (if exempted) they paid a Fine, eſtimated according to the Nature of the Excuſe, or length of Time given.

BUT in the promiſcuous Courſe of Knighthood, where the Men of Wealth and Eſtate (whether otherwiſe worthy or not) became dignify'd; yet the Gate of Honour was not then ſhut againſt thoſe, who wanting Riches, deſerved well of their Country; for when Princes conferr'd ſuch Dignities upon Men of narrow Fortunes, they uſually beſtowed with them annual Penſions, or Lands, agreeable to the Judgment of the Author of the Diviſion du monde, who ſaith that the Honour of Knighthood is not to be given any Perſon who hath not a conſiderable Eſtate, unleſs ſufficient Means to ſupport the Honour of the Order be alſo given with it.

THESE Penſions are frequently mention'd in our Rolls [...] ſometimes during Pleaſure, and ſometimes during the Life of the Knight, or till better Proviſion ſhould be made for their Supports: Examples whereof are, Sir John Atte Lee, Sir Nele Loring, Sir John Walſh, Knights. The like Rewards our Kings gave to ſuch whoſe Merit raiſed them to the Degree of a Ban [...]ret, expreſs'd in their Patents, ad manutenendum ſtatum Baneretti, Pro ſuſtentatione ſua, ut ipſe ſtatum Baneretti melius manutenere poſſit, Pro ſtatu ſuo manutenendo; or Words to the like Effect: Examples where of are, Sir Reginald Cobham, Sir Thomas de Rokeley, Sir John Lyſle, and Sir Roger de Swynerton, Banerets.

IT may be next conſider'd who can make Knights; wherein it is apparent, that they who never were, and others who never could be Knights, have conferr'd this Dignity; yet 'tis to be underſtood, that Neceſſity and Cuſtom hath in this Caſe the Force of a Law: For anciently, Biſhops and Prieſts made Knights; ſo alſo do the Popes, and ſome Commonwealths; likewiſe our Queens. For the Sovereign, or the Heir apparent, tho' they be no Knights, may nevertheleſs do it, by reaſon they poſſeſs the Kingdom; and are therefore the Head and Chief of Chevalry, and conſequent all the Power thereof is contained [Page 15] in their Command. To conclude this Point [...] Knighthood was always received from the Hands of another Perſon, either by Ceremony, or Diploma, except only the Kings of Spain, who Time out of Mind made themſelves Knights; and this by Vertue of an old Law written in the Arragonian Tongue, as Ambroſias Morales repotts. And, to ſhew that no Man upon Earth hath any Power over him, he ſhall gird himſelf with the Sword made after the [...]orm of a Croſs; and that Day can no other Man be Knighted.

1.9. 9

§. 9. Of the Ceremonies and Formalities uſed at the Conferring of Knighthood, the moſt ancient was perform'd by putting the Belt Iooſe over the Shoulder, or girding it cloſe about the Waſte. The Bend in Armoury repreſents the one, and the Feſs the other. The firſt Chriſtian Kings at giving this Belt kiſſed the new Knight on the Left Cheek, ſaying, In the Honour of the Father, and the Son, and of the Holy Ghoſt, I make you a Knight. It was called Oſculum pacis, the Kiſs of Favour, or Brotherhood, and is preſumed to be the Accollade, or Ceremony of Imbracing, which Charles the Great uſed when he Knighted his Son Lewis the D [...]bonair. It was in the Time of the ſame Emperor, the Way of Knighting by the Colaphum, or Blow on the Ear, uſed in Sign of ſuſtaining future Hardſhips, which is thought to have been deriv'd from the Manner of Manumiſſion of a Slave among the Romans; a Cuſtom long after retained in Germany and France. Thus William Earl of Holland, who was to be Knighted before he could be Emperor, at his being elected King of the Romans, received Knighthood by the Box of [...]he Ear, &c. from John King of Bohemia, A. D. 1247.

IN the Time of the Saxons here in England, Knights received their Inſtitutions at the Hands of Great Prelates or Abbots; which, according to their Opinion, render'd them more auſpicious. In the accompliſhing of which Solemnity, they added many religious Ceremoni [...]s, as Watching, Faſting, Bathing, and Conſecrating the Sword; an Inſtance of which we have in Heward Lord of Brune, in in Lincolnſhire, who received this Honour from Brand, Abbot of St. Edmundsbury. But not long after the Conqueſt, this Cuſtom was reſtrained by a Synod a, Weſtminſt [...]r, A. D. 1102. 3 H. 1. whic [...] among other Things ordained Ne Abbates [i. e. all Spiritnal Perſons] ſaciunt militas [...] However the religious Ceremonies for the moſt part continued, eſpecially Vigils and Bathings, as appears by that grand Solemnity at the Creation of 267 Knights, Son [...] of Earls, Barons, and Knights, upon [Page 16] Whitſontide, anno 34 Edw. 1. cited by Selden and Camden. And theſe Formalities the Saxons and Normans, not only here in England, but the French, Spaniards, and other Nations, obſerv'd, concluding from it, that decency of Habit was as well expected from them, as Integrity of Life, and purity of Manners. And the like religious Ceremony was heretofore obſerv'd in Spain at the Creation of Knights, whether Cavelleros de Eſpuela d' Orada, or Amados [our Knights Batchelors,] In this Form, the Perſon to be Knighted was bathed in the Evening, and preſently laid in Bed; then cloathed in rich Robes, and led to the Church to perform his Vigils: That being over, and Maſs heard, his Spurs were put on, and his Sword girt about him, then drawn out, and put into his Right Hand; whereupon the Oath was forthwith adminiſtred to him; which taken, he that beſtowed the Dignity gave him una Peſconade, a Blow, or Stroke on the Neck, ſaying, God aſſiſt you in the Performance of your Promiſe.

THE Oath or Vow the Knights profeſſed, was in general, to relieve and protect Widows, the Fatherleſs, Oppreſſed and Miſerable, and to defend the Church of God; which to keep and perform was eſteem'd as meritorious, as to do all that a Monk, Frier, or Canon Regular ſhould.

THERE is alſo mention (by Mr. Selden) of conſecrating the Sword, offering it at the Altar, and receiving it again from thence, as an implicit Kind of taking an Oath. But as in Peace and great Leiſure theſe tedious Ceremonies were uſed, yet it was otherwiſe in Times of War, or on a Day of Battle, where Hurry and Throng of Affairs would not permit; and therefore, as well before the joining of Battle, as after Victory obtained, it was uſual for the Prince or General in the Field, on Sight of the Army, to give thoſe whom he thought fit to advance to that Honour (they humbly kneeling before him) a Stroke with a naked Sword flatwiſe upon their Shoulders, or elſe to touch their Heads or Shoulders lightly, without any other Ceremony, except pronouncing Sis Eques in nomine Dei; to which he adds, Riſe, Sir—Knight, or in the French, Sus, or Sois, Chevalier, au nom de Dieu, which we commonly call Dubbing, the old Engliſh Word uſed for Creating [Conſecrating] a Knight, from doopen to dip, by Bathing.

ANOTHER Manner of creating Knights Abroad was, by Royal Codicils, or Letters Patents (theſe the Spaniards [Page 17] call Privilegios de Cavelleria) whereupon ſuch Knights are intitled Equites Codicellares; and theſe were ſent to ſuch as dwelt in remote Countries, and ſometimes, but rarely, extended ſo as to make the Degree hereditary. There is one Example, that by the bare ſignification of Letter, without any Ceremonies or Patents under Seal; Philip IV. of Spain, Jan. 15. 1633. conferr'd upon all the Captains that behav'd themſelves valiantly in Defence of Maſtricht (then lately beſieg'd by the Hollanders) to thoſe that were Gentlemen, the Title of Knights; and to others, that of Gentlemen.

HAVING thus briefly ſhew'd the various Forms of Creation of Knights Batchelors, I ſhall remark what Seld [...]n has obſerv'd of Knights Bannerets in later Times, wherein he that was advanc'd to that Honour in the Field, was inducted between two Senior Knights with Trumpets before them, and the Heralds carrying a long Banner of his Arms, call'd a Penon; in which Manner being brou [...]ht to the King or Lieutenant, who bidding him good Succeſs, the Tip of the Banner is cut off, that of an Obl [...]ng it might become a Square, like the Banner of a Baron: This done, he returns to his Tent, conducted as b [...] fore. As for the many and various Formularies at the Creation of a Knight of the [...]ath, ſee Sir Edward [...]yſ [...] among his Not [...]s upon Utton and Sir William Dugdale's Warwickſh. The Knights of the Bat [...], at the Coronation of King Charles II. watched and bathed; they took an Oath; they were girded with a Sword and Belt; and laſtly, dubbed by the King with the Sword of State.

1.10. 10

§ 10. IN the Dignity, Honour and Renown of Kni [...]hthood, is included ſomewhat of Magnificence more excellent than Nobility it ſelf; which mounting the Royal Throne, becomes the Aſſertor of Civil Nobility, and [...]its as Judge at the Tribunal therefore. Knight is noted by Camden as a Name of Dignity, but Baron is not ſo. For if heretofore a Baron had not receiv'd Knighthoo [...], he was written plainly by his Chriſtian Name, and that of his Family, without any Addition but that of Dominus, a Term attributed to a Knight; and in ancient Charters, the Titles and Names of Knights may be ſeen ſet before Barons. It beſtows Gentility not onl [...] upon the meanly Born, but upon h [...]s Deſcendant [...] [...] [Page 18] [...]ncreaſeth the Honour of thoſe well-deſcended. Hereunto agrees the Common-Law: If a Villain be made a Knight, he is thereby immediately enfranchiſed, and conſequently accounted a Gentleman; agreeable to the Roman Law, where the Donation of a Gold-Ring ennobled a Slave. Moecen [...]s dy'd a Companion of that Order; even Kings and Princes look upon it as an Acceſſion to their Honour, their other Titles ſhewing Dominion and Power, this their Valour and Courage. Geyſa, King of Hungary, Leopold, Marquis of Auſtria, Ottacher, Duke of Stiria, and Frederick, Duke of Auſtria and Stiria; Godfry, Duke of Brabant, with Henry his Son, Peter, King of Arragon, the Emperor Henry III. our William Rufus, King Edward III. Henry VI. Henry VII. Edward VI. Lewis XI. Francis I. Kings of France, and others, received this Dignity at the Time they enjoy'd their other Titles. And tho' it is ſaid the Sons of the French King are Knights as ſoon as they receive Baptiſm, yet are they not judg'd worthy the Kingdom, unleſs firſt ſolemnly created. And we elſewhere find, that the Royal Heirs of Arragon were ſuſpended from that Crown, until they had received the Honour of Knighthood. And after the Norman Conqueſt, our young Princes were ſent over to the neighbouring Kings to receive this Honour. Thus our King Henry II. was ſent to David, King of Scots, and Knighted by him in Carliſle; and Edward I. at the Age of Fifteen Years, to Alphonſus XI. King of Caſtile, for the ſame Dignity. In like manner did foreign Princes repair hither, to receiv [...] the Honour from our Kings. As Malcolme, King of Scotland, and Alexander, Son of William, King of Scotland, Knighted by our King John, Anno 1212. So was Alexander III. by our King Henry III. at York, Anno 1252. and Magnus, King of the [...]ſle of Man, by the ſame King. All which ſufficiently demonſtrate the great Renown of Knighthood, and the Hono [...]r and Eſteem which was ever had for that Order.

2. CAP. II. Of the Religious Orders of Knighthood in Chriſtendom.

[Page 19]

2.1. 1

§ 1. THE Grounds and Cauſes of founding Societies or Knightly Orders, were ſeveral and different, tho' all terminated in one End. Among which, principally were theſe, Firſt, A ſincere Love to Honour, and therein chiefly to excite and promote Vertue by ſuitable Rewards; ſuch was the Deſign of King Arthur, when he formed himſelf and other Martial Men into a Fellowſhip, which he ſtiled Knights of the Round Table. Secondly, To repreſs the Incurſions and Robberies of the Saracens and Barbarians, to vindicate the Oppreſſed, redeem the Enſlaved, and to entertain and relieve Pilgrims and Strangers, which were Part of the Duties the Knights Hoſpitallers and Templars, &c. ſtood engag'd in. A third Reaſon was, To Fight in Defence of the Chriſtian Faith, againſt Pagans and Infidels; to enlarge the Chriſtian Territories, and promote the Service of the Catholick Church: And indeed their Zeal very much advanced Chriſtianity. Laſtly, When Sovereign Princes perceived themſelves embroiled in Wars or dangerous Factions, the erecting ſuch an Order or Society was, that they might by ſuch a Tye reſtore Peace, quiet all Jealouſies, unite Affections, and ſecure a laſting Friendſhip and powerful Aſſiſtance, both for their own and their Country's Safety. And to this End were Badges of ſeveral Orders deviſed, as Pledges of Remembrance to quicken and eſtabliſh their Friendſhip.

2.2. 2

§ 2. THESE Orders are of Two Kinds, 1. Religious, or Eccleſiaſtical; and, 2. Military, or Secular.

2.3. 3

§ 3. THE Inſtitutions of the latter Sort were after a while thought too weak to continue, if not ſuſtained [Page 20] by Religion and Piety; and too defective without adjoyning Eccleſiaſtical Perſons thereunto. Therefore the Founders, conſidering Divine Aſſiſtance ſhould concur with Military Induſtry, began to dedicate theſe Orders to the Honour and Worſhip of God, or to our Saviour, or to the bleſſed Virgin, or ſome other of the Saints, to gain the Protection and Favour of Heaven, more eaſily, as they thought, obtainable by the Prayers and Offices of the Clergy. Whereupon ſome in their Inſtitution joyned Sacred Orders to their Military, and made Proviſion for Sacred Perſons to pray for their Proſperity at home, while they were engaged abroad. Hence King Ed [...]. III. at the firſt Inſtitution of the Garter, appointed Thirteen Secular Canons, and Thirteen Vicars to attend the Celebration of Divine Offices. Upon the ſame Account certain Foundations of Divine Service were erected at Bug [...]y, for the Order of the Annunciads; at Dijon, for the Order of the Golden Fleece; and at Mont St. Michael in Normandy, for the Order of St. Michael.

2.4. 4

4. I ſhall now deliver a brief Account of the Religious Orders of Knighthood, proceeding according to their Antiquity.

2.4.1. 1. The Knights of the Holy Sepulchre in Jeruſalem, are accounted the moſt Ancient.

DR. H [...]ylin reports this Order to be inſtituted A. D. 1099. at ſuch Time as the Temple of Jeruſalem was regain'd from the Saracens by Philip King of France. Yet Favin will have it to be by Baldwin the Firſt, King of Jeruſalem; for while the Saracens poſſeſs'd the City, there were certain Canons Regular of St. Auguſtin, to whom they permitted the Cuſtody of the Holy Sepulchre. Theſe Canons Baldwin made Men of Arms, and Knights of the Holy Sepulchre, and ordained that they ſhould nevertheleſs retain their white Habits, and on the Breaſt bear his own Arms, which were Argent a Croſs potent: Or, between four Croſſes of the ſame, commonly call'd The Jeruſalem Croſs. Their Great Maſter was the Patriarch of Jeruſalem. They were to guard the Sepulchre, fight againſt the Saracens and Infidels, protect Pilgrims, [Page 21] redeem Chriſtian Captives, hear Maſs every Day, recite the Hours of the Croſs, and to bear the five red Croſſes in memory of our Saviour's Wounds. Their Rule was confirm'd by Pope Innocent III. Upon the loſs of the Holy Land, theſe Knights retired to Perugia in Italy; but retaining their white Habit, chang'd their Arms to a double red Croſs. A. D. 1484. they were incorporated to the Knights Hoſpitallers of Jeruſalem then in Rhodes. But A. D. 1496. Alexand [...]r VI. made himſelf, and the Popes his Succeſſors, Great Maſters thereof, and empower'd the Guardian of the Holy Sepulchre (his Vicar General) to beſtow the ſame upon Pilgrims to the Holy Land. Philip II. King of Spain, endeavour'd to reſtore this Order in ſome of his Dominions, about the Year 1558. himſelf being elected Great Maſter: And another Attempt was made by the Duke of Nevers, 1615. but theſe Deſigns took no Effect.

2.4.2. 2. Knights Hoſpitallers of St. John Baptiſt in Jeruſalem.

BEFORE the taking of Jeruſalem from the Saracens, certain Chriſtian Merchants of Naples obtain'd leave from the Caliph of Egypt to erect a ſmall and convenient Houſe, for the Entertainment of themſelves and Countrymen, which they built before the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, together with a ſmall Oratory. To them repair'd certain Canons of the Order of St. Auguſtin, who built another Oratory; but the Confluence of Pilgrims growing great, they erected a large Hoſpital, in the Place where our Saviour celebrated his laſt Supper, for the better accommodating devout Travellers, who for want of a Place to lodge in were often robb'd and murder'd: So that at length from their Charity and Hoſpitality, as alſo for that they took St. John Baptiſt for their Patron, they obtain'd that Title. It was inſtituted A. D. 1092. or according to others 1099. by Gerard, a Native of Thoulouſe, who came to Jeruſalem in the Time of Codſry of Bouillon, and built this Hoſpital (which became the firſt Seat of this Order) dedicated to St. John of Cyprus, Bp. of Alexandria, [Page 22] commonly call'd Jo [...]nnes Eleemoſynarius; and King Baldwin I. conferred on them large Privileges, permitting them Arms, and inſtituted them to be Knights, A. D. 1104. Their Duty was to fight againſt the Infidels, and they acknowledged Obedience to the Patriarch of Jeruſalem; but growing rich, they obtained from Rome to be abſolved from that Obedience. Pope Gelaſius II. or Calixtus II. A. D. 1120. confirmed their Rule of living; and Adrian IV. receiv'd them under the Protection of the Papal See, being likewiſe endowed with ample Privileges, and exempted from Payment of Tithes, by ſucceeding Popes, chiefly by Pius IV.

THEY took the black Habit of Hermits of St. Auguſtin, and lived under his Rule by Grant of Honorius II. Anno 1125. vowing Obedience, Poverty, and Chaſtity; and on the Breaſt of their Habit wore at firſt a plain Croſs of White Cloth, which was after changed to one with Eight Points; but in time of War they uſed a Red Caſſock, bearing the White Croſs upon it. Unto Gerard ſucceeded Raimund, who digeſted and enlarged their Laws and Inſtitutions in the Compoſition whereof his Stile was Raimundus Dei gratia ſervus pauperum Jeſu Chriſti & Cuſtos Hoſpitalis Jeruſolymitani; but afterwards he and his Succeſſors had the Title of Great Maſter of the Order given him, to denote his Power and Authority. At this Day he has the Title of Prince of Malta and Goza; among his Privileges he ſeals in Lead, as doth the Pope and Doge of Venice; he acknowledges the Pope for his Head, and the King of Spain for his Patron; he had under him in ſeveral Kingdoms Prio [...]s; ſome of whom had alſo the Addition of Great with us in England he was ſtiled Prior Hoſpitalis; St. Johannis J [...]ruſalem in Anglia, and by that Title was he ſummoned to the Parliament as a Baron of this Kingdom, and at length for Place and Precedency was ranked the firſt Baron; and the greatneſs of theſe Knights grew to ſuch height that temp. H. 3. they had in Chriſtendom 19000 Mannors.

WHEN Saladine took J [...]ruſalem [...] theſe Knights retreated to A [...]res or Ptol [...]mais, and that being taken they ſeized upon the Iſland of Rhodes, A. D. 1308. whence they began to be call'd Knights of Rhodes; but A. D. 1522. being driven thence by Solyman, they betook themſelves to the Iſland [Page 23] of Malta, which with Tripoli and Goza were granted to them in Fee by the Emperor Charles V. A. D. 1530. under the Tender of one Falcon yearly to the Viceroy of Sicily, and to acknowledge the King of Spain and Sicily for their Protectors. In this Iſle they continue a Bulwark to thoſe Parts, and from this their Settlement are called Knights of Malta.

2.4.3. 3. Knights Templars.

ABOUT the Year 1117, 1118, 1119, or 1120, this Order took Beginning, Baldwin II. then reigning in Jeruſalem; when Nine Gentlemen, of whom Two of noble Extraction, Hugh de Paganes and Godfrey de St. Omer, came in Devotion to the Holy Land; they were called Brothers of the Militia of the Temple, ordinarily Knights Templars, from the Habitation aſſigned them out of a part of the King's own Palace, adjoyning to the Temple of Solomon in Jeruſalem. Their firſt Undertaking was to guard the moſt dangerous Ways about that City, againſt the Violence and Robberies of the Saracens, which made them acceptable to all, and for which they had Remiſſion of their Sins; but for the firſt Nine Years they were yet ſo poor that they lived upon the Alms of others, wore Clothes beſtowed in Charity upon them, and rode two on one Horſe; in memory of which primitive Poverty their Seal had the Impreſs, which is repreſented in Math. Paris, A. D. 1127. They had Rules aſſigned them, drawn up by St. Bernard Abbot of Clairvaux, by the Appointment of Pope Honorius II. and Stephen Patriarch of Jeruſalem. They made their Vows of Obedience, Poverty and Chaſtity, and to live under the Rules of Canons regular of St. Auguſtin. Their Habit was White, to which, in the Time of Eugenius III. they added the Red Croſs, and of the ſame Form that the Hoſpitallers wore ( [...]avin ſays a patriarchal Croſs) and ſowed it on the left Shoulder of the Ma [...]lles. Theſe with the Holy Sepulchre Hoſpitallers and Teutonicks, principally ſupported a long time the Kingdom of Jeruſalem; but when Riches encreas'd, and their Revenues augmented, they grew proud, ſell from the Obedience of the Patriarch to joyn with the Pope; and at laſt, [Page 24] 1307. all the Knights of this Order in France were, in one and the ſame Hour, ſeized and impriſon'd by Philip le [...]el, King of Fra [...]ce, with Conſent of Pope Clement V. being charged with moſt infamous and damnable Crimes. And in England, Anno 1. Ed. 2. they were alſo apprehended afterwards, rendred Convicts, and all their Poſſ [...]ſſions ſeized into the King s Hands. Howbeit the B ſhop of York commiſerating their dep [...]orable Condition within his Dioceſs, charitably diſpoſed of them in Monaſteries under his Juriſdiction. Two Years after many of theſe Knights were burn'd in [...]rance, and Jaqu [...]s de la Ma [...]le, the laſt great Maſter, ſuff [...]red the ſame Fate, having ſeen, A. D. 1312. his Order by Papal Au hority, condemned and perpetually diſſolved; after which their Lands were annex [...]d to the Hoſpitallers, for their Service againſt the Turks.

T [...]US they fell, no l [...]ſs famous for Martial Atchievments in the Eaſt, than their Weal h in the Weſt; for they enjoyed 16000 Lordſhips in Europe, and a Spaniſh Author tells us, their Revenue was Two Millions yearly, and h [...]d in poſſeſſion 40000 Commanderies, which occaſion'd divers to think they were f [...]lſly accuſed, and by ſuborned Witneſſes, merely upon the Ambition and covetous Deſign of Phil p King of [...]rance.

2.4.4. 4. Knigh [...]s of the Ord [...]r of St. Lazarus.

T [...]ESE were at the firſt a Fraternity of Religious Monks, after which they became Eccl [...]ſi [...]ſtick Knights, in Imitation of the Knights of the Holy Sepulchre. Pope P [...]s V. 1572. ſ [...]les it Ant quiſſimum Charitatis & M [...]ti [...] [...]riſti Ordin [...]m; yet it muſt be underſtood as an Order of Monks, founded by St. Paſ [...], about the time of [...]u [...]an the Apoſtate, A. D. 366. upon a Charitable Account, viz. to take Care of Leprous Perſons (a Malady frequent in the Eaſt) by which they became ſeparated, even from the Converſation of Men. At length, through the Incurſion of the Barbarians, and Injury of Time, it lay extinguiſh'd, but was revived when the Latin Princes joyned in a Holy League to recover the H [...]y Land. And a famous Hoſpital was erected at Jeruſa [...]m, under the Title of St. La [...]rus, [Page 25] for the Reception of Lepers: For in that Time [...]he Monks of this Order added Martial Diſcipline to their Skill in Phyſick; and for their Services againſt the Infid [...]ls, begat a great Eſteem from Baldwin II. King of Jeruſalem, and ſome of his Succeſſors. In proceſs of Time this Order decayed, being ſuppreſſed by Innocent VIII. who united it to the Hoſpitallers at Rhodes, A. D. 1490. Nevertheleſs Pius IV. reſtored it A. D. 1565. confirming the old, and granting new Privileges, making his Kinſman Don Janot de Chaſtillon great Maſter. Pius V. A. D. 1567. enlarged their Privileges, permitting them to take one Wife only, to wit, a Virgin, not a Widow. Laſtly, Pope Gregory XIII. A. D. 1572. beſtowed the Great Maſterſhip of this Order upon Emanuel Philibert Duke of Savoy, and his Succeſſors, and preſcribed them the Ciſtercian Rule; and accordingly he had the Inveſtiture and Collation of the Commanderies in Spain and Italy.

2.4.5. 5. Knights of the Teutonick Order, or Pruſſia.

IN the Time of the Holy War, a wealthy Gentleman of Germany, who dwelt at Jeruſalem, commiſerating the Condition of his Country-men, coming thither in Devotion, made his Houſe their Receptacle; afterwards he erected a Chapel to the Bleſſed Virgin, whence they had alſo the Title of Marian Knights. To him aſſociated other Germ [...]ns, and in ſhort time encreaſing, they profeſſed the Military Employments of the Templars, and followed the Acts of Piety and Charity of the Hoſpitallers. A. D. 1190. or 1191. they elected Henry Walpott their firſt Maſter, and the following Year were confirmed by Celeſtine III. under the Title of Knights T [...]utonicks, or Dutch Knights, of the Hoſpital of St. Mary the Virgin, vowing Poverty; Obedience, and Charity, and following the Rule of St. Auguſtin. Their Statutes were compoſed from thoſe of the Hoſpitallers and Templars, and One Article was, That none but Germans ſhould be of this Order. Their Habit was a White Mantle, on the Breaſt a plain Black Croſs, but ſome make it a Black Croſs voided with a Croſs Potent. At Acon they erected another Hoſpital; but after that [Page 26] City was taken by Saladine, they removed under Hermannus their Maſter into Germany, on whom the Emperor Frederick II. A. D. 1229. and Pope Honorius III. beſtowed Pruſſia; where having conquer'd that Nation, and reduced it from Paganiſm, they built the City of Maryburgh, and there, A. D. 1340. fixed the chief Reſidence of their great Maſter. This Country they enjoyed till 1525. that Albertus Brandenburgh, the laſt great Maſter, made ſolemn Renunciation of that Order, and became feudatory to Sigiſmond I. King of Poland, who created this Albert firſt Duke of Pruſſia: However, ſome of the Knights diſrelliſhing this Action elected another great Maſter, viz. Albert Wolfang, and leaving Pruſſia ſetled in Germany, where they now reſide. The younger Sons of the German Princes being, for the moſt part received into this Order, giving it the greateſt Reputation.

2.4.6. 6. Knights of Mount-Joy.

THESE are ſo called, from a Caſtle where this Order was inſtituted, built upon the Point of a Mountain not far from Jeruſalem, whence the Pilgrims firſt view'd the Holy City, and where theſe Knights lay in Garriſon. Their Habit was White, and the Badge thereof an Octogonal Croſs R [...]d; they vowed Poverty, Chaſtity, and Obedience, and followed the Rule of St. Baſil; which Pope Alexander III. A. D. 1180. changed to that of Auguſtine. Upon the Loſs of the Holy Land they retired to Spain, and fought againſt the Moors, and according to the Places they reſided in, had other Names, in Ca [...]alonia and Valentia, Equites de Mongoia, i. e. Mount Joy; but in Caſtile, Knights of Monfrac, a Caſtle there. When Alphonſo IX. King of Caſ [...]le gave them Lands they had won from the Moors, the Donation ſays, To you Don Rodrigo Gonſales, Maſter of Monfrac, of the Order of Mount Joy. Upon the Decay of this Order, A. D. 1221. this Caſtle was given to Don Gonſalionez, Maſter of the Order of Calatrava, by Ferdinand the Saint; and theſe Knights were incorporated with them.

2.4.7. 7. Knights of St. John of Acon or Acres.

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UNDER the Patronage of this Saint was this Order erected; they exerciſed all Duties of Charity towards Pilgrims, and aſſumed Arms in imitation of the Hoſpitellers; they followed the Rule of St. Auguſtine; and according to Favina, had a Black Habit, upon which they wore a White Croſs patee. After Acon was taken they removed into Spain, and flouriſhed in the Reign of Alphonſus the Aſtrologer King of Caſtile, about which time Pope Alexander IV. approved the Order under the conjoined Title of St. Thomas and St. John of Acon. This King gave them by his Will all the Furniture of his Houſe, and much Money; but afterward they dwindled, and at laſt were united to the Hoſpitallers. The Enſign was a Red Croſs, in the middle whereof ſtood the Figures of St. John and St. Thomas.

2.4.8. 8. Knights of St. Thomas.

DISTINCT from the former, yet wearing the ſame Habit, as the Knights of St. John of Acon, making the ſame Proceſſions, and following the ſame Rule; their Badge was a Saltire Gules, (or as others are of Opinion) the ſame with that of St. John of Acon, wanting the Figures in the middle: But Favin reports, this Order was inſtituted by King Richard I. after the Surprizal of Acon; and that theſe Knights were of the Engliſh Nation, who wore a White Habit and a Red Croſ [...], charged in the middle with an Eſ [...]llon, and that St. Thomas Be [...]k [...] was their Patron. Howbeit, after the Chriſtians were driven out of the Holy Land, the Knights of this Order were joined to the H [...]ſpi [...]llers [...]

2.4.9. 9. Knights of St. Blaze.

THESE were alſo called Knights d [...] S [...]a. Maria; they were Officers and Servants to the Kings of Armenia; their Habit was Sky colour with a Croſs Gold on their Breaſts; others ſay a R [...]d Croſs, and in the middle th [...] [Page 28] Picture of St. Blaze, their Patron. This Order was at the height, when the Armenian Kings of the Houſe of Luzignan kept their Court in Acon.

2.4.10. 10. Knights of the Martyrs in Paleſtine.

THESE took their Denomination from an Hoſpital in Paleſtine, dedicated to St. Coſmus and St. Damianus, Martyrs; where Acts of Charity were exerciſed towards Sick Strangers. Their Profeſſion obliged them to other Works of Mercy, viz. to redeem Captives, and bury their Dead. They followed the Rule of St. Baſil, which was confirmed to them by Pope John XXII. There Badge was a Red Croſs, in the middle whereof, within a Circle, was the aforeſaid Two Saints. When they retir'd into Europe they changed into a Red Croſs, and St. Auguſtin's Rule.

2.4.11. 11. Knights of St. Catherine at Mount Sinai.

THIS Order was inſtituted, A. D. 1063. under the Patronage of St. Catherine, whoſe Body was there depoſited in the Church of the Monaſtery erected and dedicated to her Name. Their firſt Inſtitution was to guard the ſaid Sepulchre, to ſecure Travellers, defend the Grecian Pilgrims, and to relieve them with Hoſpitality. Their Habit was White, and they lived under the Rule of St. Baſil the Great, vowing conjugal Chaſtity, and Obedience to the Abbot of this Monaſtery, who was their Superior. But when the Turks obtained theſe Countries, theſe Knights were ill treated and driven away, and the Order almoſt aboliſhed; nevertheleſs ſome Shadow remains for ſuch as travel to viſit the Holy Sepulchre at Jeruſalem, do now and then paſs to this Monaſtery at Mount Sinai, where in imitation of the Padre Guardian of Jeruſalem, the principal Monk in this Covent makes them Knights of St. Catherine over her Tomb, with the like Queſtions and Formulary as uſed at the Holy Sepulchre. Theſe Knights now wear upon the left ſide of their White Habit the Croſs of Jeruſalem, and Inſtrument of St. Catherine's Martyrdom; but according to others, the middle of the Wheel is pierced with a Sword.

2.4.12. 12. Knights of St. Anthony in Aethiopia.

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AFTER the Death of St. Anthony the Hermite, who dy'd about the Year 357. many of his Diſciples remaining near Aethiopia, follow'd his Example and Manner of Life, and their Succeſſors liv'd in great Aufterity and Solitarineſs in the Deſart (therefore call'd Anchorites) till the Year 370. when 'tis ſaid John, Emperor of Aethiopia, erected them into a Religious Order of Knighthood, under the Title and Protection of St. Anthony, Patron of his Empire, and beſtow'd upon them great Privileges; and being thus inſtituted, they receiv'd St. Baſil's Rule, and cohabited in Monaſteries. Their Habit is black, with a blue Croſs Tau. Their chief Seat is in the Iſle of Meroe; but in other Parts of Aethiopia they have great Numbers of Convents, and no leſs than 2000000 of annual Revenue. The eldeſt Sons of Nobles and Gentlemen cannot be admitted, but the ſecond Sons may; and if a Man (except a Phyſician) have three Sons, he is bound to aſſign one of them to be of this Order. Their Vow is to obſerve conjugal Chaſtity; to die in Defence of the Chriſtian Faith; to guard the Empire; to obey their Laws and their Superiors; and to go to War when and whereſoever commanded: Moreover, they take an Oath not to fight in Wars between Chriſtians, nor receive Holy Orders, or marry without Licenſe. They are of two Sorts: One employ'd in the Wars, the other who being Old are exempted from Military Services, and retire themſelves under the Title and Profeſſion of Monks, to the Abbies where they firſt took their Habit; before which they muſt ſerve three Years againſt the Arabian Pyrates about the Red Sea, three Years againſt the Turks, and three againſt the Moors upon the Borders of Borneo. When they come to be admitted into their Abbey, they are introduced in their Military Habit, of which being diſrob'd, the Religious one is put on, viz. a black Gown reaching down to the Ground, lined with blue, having a blue Croſs fix'd to the Breaſt, and over that a black Cowle; they are afterwards led to the Church, and there make their [Page 30] Profeſſion. Philip VII. Son to the Founder, enlarg'd their Lands and Privileges, and added a Border of Gold to the Badge of the blue Croſs, as obſerved at this Day.

IN Italy, France and Spain, there are a Sort of Monks that have the Title of Knights of St. Anthony, which obſerve the Rule of St. Auguſtin, and they wear a plain Croſs like that in Aethiopia; but the Principals of theſe wear a double St. Anthony's Croſs of blue Satin, the one above the other. Their chief Seat is at Vienne in Dauphine, of which Place the General of the Order bears the Title of Abbot, the Monaſtery being erected into an Abbey 1297. in Honour of St. Anthony, whoſe Body was tranſlated thither from Conſtantinople; and all other Places built in Honour of his Name, were made ſubject to him A. D. 1523. Moroeus calls them The Hoſpitallers of St. Anthony, and ſays they begun in France A. D. 1121. from Gaſton a Nobleman of Vienna. But Baronius and others ſay, Gaſton and Gerin inſtituted it earlier, making the Letter Thau their Enſign or Badge.

2.4.13. 13. The Conſtantinian Angelick Knights of St. George in Greece, but now in Italy.

MARQUEZ, a Spaniſh Writer, makes this one of the firſt Military Orders in Chriſtendom, and derives a formal Inſtitution, Rules and Laws from Conſtantine the Great, which appears little better than Fabulous, therefore we ſhall omit his Account.

THE Great Maſters have their chief Seat and Convent at Brianno near Venice, and is Hereditary in the Family of Angelus Flavius Comnenus. Among the reſt of their Prerogatives, the Maſters are Commenſales Pontificum, i. e. may ſit at the Table with the Pope, who defends them as Benefactors to the Church, and Founders of the Lateran Cathedral at Rome. As Subjects to no Prince, they have Power of coyning Money: They give Titles of Counts and Princes to their own Fraternity, and take upon them the reſtoring to Honours, of legitimating Baſtands, making Doctors, Poets Laureats and Publick Notaries. This Order is under the Protection of [Page 31] the Virgin Mary and Patronage of St. George; and they profeſs Obedience and conjugal Chaſtity; they wear a white Habit, on the left Side whereof is ſowed a red or crimſon Velvet Croſs, Flory; in the middle is the Labarum \s?\ imbroidered with the Letter A upon one Arm of the Croſs, and \s?\ on the other. The Sides are wrought with Gold and Silk, but the Labarum is all Gold. Amongſt theſe Knights are three Degrees; the firſt call'd Collered or Grand Croſſes, wearing a Collar form'd of Labarums, whereat hangs the Croſs and St. George. The ſecond are the Knights, and theſe wear the Croſs above deſcrib'd. The third are Servants, and they bear the Croſs only, without the Labarum. The many Grand Priorates or Commanderies belonging to this Order, ſhew the Power they were formerly endow'd with.

2.4.14. 14. Knights of St. James in Galicia or Sanctiago.

THIS is the principal Order in Spain, and had it [...] Title of Don Raniro, King of Leon, who about the Year 826. at Clavigio, by the Aſſiſtance of St. James (ſaid to appear upon a white Horſe, bearing a Banner with a red Croſs) and gain'd a mighty Victory over a great Army of the Moors. Some place the Inſtitution about the Year 1160. others 1175. whereas it was only then confirm'd, and their Rule of Living preſcrib'd by Pope Alexander III. there being a Fraternity of Knights in Spain, A. D. 1030. under a Maſter and Governor, with Revenues.

AND altho' this Order at firſt were diſpos'd to v [...]rtuous Courſes, and valiantly to encounter the Moors, En [...]mies to the Croſs of Chriſt, yet in time they became ſcandalouſly perverted, but were afterwards reduc'd to a better Life, and approv'd on by the ſaid Pope Alexander, who receiv'd them into the Protection of the Papal See, and gave them the Rule of St. Auguſtin, the Form of holding Chapters, of electing their Maſters, of Tr [...]ves, and thirteen Commendadores of Houſes, and of the Viſitors; and in ſhort very large Privil [...]ges, together with the Monaſtery of St. Lorjo, ſituate in Galicia near [Page 32] Sanctiago; and the Prior and Canons thereof were incorporated into this Order.

THEIR Enſign is a red Croſs, which the Knights wear upon their Breaſt, terminating like the Blade of a Sword, the Hilt croſletted and faſhion'd after the ancient Manner; whereupon it was call'd La Order de Sanctiago de la Eſpada.

THEIR Habit is a white Mantle cloſe before, on the Breaſt whereon is placed the ſaid Croſs, made of Silk or Cloth, and they are obliged to wear it upon their Garments, Coats or Cloaks, tho' they uſe Croſſes of Gold likewiſe.

WHEN the Moors were driven out of Spain, and the principal Branch of this Order expir'd, upon a Conteſt for the Place of Great Maſter, the Crown of Caſtile ſtepp'd in between, and by conſent of the Knights. obtain'd it under the Title of Adminiſtrator, which was granted to King Ferdinand; and his Son Charles V. annex'd it with all its Rights, &c. to his Succeſſors in the Kingdoms of Caſtile and Leon. Since which, the Kings of Spain now enjoy the Adminiſtration of this Order, and carry that Title and Stile in the Inſcription upon the Great Seal thereof, which holds the Royal Arms of Spain, upon a Croſs that filleth all the Shield, with a Sword at each of the four Corners.

2.4.15. 15. Knights of St. Saviour in Arragon.

THESE were inſtituted A. D. 1118. by Don Alphonſo, call'd Emperor of Spain, King of Navarre, Arragon, &c. choſen out of the Spaniſh and French Nobility that aſſiſted in his Wars. He form'd them into a Society, the better to enable him to drive the Moors out of Saragoſſa, and the whole Territory of Arragon. Their Rule of living was the Ciſter [...]an, and ſomewhat conformable to the Knights Templars. When the Moors were driven out of Spain, their rich Commanderies were at length united to the Crown.

THEIR Habit was a white Mantle, on the Breaſt whereof was a red Croſs Anchre; but ſome ſay it was the Figure of our Saviour

2.4.16. 16. Knights d'Avis in Portugal.

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DON Alphonſo Henriquez, firſt King of Portugal, took from the Moors, A. D. 1147. the City of Evora, and to ſtrengthen it, ſent thither ſeveral gallant Commanders, who aſſum'd the Title of Knights of St. Mary of Evora, putting themſelves under the Protection of our bleſſed Lady. Not long after they were call'd d'Avis, from a Caſtle upon the Portugueſe Frontiers, conquer'd from the Moors, whither they tranſplanted themſelves. It was confirm'd by Pope Innocent III. A. D. 1204. under the Rule of St. Benedict, and therefore in ſome Papal Rules call'd of St. Benedict d'Avis. The Knights profeſs conjugal Chaſtity and Obedience. Anno 1213. they ſubmitted themſelves to the Rule, Statutes and Viſitation of the Order of Calatrava; but in the Time of John of Portugal (natural Son to Pedro King of Portugal) ſeventh Great Maſter d'Avis, they caſt off their Acknowledgments to Calatrava, and never after ſubmitted to them; and afterwards, when the Crown of Portugal fell into the Hands of Philip II. King of Spain, this Order was govern'd according to the Statutes of Portugal.

Their Badge is a green Croſs, Flory, (ſuch as the Knights of Alcantara us'd to wear.) They muſt be Gentlemen by Extraction, both of the Father's and Mother's ſide.

2.4.17. 17. Knights of St. Michael's Wing in Portugal.

About the Year 1165. others ſay 1171. Don Alphonſo, who founded the Order d'Avis, founded this alſo after his obtaining a notable Victory over the Moors and Albara King of Sevil, in which Battle St. Michael the Archangel is ſaid to appear on the right Side of Alphonſo, and fight againſt them.

Their Inveſtitute, &c. was the ſame with d'Avis. It is now grown out of Uſe, but the Maſterſhip remains with the King of Portugal.

2.4.18. 18. Knights of St. Gereon.

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This Order was eſtabliſh'd by Frederick Barbaroſſa the Emperor; others ſay by Frederick II. and conſiſted only of the German Nation. They follow'd the Rule of St. Auguſtin, and wore a white Habit, whereon was ſow'd a black Patriarchal Croſs, ſet on a little green Hill.

2.4.19. 19. Knights of St. Julian de Pereyro, or of Alcantara.

They had the firſt Appellation from St. Julian de Pereyro, a Town in Leon, where they had a Monaſtery built for them by Ferdinand II. King of Leon and Gali [...]ia, who in his Diploma of Privileges granted thereunto 1176. ſtiled himſelf Protector of this Society of Knights. In the Approbation-Bull of Pope Alexander III. their Chief is called Prior; but in that of Pope Lucius III. he is ſtiled Maſter of Pereyro. They uſed a Secular Habit, modeſt and grave, and the Eccleſiaſticks a Clerical Habit, with a Shred of Cloth and a Scapulary, to diſtinguiſh them from other Seculars and Eccleſiaſticks. They obſerved the Rule of St. Benedict moderated, as it was convenient for the Exerciſe of Arms againſt the Moors, for which End it was inſtituted. Their ancient Badge was a Pear-tree Vert, in Alluſion to the Name.

The Occaſion of altering the firſt Appellation was upon change of their Habitation. Pope Adrian VI. annex'd this Maſterſhip, together with thoſe of St. James and Calatrava, to the Royal Crown of Caſtile for ever.

2.4.20. 20. Knights of Trugillo or Truxillo in Spain.

This Order is ſo call'd from the City of Trugillo in [...]remad [...]ra, but when, or by whom founded, or their [...]adge, is unknown. Some ſuppoſe theſe Knights the ſame with that of Alcantara; 'tis evident they were in being A. D. 1227. when 'tis pretended the Maſter of A'cantara took Trugillo from the Moors, and plac'd there a Brotherhood of Knights. But it ſeems theſe Knights [Page 35] of Truxillo, were a diſtinct Order ſeveral Years before, and 'tis not unlikely that they might be incorporated into that of St. Julian de Pereyro, and by this Means the Order of Alcantara acquired the Towns of Trugillo, Sancta Cruz, &c. which Alfonſo IX. King of Caſtile had given them. They were to be of Noble Deſcent, and make proof of their Gentility; they were obliged to be near the King's Perſon, and to attend him in all Martial Expeditions, maintaining always Two Horſes and Servants in Readineſs.

2.4.21. 21. Knights of Calatrava.

This Order was inſtituted in Caſtile by Sanchio III. and ſo called from Cala [...]rava, a Frontier Caſtle of Caſtile and Toledo, which the Moors took, A. D. 714. compounded of the Arabick Cala a Caſtle, and the Spaniſh Travas Manacles, with which the Moors fettered the Chriſtians; 400 Years after which, upon the Recovery of the Town from the Moors, it was given to the Knights Templars; but they, un [...]ble to ſtop the mighty Conqueſts of the Moors, the ſaid S [...]nch [...]o by Proclamation promis'd the Inheritance to any who would undertake the Defence of it, being the Key of the Kingdom of Toledo. At length Raymond of Barcelona (formerly a Knight, then a Ciſtercian Abbot) by the Perſwaſion of Velaſquez, accepted the Proffer, and had the Donation, A. D. 1158. and fortifying it by the Help of his Aſſociates, this Order aroſe, call'd at firſt Militia de Calatrava. Upon the account of the F [...]rtility of the Place, 20000 Men and their Families were drawn from the neighbouring Countries to ſettle there, ſo that the Moors never after attempted it. They remain'd under their own Maſters till Pope Adrian VI. annex'd it to the Crowns of Caſtile and L [...]on.

2.4.22. 22. Order of the Holy Ghoſt at Rome.

Marquez calls them Brothers of the Hoſpital of the Holy Ghoſt, who tho' not inveſted with Swords and Spurs, are nevertheleſs reckoned among the Military Orders, becauſe bound to certify their Gentility before Admittance. [Page 36] Their chief Seat is the Sumptuous Hoſpital of the Holy Ghoſt, founded at Saxia near the River Tyber at Rome, by Pope Innocent III. A. D. 1198. or 1201. But the Ancient Foundation was the Hoſpital of the Holy Ghoſt at Montpelier in France, tho' this other became the Principal. They profeſs Chaſtity, Poverty, and Obedience, living under the Rule of St. Auguſtine, and have a Maſter. Their Enſign is a White Patriarchal Croſs with Twelve Po [...]nts, ſowed to their Breaſt, and on the left ſide of their Black Mantle.

In this Hoſpital, Care is taken for the nurſing and bringing up expoſed Children, curing Infirmities, Entertainment of Strangers for Three Days, relieving the Poor, and the like Works. Their Revenue is about 24000 Ducats per Day, having great Commandaries in Italy, Sicily, Spain, France, Burgundy, Germany, and elſewhere.

2.4.23. 23. Knights of St. George d'Alfama.

So named from a Town in Tortoſa, were inſtituted, A. D. 1201. received Approbation from the Papal See, A. D. 1363. and A. D. 1399. was united to the Order of our Lady of Monteſa.

2.4.24. 24. Knights of Chriſt in Livonia, or of the Swordbearers.

A. D. 1186. Mainard firſt preach'd Chriſtianity to the [...]ivonians, and erected the Biſhoprick of Riga; but his Succ [...]ſſors meeting with many Difficulties, A. D. 1200. Albert, then Biſhop of Livonia, inſtituted this Order in Imitation of the Knights Teutonicks, with deſign to ex [...]irpate Idolatry, and promote the Goſpel. He preſcribed to theſe Knights the Ciſtercian Rule and Habit, viz. a long White Mantle and Black Hood; on the Breaſt was the Figure of a Red Sword, or rather Two plac [...]d in Saltire, whence they had the Title of Enſiferi fratres, or Brethren Sword-bearers. Their Statutes were ſomething like the Knights Templars, and they vowed Obedience and Chaſtity. Pope Innocent III. confirmed this Order, which became fully inſtituted, A. D. 1203. but becauſe [Page 37] they could not of themſelves accompliſh their End [...] About the Year 1237, they were united to the Teutonick Order, and ſubmitted to their Rule and Habit, by whoſe Help they overcame the Livonians, and brought them to the Chriſtian Faith; thenceforward the Great Maſter of Livonia acknowledged him of Pruſſia their Superior, until Walter de Pletemberg, their Great Maſter, ſeparated this Order from their Obedience to the Teutonick. Finally, A. D. 1561. Gothard de Ketler, the laſt Great Maſter, following the Exmaple of the Great Maſter of Pruſſia, became ſubject to the Crown of Poland, ſurrendering to King Sigiſmond II. the City and Caſtle of Riga, and all the Lands, Charters, Privileges, &c. of this Order, receiving in exchange the Dukedom of Curland, to him and his Heirs for ever; ſo the Order expired after 357 Years continuance.

2.4.25. 25. Knights of Jeſus Chriſt in Italy or France.

ST. Dominick deſcended of the Family of the Guzmans in Spain, inſtituted this Order, A. D. 1206. principally to fight againſt the Albigenſes, then call'd Hereticks. He preſcribed to them a White Habit, and for their Badge a Croſs flory, quarterly, ſable and argent. The Work being done with the Albigenſes, they devoted themſelves wholly to ſpiritual Warfare; and afterwards, upon admitting Widows and Virgins into their Order, they became called Fratres ſeu Sorores de Foenitentia B. Dominici, whoſe Rule Pope Innocent VI. confirm'd circa An. 1360.

2.4.26. 26. Knights of St. Mary de Merced. in Aragon.

James I. of Aragon, being ſometime a Priſoner to Simon Earl of Montfort in France, where he ſuffered much Hardſhip, and being moved with the inſufferable Miſeries the Chriſtians endured under the Slavery of the Moors, made a Vow to the Bleſſed Virgin, That when delivered himſelf, he would endeavour the Redemption of ſuch Chriſtians as the Moors had made Captives, and accordingly laid up great Summs for the Performance; and afterwards, by the Council of Raymond de Pen aſort, his Confeſſor, and Pedro Nolaſco, a Nobl [...] [Page 38] Chevalier, he founded in Barcelona this Order of la Nueva Merced, ſo named by the Virgin, who, as they reported, appeared to them all in one and the ſame Hour, directing the Inſtitution. In Anno 1358. I find it called alſo Ordo beatae Eu [...]aliae, from St. Eulal [...]a the Virgin and Martyr, buried at Parcelona in the Church bearing her Name. This Order began on the Day of St. Laurence, in Auguſt, A. D. 1218. in the Fifth Year of that King, which Day they annually commemorate. They were to gather Alms, and go in Perſon to redeem Chriſtian Slaves; which Work proſpered ſo well, that V [...]laſco (the firſt General or Head) ſet at Liberty 400 within the Space of Six Years after its Foundation. Their Habit was a Coat and Scapular of courſe white Cloath, garniſhed with Cordons and Ribbons, where with they faſt'ned it about their Necks, and from the upper-end thereof iſſued a Cap that covered half their Head: The Monks wore their Coats and Scapulars reaching down to their Feet; but thoſe of the Knights were much ſhorter. A. D. 1251. King James, the Founder, granted unto all the Fraternity, that they ſhould wear upon their Scapulars the Arms of Aragon, viz. Or 4 Pales Gules, and above that the White Croſs of the Church of Parcelona in a red Field, with Two Coats joined together per feſs in one Shield, which came afterwards to be encompaſſed with a Bordure, which the Knights wore on their Scapulars, but the Monks on their Mantles, and both upon their Breaſts. Diſputes ariſing among themſelves, they were incorporated with the Knights of Mont [...]ſa; ſo that, ever ſince, the whole Fraternity have been only Prieſts. The Maſter General hath his Reſidence at Barcelona, by the Decrees of Pope Clement V. and John XXII. To conclude, they now collect great Sums of Money, ſend out their Agents yearly, chiefly to Alg [...]ers and Feſs, and for the Redemption of Chriſtian Captives, and have from the Time of their Inſtitution followed their propoſed Ends with all religious Care and Faithfulneſs.

2.4.27. 27. Knights of the Roſary in Toledo.

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Roderick, Biſhop of Toledo in Spain, ſeeing the Country ſore oppreſſed by the Moors, aſſembled the Nobleſt of the City, and propoſed the Neceſſity of their Aſſiſtance to extirpate the Moors; whereunto they being unanimouſly inclin'd, he gave Beginning to this Order. By their Statutes, beſides fighting againſt the Moors, they are obliged to ſay, continually, the Roſary of our Bleſſed Lady. Their Rule of Living was that of St. Dominick; and their Enſign the Figure of our Lady of the Roſary upon a Croſs flory, quarterly, argent and ſable.

2.4.28. 28. Knights of St. Mary the Glorious, in Italy.

Their Author was Bartholomeo de Vincenza, a Friar Preacher, or Dominican, afterwards Biſhop of that City. The End he chiefly deſigned, was to procure Peace to Italy, then much diſquieted by Civil Wars. It was inſtituted, A. D. 1233. called Generalis Devotionis annus, and approved and confirmed by Pope Urban IV. A. D. 1262. and the Rule of St. Dominick preſcribed them, who are obliged to take into their Care Widows and Orphans, and endeavour to beget Concord among ſuch as are at Variance. Their Habit is a White Tunick or Caſſock, and a Mantle of Ruſſet; ſome make their Badge which they wear upon their Beaſt a purple Croſs patee bordered with Gold, others make it a purpl Croſs patee, with Two Stars in chief; but Marquez, that has writ of the Order of Knighthood, gives it an Octogonal Croſs, like that of Malta. They profeſs Obedience and Conjugal Chaſtity; but are forbid to wear Spurs or Bridles of Gold: They are commonly called Cavaleri de Madona, and reſide at Bolonia, Modena, and other Italian Cities; and becauſe they have no Monaſteries, but dwell in their own Houſes at Eaſe and Plenty, they were called Fratres Gaudentes or Hilares.

2.4.29. 29. Knights of St. James, in Portugal,

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WERE inſtituted, A. D. 1310. by Denys VI. King of Portugal, in honour of St. James, under whoſe Protection he became victorious in divers Battles againſt the Moors, and at length quieted his Kingdom by the Aſſiſtance of theſe Knights. It was not long after its Inſtitution ere this Order flouriſhed, through the Privileges the Founder beſtowed, and the Approbation of Pope Nicholas IV. and others his Succeſſors. The Knights profeſs Conjugal Chaſtity, Hoſpitality and Obedience, and none are admitted till they make proof of their Gentility by Blood. Their Enſign is a red Sword, formed like that of St. James of Galicia; the Habit White, and the only difference between them lies in a little Twiſt of Gold which theſe of Portugal draw about their Sword. At Alcaſar de Sul was their Principal Convent, which they afterwards removed to Dalmela, where it yet continues. Their Statutes, &c. are much the ſame with thoſe of St. James in Galicia, whereupon ſome erroneouſly have confounded them.

2.4.30. 30. Knights of our Lady, and of St. George of Monteſa.

THIS Order ſucceeded into the Lands and Poſſeſſions of the Knights Templars in Valentia, as the Knights Hoſpitallers did into thoſe of the Templars in France, Italy, and England; for James II. King of Aragon and Valentia, refuſing to give their Revenues to the Hoſpitallers (which as other Princes had done) gave them to the Convent of Monteſa, where had been placed both Knights and Friars of the Order of Calatrava; and excuſing himſelf to Pope John XXII. A. D. 1317. he inſtituted this Order in the City Valentia (nevertheleſs ſubject to that of Calatrava) and made choice of the Town of Monteſa, to give the Knights both Name and Habitation, whom he obliged to defend his Kingdom againſt the Moors. Their College, dedicated to St. George, was built the following Year, and their Statutes confirmed by the ſaid Pope John, who gave them the Ciſtercian [Page 41] Rule. Upon their Habit is White, and the Badge a plain red Croſs, which they wear on their Breaſts. A. D. 1399. the Order of St. George d' Alfama was incorporated to it. And the Great Office of Maſter hereof is in the King of Spain, who hath the Revenue of Thirteen Commandaries belonging thereunto to the Value of 23000 Ducats per annum.

2.4.31. 31. Knights of Chriſt in Portugal.

THESE ſprang alſo from the Ruin of the Knights Templars, whoſe confiſcated Eſtates King Denys, ſirnamed Penoca, deſired of Pope John XXII. might not be diſpoſed out of his Kingdom, in regard of the great Evils the Neighbouring Moors in Algarves, did his Kingdom; and foraſmuch as the Town of Caſtro Marin was a Frontier, and commodious to reſiſt the Enemy, he moved for Licence to inſtitute an Order of Knights therein, and offer'd his Holineſs the Rents and Juriſdiction thereof, which accordingly was granted by the Pope, and dedicated it to the Honour of God, and the Exaltation of the Catholick Faith, under the Title of the Military Order of our Lord Jeſus Chriſt, as is alledged from the miraculous Apparition of our Saviour crucified, ſeen by the King when he went out to fight the Moors.

2.4.32. 32. Knights of the Paſſion of Jeſus Chriſt.

THIS Order was erected by Charles King of France, (tho' it made no Progreſs) and our King Richard II. with a large Deſign exceeding all other Religious Orders, except thoſe of St. John of Jeruſalem and Knights Templars. They were to renew the Memory of our Saviour's Paſſion, to extirpate Pride, Covetouſneſs and Luxury, to make way for the Reconqueſt of Jeruſalem and Paleſtine, and for the Subverſion and Confuſion of Enemies of the Faith. A MSS. in the Arundelian Library, reckons up Twenty Cauſes for the Neceſſity of its Inſtitution, which are too long to be inſerted; and altho' it was dedicated to our Saviour, yet the Bleſſed Virgin was look'd upon as a principal Mediatreſs and [Page 42] Advocate of this Holy Chevalry. Their Governments in the principal Convent, were to be debated by Five Councils, in the Preſence of the Prince: 1. The Quotidian Council, conſiſting of Twenty-four: 2. The Particular conſiſting of about Fourty: 3. The Grand Council conſiſting of Eighty. 4. The General Chapter held every Year. And, 5. The Univerſal Chapter to be held every Fourth or Sixth Years, conſiſting of a Thouſand Knights of the Chevalry. The Principal Officer was the Grand Juſticiary, the next the Grand Bailiff: In the Chief City, and in every City and Caſtle of theirs, one was to adminiſter Juſtice called a Poteſtate. In the general Chapter was to be an Officer called the Senator, and in the Univerſal Chapter a Dictator with Coadjutors and Aſſiſtants.

IN the principal Convent were to be Ten Executers of Juſtice, and Four ſtyled Charitable Commiſſaries, whoſe Office was, to provide for Widows and Orphans; and whereas this Order was made up of Eight ſeveral Languages, and as many Notaries, who put on the Habit of the Brothers; for the greater Regularity of their Order, they were to bind themſelves by Oath to the Obſervance of theſe Three Points, Obedience to Sovereigns, Poverty of Spirit, and Conjugal Chaſtity. They were allotted for their Maintainance, the Poſſeſſion of Cities, Caſtles, &c. Gold, Silver, &c. and all to be in common, &c.

There was to belong to the Caſtle or Principal Convent a Church of marvellous Structure; it was deſign'd Fifty Cubits in breadth, without any Pillars, a Hundred Cubits long, and in height Twenty-five; likewiſe an Hoſpital, where the Widows of the Holy Chevalry ſhould attend upon the Sick and Infirm; a Baptiſtery or Font, for the Baptizing the Children of the Knights; a ſtately Palace, with a great Hall and large Conſiſtories, to contain the Prince and Council with their Retinue; with a large and delightful Cloiſter for the Canons and Clerks; together with a very ſpacious Palace, to entertain the Princes of the Weſt when they came that Way, either to War, or upon Pilgrimage: In ſine, there was to have been Three chief Halls, wherein [Page 43] they might dine together; with diſtinct Lodgings and Habitations, Wine-Cellars, Granges, Granaries, Stables for Horſes and Cattel, Eaſements, Mills, Ciſterns, Baths, and all other Neceſſaries for the Chevalry. Their Habit was to denote the Paſſion of Jeſus.

THE Dreſs they were obliged to was a hanſome Cloth Coat of a civil Colour, reaching down half way their Legs, and girt with a large Girdle of Silk or Leather Two Fingers broad, the Buckle of Black Horn, the Tongue and Garniſhing of the Holes, Tin; to have Red Chaperons or Caps, repreſenting the Blood of our Saviour; over their ſaid Coats, a Mantle of White Cloth or Serge, which from the Shoulders downward was to be open on both Sides along the Arms, and in that Part before the Breaſt a Croſs of red Cloth or Serge Two Fingers broad, extending to the Breadth and Length of that Part of the Mantle; the Croſs of the Prince's Mantle was to be edged round with a Gold Fringe about half an Inch broad; there were to be ſome other ſmall Diſtinction as to the Shape of the Croſs upon the White Habit to be uſed by this Holy Chevalry. Their Arms in a Banner were Argent, upon a Croſs Gules; a Compaſs of Four convex ſemi-circles, conjoyning Four intervening Angles alternately ſable (in Alluſion to the Agony of our Lord) charged with an Agnus Dei Or, the Compaſs and Croſs both fimbriated Gold, with a little red Bordure.

IN Times of extraordinary Danger, and great Battles, they were to have another ſingular and ſolemn Banner; every Knight was to have his Eſquire armed at all Points, a little Valet for his Lance and Helmet, a bigger to carry his Mail, and a third to lead his Sumpter; Five Horſes, and Four Servants were to attend him in all Warlike Expeditions, and Two or Three Horſes and Servants in all Times of Peace. The Number of theſe Knights of the Holy Chevalry was 1000 or 1100.

2.4.33. 33. The Order of the Brician Knights in Sweden.

WAS founded, A. D. 1366. by an holy and famous Queen of that Kingdom which they repute St. Bridget, [Page 44] the Aim of whoſe Profeſſion was to oppoſe Hereſy, ſecure the Confines of the Kingdom, bury the Dead, ſuccour Widows and Fatherleſs, and to keep up Hoſpitality. Their chief Enſign was a Blue Octogonal Croſs, and under it a Tongue of Fire, the Symbol of Love and Charity.

2.4.34. 34. Knights of St. Maurice in Savoy.

THIS Order took its riſe upon the Retreat of Amadeus VIII. Duke of Savoy, into the Deſart of Ripaille, near the Lake of Geneva, and was conferr'd by him, A. D. 1434. on Ten of his Courtiers, who retir'd with him, as well as to preſerve the Memory of St. Maurice, the Patron of Savoy. Nine Years after its Inſtitution, the Founder was elected Pope, A. D. 1439. and aſſumed the Name of Felix V. Nine Years after that he reſigned the Chair, and retir'd to his Solitude in Ripaille, where he died, Jan. 7. 1451. and lies buried at Lauſanna. The Order continued not long after his Death; but Duke Emanuel Philibert reſtored it, A. D. 1572. and the Dukes of Savoy are their Grand Maſters.

2.4.35. 35. Knights of the Holy Ghoſt,

WERE inſtituted by Pope Paul II. A. D. 1468. under the Title of Brethren of the Hoſpital of the Holy Ghoſt. They wore upon their Habits a White Croſs forme.

2.4.36. 36. Knights of St. George in Auſtria and Carinthia.

THE Emperor Frederick III. others ſay Rudolphus of Hapsburgh, firſt Founder of the Greatneſs of the Houſe of Auſtria, inſtituted this Order, A. D. 1470. chiefly to guard the Frontiers of Germany, Hungary, Auſtria, Stiria, and Carinthia, and to ſuppreſs the Inſolency of the Turks, ſince which theſe Knights have gallantly behaved themſelves. The Great Maſter was advanc'd to the Honour of a Prince; and the Caſtle of Mildſtad in Carinthia was given him for his Seat, where was [Page 45] founded a Cathedral Church of Canons, under the Rule of St. Auguſtin. Their Enſign is the Arms of St. George, a red Croſs, and their Habit white; they profeſs Conjugal Chaſtity and Obedience, and have the Emperors for their Protectors.

THERE are alſo Cavalleros de San Jorge en Alemania, an Order erected by the Emperor Maximilian, 1494. upon the like Deſign with the former; it was confirmed by Pope Alexander VI. and is under the ſame Profeſſion and Protection as the other. There Enſign is a red Croſs, with a Crown of Gold on the top of it; they were otherwiſe called crowned Knights; for after they had ſerved a Year, they and their Heirs have a peculiar right of Adorning their Shields and Helms with a Crown; the Occaſion was upon a notable Victory obtained againſt the Turks, who confeſſed that a Man on Horſeback ſuppoſed to be St. George, put them into that Fear and Diſorder as to quit the Field.

2.4.37. 37. Knights of St. George at Rome.

THESE were inſtituted by Alexander VI. 1498. or, as others ſay, by Pope Paul III. at whoſe Death it became extinct. They dwelt at Ravenna, their Province, and were to ſecure the Adriatick Sea from Pyrates.

2.4.38. 38. Knights of St. Peter at Rome.

POPE Leo X. A. D. 1520. inſtituted this Order to fight againſt the Turks, and defend the Sea Coaſts. Their Number was Four Hundred; they wore the Image of St. Peter within an Oval of Gold hanging at a Golden Chain.

2.4.39. 39. Knights of St. Paul at Rome,

WERE inſtituted by Paul III. 1540. and while he was Pope, he made Two Hundred of them. Their Enſign was St. Paul's Image hanging at a Golden Chain.

2.4.40. 40. Knights called Pios at Rome.

[Page 46]

POPE Pius IV. erected this Order 1560. He created of them at firſt 375. but they encreaſed to 535. He granted them very conſiderable Endowments, and preferr'd them before the Knights of the Empire, and Malta, becauſe they were his Courtiers, and had the Charge of carrying his Chair on their Shoulders when he went abroad.

2.4.41. 41. Knights of St. Stephen at Florence.

THIS Order was founded in imitation of the Knights of Malta, 1561. by Coſmo de Medicis II. Duke of Florence, afterwards firſt Duke of Tuſcany, in honour of St. Stephen, Pope and Martyr, the Patron of the City of Florence, and in memory of the Battle on the 6th of Auguſt, (St. Stephens-day) at Marciano, where overthrowing the Aſſertors of Liberty, he laid the Foundation of his Grandeur. Pius IV. confirmed it under the Rule of St. Benedict, which was afterwards enlarged with many Emoluments and Privileges, by the ſucceeding Popes. The Knights vow'd Conjugal Chaſtity and Charity, in relieving the Afflicted, Obedience to their Maſters the Great Dukes of Tuſcany. The chief Place of their Reſidence was at Piſa, where the Founder erected a Church and Convent, as a Nurſery for Perſons skilful in Maritime Affairs, but ſince it is transferred to Coſmopoli in the Iſle of Ilva. Their Habit is a long Mantle of White Chamlet trimmed with Red, and on the left part of their Breaſt a Croſs (like that of Malta) of red or crimſon Satin bord [...]r'd with Gold; it is daily worn on their Cloaks, and on their Military Garments, and about their Necks in a Ribbon on Feſtival Days. This Order (like the Malteſe) alſo conſiſts of Knights, Prieſts and Servants. The Prieſts wear the Croſs of red Taffa [...]y without a Bordure, the Servants the Croſs of St. Anthony only. The Statutes were reformed by Ferdinand Duke of Tuſcany, Son to the Founder, and approv'd, 1590.

2.4.42. 42. Knights of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus in Savoy.

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POPE Gregory XIII. having, at the Requeſt of Emanuel Phil [...]bert, Duke of Savoy, reſtor'd the Order of St. Lazarus, and the Order of St. Maurice, A. D. 1572. and conſtituted this Duke Grand Maſter, the ſame Year, for their greater Honour, he united them under the Title of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus, and appointed the Dukes of Savoy Hereditaries and Maſters, and oblig'd them to furniſh out two Gallies for the Service of the Papal See, to be employ'd againſt Pyrates. Upon this Union, the Knights had aſſign'd them for Habit a Gown of Crimſon Tabby, with wide Sleeves, a long Train, and edg'd with white Taffaty, and a Cordon with a Taſſel of White and Green fix'd to the Collar. The Badge is, A green Croſs ancrce of St. Laurence, plac'd Saltirewiſe, ſurmounted with the white Croſs pornelle of St. Maurice, which the Knights wear either in a Gold Chain, or any colour'd Ribbon. And the ſaid Duke founded for the Knights two fair Convents, one at Nice, the other at Turin, and beſtow'd on them all the Revenues within his Territories, formerly appertaining to the Order of St. Lazarus. The Dukes of Savoy, as Grand Maſters, uſe this Title.

2.4.43. 43. Knights of Loretto.

THIS Order, about the Year 1587. was inſtituted by Sixtus V. who erected the Church of our Lady at Loretto into a Cathedral and Biſhop's See, and gave the Knights for their Enſign, the Image of our Lady of Loretto, hung in a Gold Chain. This is not quite extinguiſh'd.

2.4.44. 44. Knights of the Bleſſed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel.

THO' the Grand Maſterſhip of St. Lazarus, and its Commandaries in all Dominions, were confirm'd by Pope Gregory XIII. upon the Houſe of Savoy, yet under King [Page 48] Henry III. ſome Knights in France, of that Order, refus'd to joyn with their Fellows, under the Obedience of the Duke of Savoy. King Henry IV. deſirous to have a new order, bearing the Denomination of The Bleſſed Virgin, &c. apply'd himſelf to Pope Paul V. and obtain [...]d what he ſu'd for A. D. 1608. (beſides other Penſions out of certain Eccleſiaſtical Benefices in France) the Commandaries and Hoſpitals of St. Lazarus in that Kingdom, and the Knights of St. Lazarus that remain'd in France, were incorporated with them under two Titles; their Seal being inſcrib'd, Sigillum Ordinis & Militiae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmeli, & Sancti Lazari in Hieruſalem. The Order conſiſts of One Hundred choice French Gentlemen, whoſe Offices are to attend on the King in every warlike Expedition. They vow Chaſtity and Obedience, and profeſs to fight againſt the Enemies of the Romiſh See. The Feaſt of the Patroneſs is the 16th of July; Philibert Nereſtang, a valiant Knight of St. Lazarus, was elected their firſt Maſter 1608. Their Badge is a Croſs of 8 Points of tawny Velvet or Sattin, with a white Border ſow'd on the left Side of their Cloaks, and the Image of the Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel plac'd in the Middle, within a Rundle encompaſs'd with Rays of Gold. They alſo wear about their Necks, in a tawny Silk Ribbon, the like Croſs of Gold; but the Image of the ſaid Knights is enamel'd on both Sides. There Inveſtiture is like that of Malta.

2.4.45. 45. Knights of the moſt Glorious Virgin Mary of Rome.

A. D. 1618. Pedro, John Baptiſta, and Bernardo, ſirnam'd Petrignaneos (three Brethren of Spelta in Italy) invented this Order: To which was added, the Rule of St. Francis d' Aſſiſe, whereof the Popes are Great Maſters. Paul V. confirm'd them, and gave theſe Knights the Palace of St. John Lateran for their Convent, and the City and Port of Civita Vecchia to make their Arſenal; with an Iſland adjacent, together with the Government of his G [...]llies. Their Inſtitution was for the Exaltation of the Roman Church, and to check or ſuppreſs [Page 49] the Turks roving in the Mediterranean. There are three Sorts of this Order, 1. Knights Gentlemen, Laicks. 2. Knights Gentlemen, Prieſts and benefic'd. 3. Knights Chaplains, or Servants of Arms. All of theſe wear on the left Side of their Mantles their Badge, which is a blew Croſs floree Azure, border'd with Silver, having 4 Mullets, or Stars, at the End of each Flower, to ſignifie the Four Evangeliſts; in the Middle is a Circle (extended round underneath the Arms of the Croſs) ſet with 12 Rays for the 12 Apoſtles, inſcrib'd, In hoc ſigno vincam; and within it (taking up the Center of the Croſs) is a Cypher of M. S. i. e. Sancta Maria, crown'd with Chaplets of Flowers, and Stars of Gold ſet over the Chaplet.

2.4.46. 46. Knights of the Annunciade, and St. Michael the Archangel in Mantua, or of the Chriſtian Militia in Moravia.

BY theſe Names they have been promiſcuouſly called. It was inſtituted 1618. by Charles Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua and Nevers, in Conjunction with Adolph, Count of Altham his Brother, and John Baptiſt Petrignan Sfortia. To give it the greater Luſtre, they divided the World among them; Charles took the North and Weſt Parts, Adolph the Eaſtern, and the other had the South, where they were perſonally to found Convents and inveſt Knights. Duke Charles began his Inſtitution of this Order under the Rule of St. Francis, in Olmutz the Metropolis of Moravia, the Year aforeſaid, and dedicated it to the bleſſed Virgin and St. Michael: But what Progreſs the others made in their pious Reſolutions, Hiſtory is ſilent. It has been likewiſe ſtyl'd, Conceptionis Ordo & Militis Virginis annunciatae. Anno 1612. ſeveral illuſtrious Princes of divers Countries entered themſelves into that Order at Vienna. It was approv'd by Pope Paul V. and confirm'd by Pope Paul VIII. 1624, The Deſign of its Inſtitution was, to eſtabliſh Peace and Concord among Chriſtian Princes and their Subjects; to releaſe Captives, and deliver the Oppreſſed out of the Hands of the Infidels.

On ſome unhappy Difference among the illuſtrious Founders, in a ſhort time it moulder'd away and became [Page 50] ineffectual, that the Mahometans (for whoſe Deſtruction it was deſign'd) heard only the Report of it.

3. CAP. III.

3.1. 1

§ 1. HAVING particulariz'd the Religious Orders, I ſhall proceed to thoſe accounted abſolutely Military. Among them,

3.1.1. 1. Knights of the Round Table may, for Antiquity, challenge the firſt Place.

The Founder was Arthur King of Britain, crown'd in the Year of our Lord 516, at the Age of 15 Years; of whoſe incredible Courage and Gallantry, tho' ſome have ſtretch'd too far, yet William of Malmsbury is of Opinion, he was worthy to have been celebrated by true and faithful Hiſtorians, and not falſe and ſpurious Tales. He it was that long prop'd up his declining Country, and inſpir'd Martial Courage into his Subjects, the Saxons, in twelve pitch'd Battles having overcome, and conquer'd divers Countries. He liv'd in ſo great Repute and Renown, that worthy Knights came from all Parts to his Court, as a Seminary of Military Diſcipline, to demonſtrate their Valour in point of Arms. This gave him Occaſion to ſelect out of theſe, and his own Subjects, ſome ſay Twenty Four of the moſt Valiant, which he united in a Fellowſhip; and to avoid all Controverſy upon Precedency, caus'd a Round Table to be made, whence the Order had its Appellation. He admitted not only Britains, but Strangers; and their Qualifications were to be Perſons of Nobility, Dignity, and renown'd for Vertue and Valour. The Place where they were inſtituted was Windſor; and thoſe others of Note, where he and his Knights aſſembled, were at Caerleon in Monmouthſhir [...], Wincheſter, and Camelot in Com' Somerſet; and their time of convening was Whitſuntide. In Wincheſter Caſtle was [...] large Round Table, call'd (and affirm'd to be) King [Page 51] Arthur's; or at leaſt ſet up in the room of one more ancient, which was deſtroy'd in the rebellious Times of Forty One, with other Reliques there. The Articles of their Profeſſion (Number 12) are ſet down by Sir William Segar. We find no authentick Proof what Badge they bore, notwithſtanding the Report that King Arthur had a Shield nam'd Pridwin, wherein the Virgin Mary was depicted. His Sword and Lance had alſo their Names, one being call'd Caliburne, the other Irone or Rone. It's not remember'd that this Order ſurviv'd the Founder, but rather that it expir'd with him, moſt of theſe Knights periſhing with him at the Battle of Kamblan, now Camelsford, in Cornwall, where tho' he kill'd his Enemy Mordred, yet he dy'd A. D. 542.

IT may be noted, that the like Round Table grew in Eſtimation ſhortly after the Norman Conqueſt, being permitted at Haſlelades, Tilts and Turnaments, temp. Steph. and R. I. And Roger Mortimer, Earl of March, kept the Celebration of the Round Table (conſiſting of One Hundred Knights, and as many Ladies) with Tilting at Kenelworth-Caſtle, in Com' Worceſt' 7 Ed. I. And King Edward III. deſigning to reſtore it, held a Juſt a Windſor in the 18th Year of his Reign; and in the 19th ordain'd it annually to be kept there at Whitſontide. But it was thought fit upon divers Accounts to forbid theſe Aſſemblies, and in particular 16 H. III. at Shrewſbury, when the King went to meet Llewellin Prince of Wales, and in 36 H. III. and at many other times.

3.1.2. 2. Knights of the Oak in Navarre,

WERE inſtituted by Garcia Ximenes of the Blood of the Goths, who had formerly retir'd from the World to a ſolitary Life, but relinquiſh'd it to command an Army rais'd by the Navarrois, to deliver themſelves from the Oppreſſion of the Moors. As he was marching to encounter them, A. D. 722. there appear'd to him from the Top of an Oak the Sign of the Croſs, ador'd by an infinite Number of Angels. On giving Battle to the Infidels he gain'd a remarkable Victory, and the People elected him their King; and he in thankfulneſs to God erected this Order, inveſting his Nobles therewith, [Page 52] and oblig'd them to defend the Chriſtian Faith, and acknowledge Obedience to his Succeſſors, Kings of Navarre. Time has eclips'd this Order.

3.1.3. 3. The Order of the Gennet,

WAS Founded by Charles Martel, in Memory of the famous Battle near Tours, A. D. 726. where he overthrew 385000 Saracens and Moors, with their General Abdiramo; and to reward thoſe who had well-behav'd themſelves in this Action. The great Number of rich Gennet Furr, (Ermine has ſince gain'd the better value) as alſo the Creatures themſelves taken alive among the Spoils, was the Occaſion of aſſuming the Name: But others impute it to Gennets, a kind of neat-ſhap'd Horſes, whereof not unlikely a great Part of the Founder's Cavalry conſiſted. The Knights were Sixteen in Number, and were accounted the firſt Order of this Nature among the French, which continu'd till the Inſtitution of the Star, when it was laid aſide, tho' ſome French Authors queſtion if ever the Order was in being.

3.1.4. 4. The Order of the Crown-Flower,

ERECTED by Charles the Great, Son of King Pepin, A. D. 802. to reward the Frizons, who had behav'd themſelves valiantly in his Armies, and to encourage others to emulate their Vertue. It was ſo call'd from its Enſign, viz. an Imperial Crown em [...]roider'd with Gold. The Knights were inveſted with the Military Belt and a Box on the Ear.

3.1.5. 5. The Order of the Dog and Cock.

THAT there was ſuch an Order in France is related by ſeveral Writers, but they give no certain Account of its Inſtitution.

3.1.6. 6. The Order of St. Andrew, or the Thiſtle, in Scotland,

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Is reported by John Leſley, Biſhop of Roſs, to take beginning from a bright Croſs in Heaven, in Faſhion of that whereon St. Andrew ſuffer'd Martyrdom, which appear'd to Hungus, King of the Picts (and to the S [...]ts whom Achaius King of Scotland ſent to his Aſſiſtance) the Night preceding the Battle with Athelſtan King of England; over whom prevailing, they went in Solemn Proceſſion to the Kirk of St. Andrew, to thank God and his Apoſtle for their Victory, promiſing that they and their Poſterity would ever bear the Figure of that Croſs in their Enſigns and Banners. Favin, in his Theatre of Honour, relates it to be inſtituted upon the famous League, Offenſive and Defenſive, made between Achaius and Charl [...]main King of France; to preſerve the Memory of which Alliance, Achaius added the Treſſure of Flowers de Lys to the Lyon, and took for Device the Thiſtle and Rue, which he compos'd into a Collar of his Order; and for his Motto, Pour ma Defence: Yet doth Menenius make theſe the Symbols of two different Orders, one of the Thiſtle, whence the Knights were ſo ſtyl'd, and the Motto, Nemo me impune laceſſit; the other call'd Sertum Rutae, or The Garland of Rue: Nevertheleſs to both theſe Collars hung one and the ſame Jewel, viz. the Figure of St. Andrew, bearing his Croſs before him. But there are ſome, faith the ſame Author, that refer the Inſtitution of the Thiſtle (the Badge of the Scotch Kingdom from the Times of Achaius) to the Reign of Charles VII. King of France, when the Amity was renew'd between both Kingdoms. Laſtly, Others place its Foundation 1500. Their principal Enſign is a Gold Collar, compos'd of Thiſtles interlink'd with Anulets of Gold, and pendant thereto St. Andrew with his Croſs, and this Epigraph, Nemo me impune lac [...]ſſit. Their ſolemn Meeting was annually on St. Andr [...]w's Day, in the Church of the Town dedicated to his Name: During the Feſtivity, the Knights were richly habited, and wore their Parliament Robes, having fix'd on their left Shoulders an Azure Round [...]e, charg'd with a Saltire Argent, [Page 54] or St. Andrew's Croſs enfil'd in Centre, with a Crown compos'd of Flower de Luces Or. For the ordinary and common Enſign, the Knights us'd a Green Ribbon, whereat hung a Thiſtle of Gold, crown'd with an Imperial Crown, within a Circle of Gold, containing the laſt nam'd Epigraph; and now of late they have ſew'd to their left Breaſt an Irradiation (like that of The Knights of the Garter) over a Saltire Silver, the Irradiation charg'd with a Blew Roundle of St. Andrew's Croſs. Their Number conſiſted of Thirteen, in Alluſion to our bleſſed Saviour and the Twelve Apoſtles.

3.1.7. 7. Knights of our Lady of the Star,

OWE their Original to Robert the Devout of France, A. D. 1022. to manifeſt his ſtrict Devotion to the bleſſed Virgin. They were in Number Thirty, incluſive of the Chief. Their Seat was in the noble and ancient Houſe of St. Owen, call'd de Chichey, near St. Denys in France. This Order was of no long continuance, for being much fully'd and diſgrac'd (during the Civil and Foreign Wars) by the Imitation of Perſons that had neither Birth nor Merit to recommend them, King Charles VII. took Occaſion to efface it A. D. 1455. by delivering up, in a Chapter, the Enſign that he wore to the Chevalier du Guet, Captain of the Night-watch in Paris, the Lords and Princes throwing it off after it had receiv'd that Mark of Infamy; tho' ſome alledge it declin'd upon the Erection of The Order of St. Michael, as the Star ſupplanted that of the [...]ennet.

3.1.8. 8. The Order of the Lilly in Navarre, or of St. Mary of the Lilly,

WAS founded A. D. 1048. by Garcius VI. King of Navarre, in Honour of the bleſſed Virgin Mary, after his Recovery from a languiſhing Sickneſs. Others relate, that prevailing againſt the Moors, he made a Feaſt in Honour of the bleſſed Virgin, at which he inſtituted this Order, electing his Brothers and Sons among the firſt Knights. It was eſteem'd the moſt Illuſtrious of all Spain, and conſiſt [...]d of Thirty Eight Knights, extracted [Page 55] out of the ancienteſt Blood of Navarre, [...]iſcay and Old Caſtile. The Kings of Navarre were their Chief. They promis'd, at their Inſtitution, to expoſe their Lives and Fortunes in Defence of the Chriſtian Faith, the Conſervation of the Crown, and Expulſion of the Moors.

3.1.9. 9. The Order of the Sword in Cyprus,

WAS erected 1195. by Guy of Luſignan, King of Jeruſalem and Cyprus, after he had purchas'd that Iſle of our King Richard I. in Commemoration of ſo fortunate a Plantation of 15000 Perſons whom he brought thither. Some queſtion the Truth of this; however all aſſent, its Founder was one of the Luſignan Family. The Collar was compos'd of round Cordons of white Silk, woven into Love-Knots, interlac'd with the Letters S and R. Beneath this Collar hung an Oval of Gold, whereon was perfigur'd a Sword, the Blade enamell'd Silver, the Hilt Gold, and about the Oval this Motto, Securitas Regni. Micheli ſays, Pro Fide Servanda, and Gothofredus, pro integritate tuenda. Their Feſtivity was Aſcenſion-Day, whereon the Founder gave it (in the Church of St. Sophia, the Cathedral of Nicoſia in Cyprus) to his Brother Amaury, and to Three Hundred Barons eſtabliſh'd in that his new Kingdom. There were Eight Kings of Cyprus of the Luſignan Line, Great Maſters; but when this Iſle fell into the Hands of the Turks, this Inſtitution ceas'd.

3.1.10. 10. The Bear in Switzerland,

WAS inſtituted A. D. 1213. by the Emperor Frederick II. in Favour of the Abbot of St. Gall in Swaben, who had aſſiſted him in gaining the Empire. Theſe Knights wore a Collar of Gold, at the End whereof hung a Bear Gold, mounted on an Hillock enamell'd with Black, in Honour of St. Urſus of the Theban Legion, who was martyr'd before the Temple of the Sun at Sol [...]urre in Switz [...]rland. It was alſo call'd The Order of St. Gall, from the Name of the Patron (a Scotch Gentleman, and the Apoſtle of Swaben) of the Place wher [...] [Page 56] it receiv'd its Appellation. The Abbot whereof, for the Time being, had Power to confer this Honour, which was done by girding with the Military Belt (the Sword being firſt conſecrated) and putting on the Collar. It continu'd 'till the Switzers became a Common-Wealth; and then the Caſtles of the Nobles being diſmantled, it was laid aſide.

3.1.11. 11. The Broom-Flower in France,

TOOK its Original from Lewis of France, to honour the Coronation of his Queen Margaret, A. D. 1234. Their Habits were Caſſocks of White Damask, and Violet Chaperons; the Collar compos'd of Broom-Flowers Proper, interlac'd with Flowers de Lys, hanging thereat a Croſs Florence Gold, to which was added this Inſcription, Exaltat Humiles; the Founder accounting the Broom the Symbol of Humility. Their Number was at the Sovereign's Pleaſure, and this Order continu'd till the Death of King Charles V. Some ſay Charles VI. inſtituted it, and others deny the being of any ſuch Order.

3.1.12. 12. The Ship and Double Creſcent in France.

SUCH an Order was of Old, in Honour of the great Atchievements of that Nation, tho' by whom founded is unknown. Favin affirms, St. Lewis erected this after he had inſtituted the Broom Flower, to animate the Nobility to accompany him in his Expedition to Africa, 1269. Their Badge was alluding to the Name of the Order, the Figure of a Ship Pendant in an Oval of Gold; and expir'd with St. Lewis after the firſt Claſs of Knights; but its Honour was kept up by Charles [...] Brother of St. Lewis, and flouriſh'd in Sicily with his Su [...] ceſſors, until the Kings of Arragon obtain'd that Kingdom.

3.1.13. 13. Knights of St. James in Holland [...]

THIS Order was erected by Florentius, Earl of Holland and Zeland, and Lord of Friſeland; and he, A. D. 1290. beſtow'd the Enſigns of it, in his Palace at the [Page 57] Hague, upon Twelve of his chief Nobility, among which was Lancenot Lord Hamilton, Embaſſador from the King of Scots. They were inveſted with a Collar of Gold, or Military Belt of Silver gilt, ſet off with Six Eſcallops, whereat was hung the Picture of St. James the Apoſtle.

3.1.14. 14. The Order of the Swan in Cleveland.

IF ever any ſuch was, it has been effac'd long ſince. Yet Favin ſays, the Princes of Cleve have born the Swan for their Order, Deviſe, Creſt and Supporters, to preſerve the Memory of the Knight of the Swan, whoſe Romance he ſets down. And further reports, That Charles Gonzaga of Cleve, Duke of Nevers, had a Deſign to re [...]ſtabliſh it.

3.1.15. 15. The Knights of Jeſus at Rome,

WERE inſtituted by Pope John XXII. at Avignon in France, A. D. 1320. as a Temporal Prince, being Lord Paramount of St. Peter's Patrimony. Paul V. much augmented it. Their Badge is a plain Croſs Gules, inclos'd within a Croſs patee Or, hanging at a Gold Chain. Pope Clement IX. 1668-9. treated Three of the Embaſſadors from the Swiſs Cantons with the uſual Ceremonies, himſelf putting on the Chains, and the Captains of his Guards girding their Swords about them.

3.1.16. 16. The White Eagle in Poland,

WAS inſtituted by Ladeſlaus, King of Poland, to honour the Marriage of his Son Caſimire the Great, with Anne Daughter of Gedimer Duke of Lithuania, 1325. The Enſign was a white Eagle crown'd [...]

3.1.17. 17. The Order of Knights de la Banda in Caſtile,

WAS ſet up by Alphonſus II. King of Leon in Caſtile, in the City of Victoria, A. D. 1332. (or Palencia 1330. or Burgos 1368. according to others) not long befo [...]e [Page 58] his Coronation, the better to ſecure himſelf againſt his Enemies. Soon after the Solemnity was celebrated at Burgos, in the Monaſtery of St. Mary Royal, where the Candidates, conducted by the King to the Altar, and depoſiting their Arms, ſpent the Night in Watching and Prayer. The Morrow after Maſs, they were inveſted with a red military Belt or Ribbon, of four Fingers broad, which came a-croſs the Body over the right Shoulder, and ſo under the left Arm, and was the Enſign from whence they took their Denomination. This Order was chiefly to Honour the Nobility; and at firſt none wer [...] admitted but the younger Sons of Noblemen [excluding elder Brothers] or Perſons well-deſcended, or Eſquires, who had ſerv'd in Court or Camp Ten Years at leaſt. It was anciently of great Eſteem, and Kings have vouchſafed to take its Enſign; but at length it was diſus'd.

3.1.18. 18. The Order de la Calza,

INSTITUTED at Venice A. D. 1400. from the Example of the Knights de la Banda, in Honour of the Inauguration of Duke Michele Steno. It conſiſted of a Society of particular Noblemen and Gentlemen, who voluntarily met together, and elected a Chief among themſelves. They took an Oath to obſerve their Articles, part whereof was, the Honour of the City, where noble and ſplendid Regales were made; and with ſuch like magnificent Divertiſements did they entertain King Henry III. of France, and other noble Perſonages. It receiv'd the greater Luſtre, by the Addition of ſeveral Italian Princes; and the moſt conſpicuous Families were receiv'd into it. Their Habit, on Solemn Days, was a Crimſon Senator's Veſt appearing very ſplendid. Their Enſign, a Sun in a Sheild painted in their Banners. It arriv'd to ſuch Profuſeneſs, that in 1590. it was wholly laid aſide.

3.1.19. 19. The Order of St. Mark in Venice,

IS here reckon'd, becauſe the Knights are dignify'd with a Title and particular Enſign of Honour at their [Page 59] Creation. The Ceremony is after the Manner of Knights Batchelors, by Dubbing with a Sword, and their Title a bare Mark of Honour, having no Laws or Statutes, or particular Obligations enjoyn'd. It had the Denomination from St. Mark the Evangeliſt, whoſe Body was tranſlated to Venice, 828 [...] and became the Titular Angel and Guardian of that City, his Picture being diſplay'd in their Banners. The exact Time of its Inſtitution is not certainly determin'd. The Badge that adorns theſe Knights, is, a Gold Chain put over their Shoulders at their Creation, whereat depends a Medal, on one ſide whereof is the Symbol of St. Mark, viz. a winged Lyon, holding in his right Paw a drawn Sword, and in his left an open Book, with this Motto, Pax tibi Marce Evangeliſta meus. On the Reverſe, th [...] Duke ſurviving is beautify'd with a particular Impreſs. Sometimes repreſented on his Knee, receiving a Standard from the Hands of St. Mark. This Medal is worn on a Croſs enamell'd Blew. The Duke confers this Honour, either privately in his Chamber, or publickly in a full College. The Senate have the Power of creating this Order; and they who receive it by their Sanction, the Dignity is greater than from the Hands of the Duke himſelf. Abſent Perſons are inveſted by Letters Patents; and to aggrandize their Honour and Title, ſtyle themſelves Knights of St. Mark.

3.1.20. 20. The Order of the Seraphims, or Seraphick Knights, otherwiſe ſirnam'd of Jeſus,

WAS begun by Magnus IV. King of Sweden 1334. in Memory of the Siege laid to the Metropolitan City of Upſala. The Collar was compos'd of Seraphims and Patriarchal Croſſes.

3.1.21. 21. The Order of the Sword and Military Belt in Sweden.

BY whom or when founded we have no Memoirs. The Collar made up of Swords, with Belts twining round them (the Symbol of Love and Juſtice) the Swords ſomewhat inclining towards the Point, and ſo [Page 60] joyn'd Two and Two, Point to Point, plac'd round in a Circle.

3.1.22. 22. The Order of the Knot in Naples.

WHEN Lewis, King of Hungary, warr'd againſt Joan, Queen of Naples; not ſo much to diſpoſſeſs her of the Kingdom, as to revenge his Brother Andrew's Death, whom this Joan, his Wife, had ſtrangled 1351. On the 26th of May, the Queen and Lewis Prince of Tarantuni, being crown'd King and Queen of that Realm on the ſame Day, in Commemoration of ſo pacifick an Union, and to tear up all their Enmities, the Prince inſtituted this Order; into which enter'd, at that Time, Threeſcore and Ten Lords. Their Habit was White, and their Enſign a Knot (the Emblem of Love and Friendſhip) intermixt with Gold. This Order expir'd in a ſhort Time.

3.1.23. 23. Knights of the Annunciade in Savoy:

Ame VI. Earl of Savoy, inſtituted this Order, under the Title of The Collar 1362. in Honour of the Fifteen Divine Myſteries of the Roſary. Favin, on a miſtaken Ground, calls it The Order of the Snares of Love, in regard its Founder had receiv'd of his Lady, a Bracelet made of the Treſſes of her Hair, plaited in Love-knots, and that the four Letters, afterwards interlac'd by the Founder, ſhould ſignifie Frappes, Entres, Rompes, Tous. It is conſpicuous enough at the firſt Erection it was call'd of The Collar, and ſo remain'd till Charles III. or Le Bon Duke of Savoy, beſtow'd on it the Title of The Annunciation, from the Picture of the Annunciation which he annex'd to The Collar, 1518. The Founder appointed the Number of his Knights to be Fifteen, among whom Sir Richard Muſard, an Engliſhman, is recorded 1434. and 1568. their Number was encreas'd to Twenty, that being ſolely lodg'd in the Breaſt of their Sovereign. Riene Caſtle, in Buger, was their principal Seat; they had a Chartreuſe to entertain Fifteen Prieſts to celebrate Fifteen Maſſes to the Honour of the Fifteen Joys of the bleſſed Virgin, and to the Soul's Health of [Page 61] theſe Knights; and here were their Ceremonies and Chapters held, until Charles Emmanuel I. exchang'd it and other Places for the Marquiſate of Saluces, 1607. on the Anniverſary of the Feaſt and Celebration of the Order (being fix'd upon the Day of the Annunciation) were tranſlated firſt to the Church of St. Dominick at Montmeiller, and afterwards by him to the Hermitage of Camaldule, upon the Mountain of Turin call'd l'Eremo Aſſis. The ancient Collar was of Gold, Three Fingers broad; in barbarous Characters were ingraved theſe Letters, FERT, and one Knot (commonly call'd the Savoy Knot) at the end of each Fert; which, with Three other Knots entwin'd one within another, made up the Circumference pendant at the Collar without any Figure. Theſe old Characters were ſuppos'd to be the Initials of Fortitudo ejus Rhodum tenuit, alluding to Amadeus le Grand, who ſo valiantly defended Rhodes againſt the Turks, 1310. But that this was long before the Deviſe of the Houſe of Savoy, is manifeſt from the Coins of Lewis de Savoy, Baron de Vaud. who dy'd 1301. the Monument of Thomas de Savoy, who dy'd 1233. whereon was lying at the Feet of his Portaiture a Dog with a Collar about his Neck, inſcrib'd Fert, as an integral Word, and from a Braſs Coin of the ſaid Earl's, on the Reverſe whereof are Two Knots of the Model before ſpoke of, and the Word Fert in the midſt. There is the Ectype of a Silver Coin of Peter de Savoy, (who erected in England the noble Pile of that Name in the Strand, temp. H. III.) wherein is repreſented the Deviſe Fert in Go [...]hick Characters, the true Interpretation of which Word cannot be explain'd. This ancient Collar is ſtill in vogue and daily worn, but now called The little Collar, faſhion'd of Gold or Silver gilt, about an Inch broad, and of different weight. The Knights wear it about their Necks, cloſe to the Collar of their Doublet. Duke Charles III. as he much reſtor'd the Splendor of this Order, Anno 1518. introduc'd the larger one, only worn upon high Days. It weighs about Two Hundred Crowns, and is compos'd of the Word F [...]rt, interwoven with Knots, ſevered with Fifteen Roſes of Gold, whereof Seven are enamell'd with White, and Seven with Red, and border'd with Two [Page 62] Thorns. The Figure of the Annunciation is enamell'd in various Colours, pendant at three Chainets to another Roſecolour'd both White and Red. He firſt appointed the great Mantle of Crimſon Velvet, his own being furr'd with Ermines, but the reſt of the Knights with Miniver, fring'd and border'd with Savoy Knots in fine Gold; under this Mantle is worn a Surcoat of fine Damask. Duke Emanuel Philibert, his Son, alter'd the Colour of the Mantle to Azure, and lin'd it with White Taffaty, of which Silk he made the Surcoats. Charles Emanuel chang'd the Mantle into an Amaranthus or Purple Colour, ſeeded with Roſes and Flames in embroidery of Gold and Silver, and lin'd with Cloth of Silver tiſſu'd Blue, now in uſe; under which, inſtead of the White Taffaty Surcoat, is now worn a White Satin Suit embroider'd with Silk, the Hoſe gather'd upwards in the faſhion of Trouſes.

3.1.24. 24. The Thiſtle in France.

WAS inſtituted on New-Year's Day 1370. by Lewis II. Duke of Bourbon, upon his Marriage with Anne, Daughter to the Count Daulphine in Auvergne. The firſt Solemnities of this Order were perform'd at Noſtre Dame de Maulins in Bourbonnois, where he founded a College of Twelve Canons, in Honour of the bleſſed Virgin; the Intent was, to corroborate his Intereſt for the Aid of the Duke of Orleans, againſt the Faction of the Houſe of Burgundy, and by joyning of Flowers de Lys and Thiſtles (the Symbols of Hope and Courage) emblematically to expreſs the Nobleneſs of his Spirit againſt all the Power of Fortune. He ordain'd the Number of Knights to be Twenty Six, comprehending himſelf and his Succeſſors, Dukes of Bourbon, as Chiefs, and oblig'd them to wear daily a Belt, a Girdle of Watchel coloured Velvet, lin'd with Crimſon Sattin embroider'd with Gold, and therein the Word Eſperance curiouſly wrought. The Girdle was faſten'd with a Buckle and Thong of Gold, bearded and chequer'd with Green, enamel'd in Form like the Head of a Thiſtle. On the Anniverſary of the Feſtival (the Conception of ou [...] Lady) the Knights wore Caſſocks or Surcoats of Carnation [Page 63] Damaſk with White Sleeves, girded as before; the Mantle of the Order was ſky-colour'd Damaſk with broad Welts of Gold Embroidered on the Collar, and lined with Red Satin, but the Mantlet of Green Velvet, the Bonnet was alſo of Green Velvet; at the Point of the Band hung a Taſſel of Crimſon Silk and Threads Gold, the Lining of Crimſon Taf [...]aty, and turn'd up after the antique manner, whereon they had embroided the Golden Shield with the Word Allen; the great Collar was of Gold, of the weight of Ten Marks, enamelled with Green, diſtended like Network, which was filled with Flowers de Lys (together with the Letters of the Impreſs) plac'd in a Lozenge of Red Enamel; at the Bottom of the Collar, in an Oval of Gold (the Circle whereof was enamelled with Green and Red) appeared the Figure of the Patroneſs, the Virgin Mary, irradiated with Gold, and crowned with Twelve Silver Stars, a Creſcent of the ſame under her Feet, enamell'd with Purple and Sky-colour; at the End of the Oval depended the Head of a Thiſtle enamelled Green, but bearded White. The Founder took an exact Patern for the Order of the Garter, with which he acquainted himſelf while he was Priſoner in Windſor Caſtle.

3.1.25. 25. The Order of the Dove

WAS begun by John I. King of Caſtile in Segovia, 1390. or, as others, 1379. to encourage his Nobles to proſecute the Noble Acts of his Grandfather King Henry III. but the Founder dying the ſame Year, before it had taken root, it became of ſmall Continuance.

3.1.26. 26. The Order of the Argonauts of St. Nicholas

WAS inſtituted by Charles III. King of Naples, 1382. to preſerve Amity among the Nobles, to compo [...] Enmities and ſuppreſs Seditions. If any of theſe Knights, upon a Variance, refuſed a Reconciliation, the Enſigns were to be forfei [...]ed. Others ſay the Deſign was to advance Navigation, to which their Enſign alludes, being a Ship floating upon the Waters in the midſt of a Storm, having this Motto, Non credo tempori. In the [Page 64] Convent of that ſumptuous Church which St. Nicholas [...] Biſhop of Smyrna, erected, was the grand Feaſt held on the Anniverſary of that Saint. This King appointed a White Habit for the Knights, and preſcribed them laudable Conſtitutions; but for want of a ſettled Revenue, their Splendor expired with their Founder.

3.1.27. 27. Knights of St. Anthony in Hainault.

ALBERT of Bavaria, Earl of Hainault, Holland, and Zeland, deſigning an Expedition againſt the Turks and Moors, inſtituted this Order, 1382. The Enſign thereof was a Golden Collar wrought after the Faſhion of an Hermit's Girdle, at which hung a Walking-Staff, and a little Golden Ball.

3.1.28. 28. The Porcupine in France,

WAS erected by Lewis of France, Duke of Orleans, 1393. to honour the Solemnization of the Baptiſm of his eldeſt Son Charles, by his Wife Daughter to the Duke of Milain. He choſe the Porcupine for his Deviſe, with this Epigraph, Cominus & Eminus; not only out of the aſpiring Hopes conceived of this Child, but alſo to intimate ſomething of Revenge againſt John Duke of Burgundy, his mortal Enemy; the Porcupine being an Emblem both Offenſive and Defenſive. Others make Charles aforeſaid the Founder of this Order, 1430. in Imitation or Emulation of the Golden Fleece, inſtituted by Philip Duke of Burgundy. Their Number, including the Founder, was Twenty Five; their Habit, Surcoats of Violet Velvet, and over them Mantles of Watchet Velvet lin'd with Carnation Satin; the Collar was formed of Gold Chains, at the End whereof hung a Porcupine of Gold upon an enamelled Hillock of Graſs and Flowers, which Creature was alſo embroidered on the Knights Belts.

3.1.29. 29. The Order of the Lily or Lilies in Arragon or de la Jarra de S. Maria, of the Veſſel of St. Mary,

[Page 65]

WAS erected by Ferdinand King of that Country, called the Infant of Antiquera, 1403. and dedicated to the Bleſſed Virgin. Favin ranges it under the Denomination of the Title of the Looking-glaſs of the Bleſſed Virgin in Caſtile, inſtituted in Memory of a Victory King Ferdinand obtained in that Kingdom againſt the Moors, 1410. whence he tranſplanted them with him into Arragon, 1413. when he received the Crown, where it flouriſhed under the Sons of that King, and then the Line was extinct.

3.1.30. 30. The Order of the Dragon overthrown in Hungary,

WAS inſtituted, A. D. 1413. by the Emperor Sigiſmond the Glorious, 1418. for the Defence of the Chriſtian Religion, and to cruſh or oppugn all Hereticks and Schiſmaticks, and for the Satisfaction he receiv'd in conferring Peace to the Churches of Hungary and Bohemia, by the Aid of the Council of Conſtance. It was in high eſteem ſhortly after in Germany; but the Order and Founder had very near the ſame Period. The Knights wore daily, as their Enſign, a Green Croſs flory, on ſolemn Days, a Scarlet Cloak, and on the Mantlet of Green Silk a double Chain of Gold (others ſay a Green Ribbon) at the End of which hung a Dragon dead with broken Wings, in poſture of being overcome (the Symbol of Hereſy) enamelled with Variety of Colours.

3.1.31. 31. The Equites Tuſini in Bohemia, or elſe both in Bohemia and Auſtria.

THIS Order had its Name From Toca, a Cap or Coif. The Archdukes of Auſtria were its Founders; which they enacted to engage their Subjects in Defence of the Chriſtian Faith againſt Turks and Hereticks, conferring upon the Knights towards their Support whatſoever [Page 66] they acquired in the Wars, which was a reſpite to themſelves, after almoſt Two Hundred Years Charges, and Military Expence; indeed the Encouragement proved ſo good a Bait, that they cleared their Provinces almoſt of all Turks and Schiſmaticks that infeſted them. Their Badge was a plain Green Croſs, and their Habit Red.

3.1.32. 32. Ordo Diſciplinarum,

WAS inſtituted by the Bohemian Kings, or rather the Auſtrian, to be a Curb upon the Turks and Hereticks, at leaſt to preſcribe the Confines of the Kingdom. The Collar of the Order had a White Eagle. Theſe Knights flouriſhed in Germany, in the Reigns of Sigiſmond and Albert Emperors.

3.1.33. 33. Orde de la Scama, in Caſtile,

WAS inſtituted by John II. King of that Realm, about the Year, 1420. to excite his Nobility to fight againſt the Moors, which produced ſo good Effect, that in a ſhort time the Moors were ſhamefully overthrown. That King granted them Privileges, gave them their Statutes and Rules; but upon his Death the Splendor hereof was greatly eclips'd. Their Enſign was a Croſs compoſed of the Scales of Fiſhes. They were obliged to defend Caſtile againſt the Moors, to dye in Defence of the Faith, and when the King went to War they marched before him. Their Enſign was a Croſs compoſed of the Scales of Fiſhes, the Spaniſh Scama bearing the ſame Signification as the Latin Squama.

3.1.34. 34. The Order of the Golden Fleece,

HAD its Original from Philip II. Duke of Burgundy, Sirnam'd the Good, the 10th of Jan. 1429. at his Marriage with Elizabeth, Daughter of Portugal, in the City of Brug [...]s in Flanders, to perpetuate the Memory of his great Revenues raiſed by Wools with the Low-Countries. Some ſay in Commemoration of Gideon, who with Three Hundred Men vanquiſhed a numerous Army of the Midianites; or of Jacob's [...]leece, viz. the Party-coloured [Page 67] and ſtreaked Fleece, after the Example of Jaſon and his Argonauts, whoſe Expedition to Colchos he intended to make his Patern by a Voyage into Syria againſt the Turks. He founded it to the Glory of the Almighty Creator, and Redeemer, in Reverence of the Virgin Mary, and St. Andrew the Apoſtle, who was Patron thereof, and whoſe Feſtival was celebrated on that Day, but afterwards tranſlated to the 1ſt of May, by reaſon of the ſhortneſs of the Days, and the Fatigue aged Knights would find to convene in an intemperate Seaſon. The Knights at firſt were Twenty Four, beſide the Duke, chief and ſupream, who reſerved the Nomination of Six more at the next Chapter; but Charles V. encreaſed them, 1516. to Fifty. Duke Charles and Maximilian, Sons to the Founder, annex'd many Privileges to them, which were confirmed, 1556. For their Habit Three different Mantles were ordain'd them at the grand Solemnity; the firſt Day, of Scarlet Cloth, richly embroidered about the Lower End, with Flints ſtruck into Sparks of Fire and Fleeces, with Chaperons of the ſame; and the ſame Day, after Dinner, to proceed to Veſpers in Mantles of Black, and of the Colour of Chaperons; the Day following they were to hear Maſs habited as themſelves thought fit; but Duke Charles aforeſaid preſcribed them Mantles of White Damask for that Day's Ceremony, and changed their Cloth Mantles into Velvet. The great Collar is compoſed of double Fuſils, placed Back to Back, Two and Two together, in form of the Letter B, repreſenting it both Ways, to ſignify Bourgoigne. And theſe Fuſils are interwoven with Flint-ſtones (in reference to the Arms of the ancient Kings of Bourgoigne) ſeeming to ſtrike Fire, and Sparkles of Fire between them, the Device of the Founder, at the End whereof hung the Reſemblance of a Golden Fleece, enamelled proper. To the Flint Paradine aſcribes the Motto, Ante [...]rit quam Flamma micet; and to the Fleece, Pretium non vile laboris. The Jewel is commonly worn in a double Chainet or M [...]les of Gold, linked together at convenient Diſtance, between which runs a ſmall Red Ribbon, or otherwiſe it is worn in a Red Ribbon alone. The Emperors of Germany deſcended from Philip Archduke of Auſtria, Duke of [Page 68] Burgundy and Count of Flanders, were the Sovereigns of it, till Charles V. gave the Guardianſhip of it to the Kings of Spain, which he perform'd on the 25th of October, 1556. conferring it on his Son King Philip at Bruxelles, when he took the Collar from his Neck, and with his own Hands put it over his Son's Shoulders in the Preſence of divers of the Knights, with this Form, Accipe, fili mi, quem e collo meo detraho, tibi praecipuum Aurei velleris torquem, quem Philippus Dux Burgundiae cognomine bonus Atavus noſter, monumentum Fidei Sacrae Romanae Eccleſiae, eſſe voluit & hujuſce Inſtitutionis ac Legum ejus, fac ſemper memineris: Since which the Honour of being Chief of this Order remains at this Day in that Crown.

3.1.35. 35. The Order of St. George at Genoa,

WAS given by Frederick III. Emperor of Germany, in honour of St George the titular Saint and Patron of Genoa. The Enſign is a plain Croſs Gules, and worn by the Knights at a Chain of Gold about their Neck. The Dukes of Genoa are Chiefs thereof; and in regard their Dignity laſts but two Years, the Order is much impair'd thro the Inconſtancy and Alteration of the Times.

3.1.36. 36. The Order of the Croiſſant, or Half-Moon in France,

WAS erected in the City of Anjou, 1464. or according to the Saincte Marthes, A. D. 1448. by Rene of the Houſe of Anjou, King of Jeruſalem and Sicily, &c. Duke of Anjou, &c. The Intent thereof was the Honour of God, Support of the Church, and Exaltation of Knighthood; over which he declared himſelf and his Succeſſors, Dukes of Anjou and Kings of Sicily, Chiefs. He alſo choſe St. Maurice, Knight and Martyr, for Patron, and held the firſt Ceremonies in the Church of Angiers dedicated to his Name. The Symbol which the Knights wore on the right Side of their Mantle, was a Golden Creſcent, whereon in Red Enamel was this Word L'oz, ſignifying L'oz en Croiſſant, whereby they were ſpur'd [Page 69] forwards to ſearch after the Increaſe of Valour and Reputation. At this Creſcent was faſten'd as many ſmall Pieces of Gold, faſhion'd like Columns, and enamell'd with Red, as the Knights had been engag'd in Battels and Sieges; for none could be adopted into this Order, unleſs he had well trod the Paths of Honour. The Knights were Thirty Six, others ſay Fifty, in Number. For their Habit they wore Mantles of Red or Crimſon Velvet, and a Mantlet of White, with the Lining and Surcoat of the ſame.

3.1.37. 37. The Order of the Ermin in Britanny,

WAS erected by Francis I. Duke of Bretagne, to perpetuate the Memory of his Grand-father John the Conqueror, or elſe in Imitation of other Orders in France; and thereupon he new built his Caſtle of Ermin. The Number of theſe Knights were Twenty Five. Their Habits were Mantles of White Damask lin'd with Carnation, and the Mantlet of the ſame. The great Collar was of Gold, compos'd of Ears of Corn in Saltire, bound above and beneath with Two Circles of Gold, imitating the Crown of Ceres, denoting the Care of Husbandry, and was ſometimes called The Order of the Ears of Corn. At the End of this Collar hung the Mus Ponticus, or Ermin, paſſing over a Turf of Graſs diaper'd with Flowers, at the Edge whereof was imboſs'd this Epigraph in French, Amaire, the Device of his ſaid Grand-father, by which he made known his Courage; and rather than fail in the leaſt Punctilio of his Word, he would undergo any Misfortune. This Order ended when the Dukedom of Bretagne became annex'd to the Crown of France, by the Marriage of Anne, Dutcheſs of Bretagn [...], to Charles VIII. and Lewis XII. both French Kings.

3.1.38. 38. The Order of the Ermin in Naples

OWES its Inſtitution to Ferdinand I. King of Naples, at the Expiration of the War which he was engag'd in with John of Lorain, Duke of Calabria, 1463. being induc'd thereto by the Treaſon and Confederacy of his [Page 70] Brother-in-law Marinus Marcianus, Duke of Seſſa, who deſign'd to murder him, and transfer the Kingdom to the Duke of Calabria: But the Plot being defeated, inſtead of bringing him to Juſtice, he not only pardon'd him, but inſtituted this Chevalry, admitting therein all the Noblemen of Title and Figure in the Kingdom, and generouſly appointed him one of the firſt Knights. The Collar was of Gold, intermix'd with Mud or Dirt, to which depended an Ermin and this Motto, Malo mori quam foedari, alluding to the clean Nature of the Animal.

3.1.39. 39. The Order of St. Michael in Naples,

HAD its Original from the ſame King Ferdinand, in honour of St. Michael the Arch-Angel, Patron of Apulia. The Habit of the Knights was a long White Mantle embroider'd with Ermins, and the Collar of Gold compos'd of the Letter O, to which hung in an Oval the Epigraph Decorum. By the Habit it ſeems to be the preceding Order, if that was dedicated to St. Michael.

3.1.40. 40. The Order of St. Michael in France.

Lewis XI. King of that Realm, conſidering how his Affairs were entangled, to re-unite the Affections of his Nobility to himſelf, inſtituted theſe Knights, 1469. giving them their Denomination from St. Michael the Arch-Angel, the titular Angel and Protector of France, in Reverence of whom their ancient Kings were wont to ſolemnize this Feaſt-day with great Magnificence, and keep an open Court. Their Number at firſt were to be Thirty Six, whereof the King and his Succeſſors were Chief: But it afterwards proceeded to Three Hundred. The Collar is compos'd of E [...]callop Shells of Gold, joyn'd one with another and double-banded, faſten'd on ſmall Chains of Gold, at the End of which is annex'd an Oval of the ſame; and therein, on an Hillock, is the Figur [...] of St [...] Michael com [...]aring [...]nd [...]ampling down the Dragon. The Motto, Immenſ [...] mor Oceani [...] The Habit was a Mantle of White Da [Page 71] mask hanging down to the Ground, furr'd with Ermin, having its Cope embroider'd with Gold, and the Border of the Robe interwoven with Eſcallops of Gold; the Chaperon or Hood, with its long Tippet, was made of Crimſon Velvet; but afterwards King Henry II. order'd this Mantle to be Cloth of Silver, embroider'd with Three Creſcents of Silver, interwoven with Trophies, Quivers and Turkiſh Bows, ſemied and canton'd with Tongues and Flames of Fire; the Chaperons of Crimſon Velvet ſhould have the ſame Embroidery. Their Grand Feſtival was to be celebrated on Michaelmas-day, at the Church of Mount Michael in Normandy; but afterwards transferr'd to Bois de Vincennes near Paris. There is an Herald of Arms to attend this Order, called Monſieur St. Michael. Upon the inſtituting The Order of the Ho'y Ghoſt, not only Care was taken to preſerve this of St. Michael, and to rectify it, but the Knights had the Privilege allow'd them, that if they thought fit they were made capable of receiving that o [...] The Holy Ghoſt, which no Stranger or Native could be enroll'd in that had taken upon him any other Order. The Collar of St. Michael may be worn with that of The Holy Ghoſt, and it is now frequently us'd. The Evening before any receive The Order of the Holy Choſt, he is admitted into The Order of St. Michael.

3.1.41. 41. The Order of the Elephant in Denmark.

KING Chriſtian I. being at Rome upon a religious Account, Pope Six [...]us IV. among other Honours, inv [...]ſted him with this Order, in Memory of the Paſſion of our Saviour; and withal ordain'd the Supreme or Chief in his Succeſſors, Kings of Denmark.

THIS King founded the magnificent Chapel of the Three Kings in the Cathedral Church of Roſch [...]l [...], (Four Leagues from Copenhagen) where the Knights were to aſſemble upon the Death of any of their Fraternity. He admitted thereunto divers Kings, Princes and Nobl [...] men. Its chief Enſign was the Figure of an Elephant, on whoſe ſide (within a Rundle) was a Crown of Thorns, with Three Nails all bloody, in Memory of the Paſſion. The Knights w [...]re oblig'd to Acts of Pi [...]ty [Page 72] Alms-Deeds, and certain Ceremonies, eſpecially upon thoſe Days on which they wore the Enſigns. King John valu'd it ſo highly, that he wore them on every ſolemn Feſtival. He advanc'd it to that Pitch of Grandeur, that our King Henry VIII. and James V. King of Scotland, accepted it.

Hertholm, a learned Dane, in a particular Treatiſe of this Elephantine Order, ſays, The Badge was meerly Military, anciently given as a Memorial and Incitement to the Daniſh Princes, who took upon them the Defence of Chriſtianity againſt the Moors and Africans.

HERETOFORE the Knights wore a Collar of Gold compos'd of caſtellated Elephants and Croſſes, ſomething like the Croſſes ancrees (Menenius calls them Spurs) at which hung the Picture of the Virgin Mary to the Middle, holding Chriſt in her Arms, and ſurrounded with a Glory of Sun-beams. But that long ſince laid aſide, they now wear only a Blue Ribbon, at which hangs an Elephant enamell'd White, adorn'd with Five large Diamonds ſet in the Middle. Theſe Elephants, in the Reign of King Chriſtian IV. had in the ſame Place, within a Circle, the Letter C, and in the Center of it the Figure 4, denoting Chriſtianus Quartus.

THIS Honour is uſually conferr'd on the Days of the King's Coronation. Frederick III. brought into uſe, in Imitation of The Garter, an embroider'd Glory of Silver Purple wrought upon the left Side of their Cloak or Veſt, on which was embroider'd Two Crowns within a Rundle, bearing this Motto, D [...]us providebit. The late King, his Son, chang'd the Motto to, Pietate & Juſtitia; but all the Knights created by his Father are oblig'd to continue the former Motto.

3.1.42. 42. The Order of the Burgundian Croſs at Tunis [...]

WAS inſtituted on St. Mary Magdalen's Day, 1535. by Charles V. Emperor of Germany and King of Spain, after he had reſtor'd Mulleaſſes, King of Tunis, to his Kingdom, to reward thoſe Commanders who had behav'd themſelves well in the Victory. It was the Day wherein he made his pompous Entry into Tunis, when clad in [...]he Coat he uſually wore in Battle, whereon was embroider [...]d [Page 73] a Burgundian Croſs, which Croſs he made the Badge, and added a Steel ſtriking Sparks of Fire out of a Flint, with this Inſcription, Barbaria; and for a more ornamental Decoration, gave a Collar of Gold, whereat hung this Badge.

3.1.43. 43. Knights of the Holy Ghoſt,

WERE inſtituted by the French King, Henry III. 1578. to unite his Nobles more firmly in their Obedience, to encourage them to perſevere in the Romiſh Religion, and to illuſtrate the State of his Nobility. It was ſo call'd by reaſon he was born on Whitſunday, 1550. elected that Day, 1573. King of Poland; and on that Day, 1574. came to the Crown of France. It was to conſiſt of One Hundred Knights, beſides the Sovereign or Great Maſter, which Office is inſeparable from the Crown of France. A long Mantle of Black Velvet turn'd up on the left Side, and open'd on the right, was alſo appointed for the Habit, being at firſt embroider'd round with Gold and Silver, conſiſting of Flowers de Lys and Knots of Gold, between Three ſundry Cyphers of Silver; and above the Flowers de Lys and Knots, were thickly powder'd Flames of Fire. This great Mantle was garniſh'd with a Mantle of Cloth of Silver, cover'd with Embroidery made after the ſame Faſhion, excepting only, that inſtead of Cyphers there were wrought Doves of Silver, and both theſe Robes double lin'd with a Satin of Orange-Tawney. The great Collar worn over the Mantle, was at firſt compos'd of Flowers de Lys, canton'd or corner'd with Flames of Fire, interwoven with Three Cyphers and divers Monograms of Silver; one was the Letter H and a Greek Lambda, both double, for the King's Name and the Queen's, Loviſa de Lorain; the other Two were reſerv'd in the King's own Mind. But theſe Cyphers were taken off the Colour and the Embroidery of the Robes by King Henry IV. and for a Mark of his Victories, Trophies of Arms were interlac'd inſtead thereof, with the Letter H crown'd (the Initial of his Name) whereout aroſe Flames and Sparks of Fire; and for the like Reaſon the H has been chang'd into L, both by Lewis XIII and [Page 74] XIV. At this Collar hung a Croſs richly enamell'd in the midſt, whereon was figur'd a Dove in a flying Poſture, as deſcending down from Heaven with full ſpread Wings: And that an Epigraph might not be wanting, ſome have attributed to it this, Duce & Auſpice. Beſides theſe Ornaments, the Knights wear a Black Velvet Cap, with a White Plume; their Breeches and Doublets are of Cloth of Silver, and their Shoes White ty'd with Roſes or Knots of Black Velvet. The Badges ordain'd to be ordinarily worn, are a Croſs of Yellow or Orange-colour Velvet, like a Malta Croſs, fix'd on the left Side of their Breaſt, except in military Expeditions, and then they are permitted to wear them of Cloth of Silver or White Velvet, having a Silver Dove, and at the Angles or Corners, Rays and Flowers de Lys of Silver. They have a Croſs of the Order made of Gold (like the Malta Croſs) with a Flower de Lys in each Angle, to be worn about their Necks in a Blue Ribbon, and to be enamell'd White about the Sides, but not in the Middle. Such as are Knights both of St. Michael and The Holy Ghoſt, are to bear the Figure of St. Michael on one Side, and of a Dove on the other. The Anniverſary is held on the firſt Day of the New-Year, but the firſt Part of the Ceremony begins always on the laſt Day of the Old, when it was inſtituted; and the Place for celebrating thereof is the Church of Auguſtin Fryars in Paris.

3.1.44. 44. The Order of The precious Blood of our Saviour Jeſus Chriſt of Mantua,

WAS inſtituted, 1608. by Vincentio de Gonzago IV. Duke of Mantua, and II. of Montferat, for Defence and Propagation of Chriſtianity, and in Honour of Three Drops of Blood of our Redeemer; as alſo to ſet forth more nobly the Nuptials of his eldeſt Son Franciſco. It was confirm'd by Pope Paul V. and conſiſted of Twenty Knights, the Founder and his Succeſſors to be Great Maſters. The Collar is compos'd of Ovals of Gold, [...]ome extended in Length, others in Breadth, alternately, and interlink'd with ſmall Anulets: Thoſe in Length have theſe Words rais'd in White Enamel, Domine [Page 75] probaſti; on the other in Breadth is a Grey Crucible fill'd with ſmall Rods of Gold, and placed on a Trevet of Black Enamel over Flames of Fire, intimating, that they who incorporated in this Society, ſhould hold inviolable Faith and Concord in the greateſt Trials and Emergences of Life; at the End of the Collar is pendant a larger Oval of Gold, in which are figur'd two Angels ſtanding upright, holding between them a Chalice crown'd, in the Table whereof are painted Three Drops of Bloods enamell'd Red, and round the Oval, Nihil iſto triſte recepto.

3.1.45. 45. The Order of the Amaranta,

OWES its Inſtitution to Chriſtina, Queen of Sweden, about the Year 1645. in honour of a Lady of that Name, of great Beauty, Courage, Modeſty and Charity. The chief Enſign is a Jewel of Gold compos'd of Two A's, adorn'd with Diamonds on both Sides, and join'd together by reverſing one of them, being ſet within a Circle of Laurel Leaves wreath'd about with White, and on the Four Sides this Motto, Dolcenella memoria; which Jewel the Knights wear either in a Gold Chain, or a Crimſon or Blue Ribbon, as they beſt like of. His Inveſtiture is with this Ceremony: The Queen being ſeated under her State, an intended Knight kneels before her, when ſhe acquaints him with her Inducements to confer on him this Honour, enumerating his Services and Merits: This done, he takes an Oath, ſtill kneeling and holding his Hands between the Queen's, to defend her Perſon from Harm, and the Perſons of his Brother Knights; to incite Juſtice, Vertue and Piety, and diſcountenance its Oppoſers; after which the Queen puts about him (in the manner of a Baudrick) a Crimſon Silk Scarf, with the Jewel faſten'd thereto. To an abſent Prince or Perſonage, ſhe ſends the Jewel, accompany'd with her Letter, which ſupplies the Place of a perſonal Inveſtiture. Among many others have been ſeveral Kings and Princes. Sir Bulſtrode Whitlocke [...]as been elected Knight of this Order.

3.1.46. 46. The Order of the Black Eagle,

[Page 76]

WAs inſtituted by Frederick King of Pruſſia, and Elector of Brandenburgh, ſoon after he had the Title of King conferr'd upon him.

3.2. 2

§ 2. 1. In the Weſt-Indies, Montezuma, King of Mexico, ſet Knighthood in the higheſt Splendor, ordaining certain military Orders, with ſeveral Badges and Enſigns. The moſt honourable among the Knights were thoſe that carry'd the Crown of their Hair ty'd with a little Red Ribbon, having a rich Plume of Feathers, from which did hang Branches and Rolls of Feathers upon their Shoulders. They carry'd as many Rolls as they had done gallant Exploits in the Wars; and the King himſelf and his Sons were of this Order; which Purchas calls Eagle Knights.

2. THERE was another Order, call'd Of the Lyons and Tygers. Theſe Knights being commonly the moſt valiant in the Wars, always bore with them their Badges and Armories.

3. OTHER Knights there were, as The Grey Knights, not ſo much reſpected as the reſt. They had their Hair cut round about the Ears: They made War upon their Enemies with Enſigns like other Knights, and were only arm'd to the Girdle, while the moſt Honourable were Cap-a-Pee'd. All Knights might carry Gold and Silver, be array'd in rich Cotton, have the uſe of painted and gilt Veſſels, and wear Shoes; but the common People only the earthen ſort; neither might they carry Shoes nor Attire themſelves, but in a groſs Stuff. Every Order had their Lodging aſſign'd them in the Palace, diſtinguiſh'd by their proper Enſigns: The firſt was the Lodging of the Prince, the ſecond of Eagles, the third of Lyons and Tygers, and the fourth of Grey Knights.

THE Province of Cinaloa (near New Mexico) created their Knights by giving a Bow, and ſetting them to encounter a Lyon or ſome other wild Beaſt.

THE Inguas, or Lords of Peru, dedicated their Children to Honour, by adorning them with Guarras or [Page 77] Enſigns. They pierced their Ears, whip'd them with Slings [...] ſmeared their Faces with Blood, in order they ſhould be true Knights to the Ingua. Thoſe of Royal Extraction, before they received the Order of Knighthood abſtained Seven Days from all manner of Nutr [...]ment, except a little raw Grain and Water, and after being heartned and briſked up again, performed ſome Military Exerciſes, alſo Racing, Wreſtling, Leaping, Shooting, Slinging, throwing the Dart and Lance, &c. and enduring to be beaten on the Hands and Legs with Wands; theſe being as it were the Teſts whether they could endure the Hardſhips of War or no; for if they did not ſuſtain them manfully, they were denied Knighthood. The Ceremonies being performed by boaring an Hole in the Ears, putting on gallant Shoes, and wearing of the Breeches, which before they were reſtricted, adorning their Heads with Flowers, and having the Privilege of an Herb that none but themſelves cou'd make uſe of, and laſtly giving an Axe into their Hands. Menenius calls theſe Knights Oreiones, from the Spaniſh Orejas, flop or loll-eared, in the Latin Auriculares, from the Leaf which they bore hanging in their Ears, or becauſe they only negotiated Affairs with the Emperor, and had his Ear at all times.

IN Japan there's an Order of Knights called Mengoras, part of whom are called Bonzees, living in Fraternities, as our Religioniſts in Europe. Some of theſe have the Charge of their Idols, and the Service relating to their Temples, others follow the Wars. They profeſs Chaſtity with ſuch Severity, that no Woman is allow'd to enter their Cities. They govern the Kingdoms they conquer, and are ſo very opulent that ſome of them poſſeſs 60000 Duckets per Annum; and have a publick Armory well ſtored to make uſe of upon any Exigence, which is maintain'd by a daily Contribution. Women have been excluded their Share in this Way of Honour, tho' their Courage and Valour have equalized the Amazons of old; the Example is of the noble Women of Tortoſa in Spain, or the Femme Cavaliers of the Torchi. Micheli barely calls them Chavalleros, or rather Chavalleras, ſeeing the Latins have had the Words, Equitiſſae & Militiſſae, to expreſs, Virago's and H [...]roines.

[Page 78] DON Raymond, laſt Earl of Barcelona, having in the Year 1149. reduced the City of Tortoſa from the Moors, on the Thirty Firſt following they laid a freſh Siege to it, in hopes to recover it. The Inhabitants were at length reduced to great Streights; they deſired Relief of the Earl, but he not being in a Condition to anſwer their Requeſt, they had Thoughts of a Surrender; which the Women to prevent put on the Apparel of the Men, and by a reſolute Salley forced the Moors to raiſe the Siege. The Gallantry of the Action the Earl acknowledged by granting them ſeveral Privileges, and to perpetuate the Memory inſtituted this Order, ſomewhat like a Military one, and none were to be admitted, only thoſe brave Women, and the Honour to derive to their Deſcendants, and aſſigned them for a Badge a Thing like a Fryer's Capouche, ſharp at the Top, after the Form of a Torch, of a Crimſon Colour, to be worn upon their Head-Cloaths; that at all publick Meetings the Women ſhould have Precedence of the Men, and ſhould be exempted from all Taxes, and that all the Apparels and Jewels left by their dead Husbands ſhould be theirs.

A more general Ornament of Honour peculiar to the Fair Sex is the Cordon, which ſome will have to be an Order, or Equivalent thereunto. The Inſtitution is attributed to Anne Britaigne, Wife to Charles VIII. of France, who inſtead of the Military Belt or Collar, beſtowed a Cordon or Lace on ſeveral Ladies, admoniſhing them to live chaſtly and devoutly, always mindful of the Cords and Bonds of our Saviour, and to engage them to a greater Eſteem of it, ſhe ſurrounded her Eſcutcheon of Arms with the like Cordon; from which Example the Arms of unmarried Ladies and Gentlewomen are uſually adorn'd with them.

4. CAP. IV. Of the Caſtle, Chapel, and College of Windſor, &c.

[Page 79]


HAving diſpatch'd the ſeveral Orders of Knighthood, and trac'd them from their proper Fountains, we come now to treat of the moſt Noble Order of the Garter; an Order, that not only grants Merit, and Honourable, and Valiant Exploits at Home, but what Imperial Heads and Perſons, fam'd for the Antiquity of their Race, or Gallantry of Actions, have always eſteem'd a further Advancement to their Glory therein to be enroll'd. For the better Explanation, it will be neceſſary to begin with the Deſcription of the Caſtle, Chapel, and College of Windſor. The Place claims no greater Antiquity than of the Saxons, named by them Windleſhore, and, as Cambden conjectures, had the Denomination from the Winding of a Shore thereabouts, as did Wandſworth in Surry, heretofore written Windleſworth. The firſt authentick Notice is from the Donation which King Edward the Confeſſor made thereof to the Monks of Weſtminſter, (as the Charter expreſſes it) For the Hope of eternal Reward, the Remiſſion of all his Sins, the Sins of his Father, Mother, and all his Anceſtors, to the Praiſe of Almighty, &c. he grants Wyndleſhore, with all its Appurtenances, as an Endowment and perpetual Inheritance, to the Uſe of the Monks there, and at Weſtminſter, that ſerved GOD. Thoſe Monks enjoy'd it not long, for King William the Conqueror, in the firſt Year of his Reign, being greatly [...]namour'd with the p [...]eaſant Situation and Commodiouſneſs of the Place, ſ [...]tna [...]e ſo near the Thames, and the Wood fit for Game [...] i [...]vited Eadwin, the then Abbor, and the M [...]nks, to accept in Exchange f [...]r it, Wokendune in Eſſex, a Manſion called Ferings, with all its Members and Hamlers, together with Fourteen Sokemen and their Lands, and o [...]e Fr [...]hol [...]er, and Three Houſes in Colcheſter, all in Eſſex, [...]n e which it has remained in the Crown.

The King being thus poſſeſs'd, forthwi [...]h built a Caſtle upon the Hill, which, in Doomſd [...]y Book, contained [Page 80] half an Hide of Land, and is there noted to be Parcel of the Mannor of [Clivore] Clure. This Caſtle King Henry I. rebuilt, and beautified with great Magnificence, and, in the Tenth Year of his Reign, held his Whitſontide there with great State and Splendor. Shortly after, in a Charter of Peace between King Stephen and Duke Henry, (King Henry II. afterwards) this Caſtle was called Mola de Windeſor, the Fortreſs of Windeſor. Within this Caſtle was King Edward III. born, (commonly called Edward of Windſor) and was baptized in the old Chapel; and ſo great was his Affection to that Place, that he conſtituted it the Seat of the moſt noble Order of the Garter; and to embelliſh it the more, he founded the College of the Chapel of St. George, and much enlarged, and beautified the Caſtle.

For this Work he appointed ſeveral Surveyors, whom he aſſigned to preſs Hewers of Stone, Carpenters, and ſuch other Artificers as were thought uſeful and neceſſary, as alſo to provide Stone, Timber, and all other Materials for them. William de Wyckham (who attained to be Biſhop of Wincheſter) was one of theſe Superviſors, and had that Place conferr'd on him by Letters Patent, October 30. Ed. III. And a Grant of the ſame Fee was likewiſe allowed to Robert de Bernham, viz. One Shilling a Day, while he was at Windſor, Two Shillings when he went elſewhere about that Affair, and Three Shillings per Week to his Clerk; afterwards he was chief Cuſtos and Surveyor of this Caſtle, of the Mannors of Old and New Windſor, and of other Caſtles, Mannors, &c. belonging to the King, to provide Workmen, and lo [...]k after the Repairs, and in thoſe Mannors to hold Leets and other Courts, Pleas of Treſpaſs and Miſdemeanours.

About the 34th of Ed. III. it is preſumed the moſt conſiderable Enlargement of the Caſtle was made, ſeeing there was then great Store of the ableſt Diggers and Maſons impreſs'd, by virtue of Writs directed to the [...]everal Sheriffs, with Command under 100 l. Penalty to ſend them to Windſor the Sunday after the Feaſt of St. George, to work at the King's Charge, from whence they were not to depart without Wyckham's Licenſe, Security having been firſt taken by the Sheriffs, and returned into Chancery. London found Forty; Eſſex, in conjunction with Her [...]ford, Forty; Wilts, Leiceſter, with [Page 81] Worceſter, Cambridge, with Huntington Forty, Kent, Glouceſter, Somerſet, with Devon, and Northampton, one with another, found alſo Forty a-piece. And becauſe divers of theſe Workmen, for Gain and Advantage, clandeſtinely left Windſor to the Hindrance of the Work, all Perſons were forbid to employ or retain them under Forfeiture of all they had, and likewiſe to arreſt thoſe that withdrew themſelves from the Work, and commit them to Newgate. A. 36. Ed. III. many of them being ſwept away by the Peſtilence, the like Writs were directed to other Sheriffs, under a Hundred Pound Penalty, to ſend able Men; whereupon the Counties of York ſent Sixty, Derby Twenty Four, Salop Sixty, Hereford Fifty, Nottingham Twenty Four, Lancaſter Twenty Four, and Devon Sixty. A. 37. Ed. III. The noble Edifice was ready for Glazing, and of Twenty Four of that Occupation impreſs'd for the King's Service, Twelve were to be employed at Windſor. In this Year and the next a great Proficiency was made, and vaſt Quantities of Stone were amaſſed, dug out of the Quarries of Wellesfor, Newel, and Carby, and other Places. From the 37th to the 43d, the Building of the Caſtle was diligently purſued. We find no Addition to this auguſt Pile till his 48th Year, and after that Time nothing more during his Reign, ſo that it is ſuppoſed this Famous Piece for Magnificence and Str [...]ngth was then chiefly finiſhed, viz. the Great Hall of St. George, the Lodgings on the Eaſt and South ſide of the Upper Ward, the Keep or Tower in the Middle Ward, the Chapel of St. George, the Houſes for the Cuſtos and the Canons in the Lower Ward, with the whole Circumference of the Walls, their ſeveral Towers and Gates, as in the preſent Poſture they remain.

IN ſucceeding Times King Hen. VII. added that ſtately Fabrick adjoining to the King's Lodgings, in the Upper Ward. King Hen. VIII. re-edified the great Gate at the Entrance into the Lower Ward. King Edw. VI. began, and Queen Mary perfected the Conveying the Water, from Blackmore-Park in Wingfield Pariſh, into a Fountain of curious Workmanſhip erected in the Mid [...]e Ward, which ſupplied all the Caſtle. Queen Elizabeth made a Terrace Work on the North ſide of the [Page 82] Caſtle; from whence there is a pleaſant Proſpect down upon Eaton-bridge, the Thames, and the adjacent Country. King Charles I. A. D. 1636. built the Gate at the Eaſt end of the Terrace, which leads into the Park. And laſtly, King Charles II. greatly beautified and repair'd the Fabrick, and furniſh'd it with a curious Armory; and, in fine, every Thing is ſo fitly diſpoſed and ordered, that they are worthy of the Notice of every nice and curious Traveller.

CAMDEN elegantly deſcribes its Situation in Proſe in this manner: From an Hill (ſays he) that riſes with a gentle Aſcent, it enjoyeth a moſt delightful Proſpect round about; foreright, in the Front, it ov [...]rlooketh a Vale, lying out far and wide, garniſh [...]d with Corn Fields, flouriſhing with Meadows, deck'd with Groves on either ſide, and watered with the moſt mild and calm River Thames. Behind it ariſe Hills every where, neither rough nor over high, attired, as it were with Woods, and even dedicated, as one would ſay, by Nature, to hunting Game.

And thus Denham's Muſe pourtrays it:

Windeſor, the next (where Mars with Venus dwells.
Beauty with Strength) above the Ualley ſwells
Into my Eye, and doth it ſelf preſent
With ſuch an eaſy and unforc'd Aſcent,
That no ſtupendious Precipice denies
Acceſs, no horror turns away our Eyes;
But ſuch a Riſe as doth at once invite
A Pleaſure [...] and a [...]everence from our ſight.
Thy mighty Maſters Emblem, in whole face
Sat [...]eekneſs heightned with Majeſtick Grace;
Such ſeems thy gentle height, made only proud
To be the Baſis of that pompous Load.
Than which a noblet weight no Mountain bears
But Atlas only that ſupports the Spheres.

[Page 83] This Caſtle is under the Government of a Conſtable, ſo call'd in the Reign of King John, and has bore that Denomination ever ſince: The Office is of great Antiquity, Honour and Power, but of ſmall Revenue, for it is partly Military and Civil; as Military he commands the Caſtle and any Garriſon placed therein, and is obliged to defend it againſt all Enemies whatſoever; all the Priſoners brought hither are committed to his Charge, and is anſwerable for all that is in the Caſtle to the King, under whom he is Commander, as a Civil Officer. He is Judge of a Court of Record held there by Preſcription, for determining, by way of Common Law, all Pleas between Party and Party, ariſing within the Precincts of the Foreſt of Windſor, and Liberties thereof, which compriſeth many Towns, and all legal Proceſſes iſſue out in his Name. He is allowed a Deputy learned in the Law, who is called the Steward of the Court of Record, and is Keeper of the Conſtable's Seal of Office. This Officer ſupplies the Conſtable's Place as a Judge of the Court of Common Pleas, from whoſe Judgment the Appeal is by Writ of Error returnable in the King's-Bench, or Common Pleas at Weſtminſter. The Conſtable is likewiſe Foreſter and Warden of the Foreſt of Windſor, which is an 120 Miles in compaſs. He hath under him one or more Lieutenants at his Pleaſure, and may impriſon any Treſpaſſer in Vert and Veniſon Convict, having a Priſon in the Caſtle for that Purpoſe, named the Coalhole. He hath the Freedom of uſing the Sports of the Foreſt, which is granted to no Perſon without his or the King's Licenſe, and ſigns all Warrants to kill Deer, (except what the King ſigns) and is to fell Timber and Wood.

HE that was Chaſtelain (the French Word for Conſtable) in William the Conqueror's Reign was Walter Fitz Other, from whom the Family of the Barons of Windſor are deſcended, and the Earls of Plimouth, bearing the Surname of Windſor. Temp. Car. II. Prince Rupert was Conſtable.

WE come next to the Chapel of St. George, which is ſituate in the Lower Ward or Court of this Caſtle, and ſo named by King Ed [...]. III. ſhortly after he had founded the College mention'd in the next Section; he having [Page 84] pulled down the old Chapel erected there by King Henry I. and dedicated to King Edward the Confeſſor, to raiſe a more ſtately Structure in its ſtead; to bring which Marter to Perfection, in the 24th Year of his Reign, John de Spoulee had the Office of Maſter of the Stone-Hewers, and had Power to provide Maſons, and other Artificers, to whoſe Care they were entruſted. In Anno 25. Ed. I. John de Dorcheſter, Sub-Conſtable of the Caſtle, was appointed to keep a Controul upon all the Proviſions bought for the Works of the Chapel, as well as on the Payments, and all other Affairs relating thereunto. To this Fabrick he erected ſeveral Houſes adjoining, for the Cuſtos and Canons to reſide in; and afterwards King Hen. IV. gave them the void Place in the Caſtle call'd the Woodhall, nigh the great Hall, for building of Houſes and Apartments for the Vicars, Clerks, and Choriſters, and the other Miniſters, aſſigned for the Service of the Chapel; but King Edw. IV. obſerving the Walls and Foundation of the Chapel ſapped and conſumed, and eſteeming the Fabrick not ſtately or ſp [...]cious enough, deſigned another more noble and excellent in its Room: In order to it Richard Beauchamp, Biſhop of Salisbury, was conſtituted Maſter and Surveyor of the Work, who had Power from the King to remove all Impediments, demoliſhed divers of the Offici [...]ry Houſes, and other irregular Piles and decay'd Walls, and dug up their Foundations, particularly thoſe ancient Buildings on the Eaſt ſide of the Chapel, which extended unto the Walls on the North ſide of the Caſtle, where the Towers, viz. C [...]urey's Tower, and Le Amenery's Tower, and B [...]rney's Tower, were ſituated; as alſo on the South ſide of the Chapel, unto the Belfry there, excluſively; the Materials whereof he might beſtow upon any Buildings in th [...] Caſtle, as he thought convenient. How well the B [...]ſhop diſcharged this Office, appears from the Preamble of his Patent, whereby that King conferred o [...] him the Chancellorſhip of the Carter, in which is ſet forth, That out of meer Love towards the Order, he had given himſelf the Leiſure daily to attend the Advancement and Progreſs of this goodly Fabrick.

FROM this Erection of K. Ed. IV. aroſe the elegant and beauteous Structure now ſtanding, enlarged in Length [Page 85] at leaſt an Hundred Fathom (tho' it did not arrive to its Perfection until the Reign of King Henry VIII.) together with the Dean and Canons Houſes on the North ſide of the Chapel, and thoſe of the Petty Canons raiſed at the Weſt End, in form of a Fetter-lock (one of King Edward the IVth's Badges) and ſo vulgarly call'd. Temp. Henry VII. Sir Reginald Bray, Knight of the Garter, became a liberal Benefactor, finiſhing the Body of the Chapel, and rearing the Middle Chapel on the South thereof, which ſtill retains his Name, and where his Body lies interred, as is manifeſt by his Arms, Badges, &c. cut in Stone, and by his laſt Will. Anno 21. Hen. VII. John Hylmer and William Vertu [...], Free Maſons, undertook the Vaulting the Roof of the Choir (a curious Piece of Architecture) for 700 l. and finiſh'd it by Chriſtmas, 1508. Anno 8 Henry VIII. the Rood Loft, and Lanthorn, were erected, with the Contributions raiſed by the Knights Companions. Near to the Eaſt end of this Chapel, was a little Fabrick of Free-Stone, raiſed by Cardinal Wolſey, call'd the Tomb Houſe, in the Middle whereof he deſigned to erect a Monument for King Henry VIII. and had almoſt finiſhed it before he died; but this was demoliſhed, 1646. by command of the Long Parliament; and all the Copper Figures, exceedingly enriched by Art, carry'd thence. This Place King Charles I. intended to enlarge, for the Interment of his own Royal Body, and thoſe of his Succeſſors; but thoſe villainous Times drawn on, they with much ado afforded him but a mean obſcure Place near the firſt high Place in the Choir of this Chap [...]l, in the ſame Vault where the Bodies of King Henry VIII. and his laſt Queen yet remain.

IN this Chapel, beſides many of the Knights Companions, repoſe the Body of King Hen. VI. removed from Cher [...]ſey Abbey in Surrey, depoſited under the Uppermoſt Arch at the South ſide of the Altar, without any Monument or Inſcription, and likewiſe that of King Edw. IV. under a large Stone of Tuch, raiſed within the oppoſite Arch, at the North ſide of the Altar, but without Inſcription, having on the outſide of his Grave a Range of Steel gilt, to incloſe it from the North Iſles, cut excellent well in Church-work.

[Page 86] OVER this Arch hung this King's Coat of Mail, cover'd over with Crimſon Velvet, and thereon the Arms of England and France quarter'd and richly embroider'd with Pearl and Gold, interwoven with divers Rubies; which Trophy had remain'd over his Monument ever ſince his Interment, till plunder'd by Captain Fogg, 1642. who at the ſame time ſacrilegiouſly robb'd the Chapel of all its Altar-Plate.

WITHIN this Chapel were ſeveral Chantries endow'd with Lands and other Revenues, for Chaplains and Prieſts to ſing Maſſes for the Souls of their Founder's Kindred.

William of Wickham, Biſhop of Wincheſter, in 3 Hen. IV. gave Two Hundred Marks to the Dean and Chapter, to buy Twenty Marks per Annum to maintain one Chaplain.

18 Ed. IV. The Feoffees of Richard, Duke of Gloc [...] ſter, gave the Mannors of Bentfieldbury in Eſſex, Knapton in Norfolk, and Chetleſworth in Suffolk for a daily Maſs.

22 Ed. IV. Sir Thomas St. Leger founded a Chantry of Two Prieſts, who were to officiate in the middle Chapel on the North Side of the Church; and the ſaid King, by his Will, ordain'd Two Prieſts to ſerve at his Tomb, with an Exhibition of Twenty Marks yearly a-piece.

9 Hen. VII. There was another Chantry Prieſt aſſign'd for Thomas Paſche and William Hermer, &c. who was to perform his Office at the Altar on the North Side the new Church.

13 Hen. VII. Margaret, Counteſs of Richmond, founded a Chantry for Four Chaplains, to celebrate Maſs in the Eaſt Part of the new Work of the Chapel.

18 Hen. VII. William, Lord Haſtings, founded a Chantry for One Prieſt, on the North Side of the Choir, about the middle whereof this Lord lies.

21 Hen. VII. Charles Somerſet, Lord Herbert, (afterwards Earl of Worceſter) left a Secular Prieſt for a daily Maſs, &c. to be ſaid in the South Chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mary, where he lies inter [...]'d. Both theſe Lords have built Appartments adjoyning for their Chantry Prieſts, now to be ſeen and diſtinguiſh'd by [Page 87] their Arms, garter'd and cut in Stone over their ſeveral Doors.

To theſe we ſhall add the Foundation of the new Commons, erected over againſt the North Door of the Body of St. George's Chapel, by James Denton one of the Canons, Anno 11 Hen. VIII. for the Lodging and Dieting ſuch of the Chantry Prieſts, Choriſters and ſtipendiary Prieſts, who had before no certain Place where to hold Commons in, which he furniſh'd with all proper Utenſils, the Charge amounting to 489 l. 7 s. 1 d. in lieu of which the Choriſters were to ſay certain Prayers when they enter'd the Chapel, commemorate his Death, and pray for his and the Souls of all the Faithful departed.

IN this Chapel of St. George there were heretofore ſeveral Anniverſaries or Obits held and celebrated, which we paſs over. And as it was uſual for ſome of the military Profeſſion to ſpend the Remains of their Lives in pious Speculations, for their King and Country, and the Salvation of their own Souls, Permiſſion was allow'd to the well-diſpos'd Knights of the Garter, who retir'd from the Noiſe and Buſtle of the World, to make their Abode there; yet ſo as to maintain themſelves out of their own Revenues. King Henry VIII. ordain'd that the Sovereign ſhould aſſign them convenient Appartments within the Caſtle; and the like Favour he granted to other Knights, tho' not of the Order; but the Lodgings to be ſuch as the Sovereign and Knights Companions ſhould decree: However, we do not find the Knights Companions made uſe of the Benefit, but only for their better Accommodation at the grand Feaſt of the Order, &c. A Motion was made, 14 Car. I. that they might have Lodgings aſſign'd them in the great Court, which they offer'd to repair at their own Charge, ſince all the Officers had Conveniencies in the Caſtle, but the Knights Companions none, which the King did not diſſent to, provided it be without Excluſion of the great Officers of State.

4.2. 3

§ 3. WITHIN the Chapel of the Caſtle, erected by King Henry I. was founded a College for Eight Canons, to be maintain'd by an annual Penſion out of the Exchequer. King Edw. II. founded here a Chantry for [Page 88] Four Chaplains and Two Clerks; as likewiſe a Chapel in the Park of Windſor, under the ſame Regulation, for Four more Chaplains, whom King Edw. III. remov'd and joyn'd to thoſe before ſettled in the Chapel of the Caſtle, and built Habitations for their better Accommodation, on the South Side thereof.

THE Foundation we treated of here was confirm'd by Letters Patent, dated at Weſtminſter, Aug. 6. 22 Edw. III. three Quarters of a Year before he erected The Order of the Garter, when he laid the Foundation of the ancient Chapel a-freſh, in honour of God, the Virgin Mary, St. George and St. Edward the Confeſſor; and ordain'd, that to King Henry's Eight Canons there ſhould be annex'd One Cuſtos, Fifteen more Canons, and Twenty Four Alms-Knights, together with other Miniſters, all under the Power of the Cuſtos, and theſe to be ſupported out of the Revenues wherewith this Chapel ſhould be endow'd: Upon which Pope Clement VI. 1351. by his Bull directed to the Arch-biſhop of Canterbury and Biſhop of Wincheſter, approved in part the King's Intention.

THE next Year the Statutes and Ordinances of the College commenc'd, by Virtue of the Pope's Authority [...] the King's Command, and Conſent of the Biſhop of Salisbury, in whoſe Dioceſs the Chapel is ſituate. By which Statutes, Wincheſter (one of the Pope's Delegates) inſtituted a College, within the Precincts of the Chapel of St. George, conſiſting of one Cuſtos, Twelve Secular Canons, Thirteen Prieſts or Vicars, Four Clerks, Six Choriſters, and Twenty Six Alms-Knights, beſides other Officers.

4.3. DEAN.

§ 4. THE firſt Cuſtos was John de la Chambre, conſtituted Nov. 14. 22 Edw. III. to whom ſucceeded William Mugg [...] on the 18th of June following: Which Mugg is the firſt, if the Inſtitution of the College bears Date by Papal, and not Kingly Authority. After him were others that were call'd by the ſame Title; till the laſt Year of King Henry IV. when Thomas Kingſton was preſented by the Name of Dean; and his Succeſſor, John Arundel, obſerving divers Endowments granted to the [Page 89] College alternately, by the Name of Cuſtos, Dean and Cuſtos, or laſtly of Dean only; and doubting this Variation of Titles in Time might bring Inconveniences upon the Foundation, petition'd the Parliament, 8 Hen. VI. whereupon the King, by Letters Patent under the Great Seal, granted that the ſaid John ſhould be Cuſtos ſive Decanus for Life, and his Succeſſors Cuſiodes ſive Decani, Wardens or Deans of the Free Chapel of St. George, within the Caſtle of Windſor; and that the Cuſtos, or Dean and Canons thereof, and their Succeſſors, by that Appellation, ſhould have and hold, to them and their Succeſſors for ever, all Lands, Tenements, &c. Liberties, &c. devolv'd upon the College at any Time before: So that here was a kind of new Incorporation, by the Title of Cuſtos, or Deans and Canons only; at leaſt this was a great Step to compleat the Privilege they after enjoy'd, when thro' the Intereſt of Richard Beauchamp, Biſhop of Salisbury, then alſo Dean of Windſor, and Chancellor of the Order, King Edw. IV. by Letters Patent dated Dec. 6. in the 19th Year of his Reign, model'd them by the Name of Dean and Canons of the Free Chapel of St. George within the Caſtle of Windſor, one Body corporate in Thing and Name, with a perpetual Succeſſion, and capable in Law to purchaſe, receive and take Lands, &c. in Fee and Perpetuity; to have a common Seal, and might plead and be impleaded by that Name; and for better Security, the Letters Patent of Incorporation were, within Three Years after, paſs'd into an Act of Parliament now in force.

THE Authority of the Cuſtos or Dean conſiſts in being Preſident over the reſt of the College; to govern, direct and order them their Goods and Eſtates. He has all manner of Eccleſiaſtical Juriſdiction over them, with a Reſervation of Power of Appeal to the Chancellor of England, who is Viſitor of that College.

WHEN any Perſons lead Lives inordinate, he with the Chapter (in Caſes where no particular Penalty is appointed) may reprehend or correct at Diſcretion; and in Matters of Diſcord, ſhall within Eight Days reconcile the contending Parties, or do Juſtice. After thrice Admonition, may expel from the College all [Page 90] Sowers of Diſcord, Backbiters and Whiſperers, that are below the Degree of a Canon. And that there be no defect of Government, when the Dean has Occaſion to be abſent above Eight Days, he ſhall appoint One of the Canon Reſidents for his Deputy, in whoſe abſence he has the Title of Lieutenant, and on all Occaſions to exerciſe his Office; for the Statutes allow him Sixty Days in a Year for Non-reſidence; which ſpace the Royal Viſitation, 1552. enlarg'd to One Hundred and Ten Days; and the Lord Chancellor Hyde granted him Liberty of Six Weeks abſence. But in the Vacancy of the Cuſtos, the Chapter has all his Power conferr'd on them; which Chapter ought, within Two Days after the Vacancy made known, elect one of the Reſident Canons, under the Title of Preſident, to govern the College until they be provided of another Cuſtos.

4.3.1. CANONS.

THE Canons, by the Letters Patent of the firſt Erection, were appointed to be Twenty Four, including the Cuſtos; but upon the Inſtitution of the College by the Biſhop of Winton, there was ordain'd, as afore-noted, One Cuſtos, Twelve Secular Canons, and Thirteen Prieſts or Vicars, in all Twenty Six, compleatly the Number of The Knights of the Garter: And for a fuller Diſtinction between theſe Canons Secular and the Prieſts, the firſt Twelve are, in a Bull of Pope Innocent VIII. nam'd Majores Canonici, the others Minores, or Petty-Canons. To theſe Twelve Seculars were aſſign'd ſo many Prebendſhips in the Chapel of St. George (as alſo Stalls in the Choir and Place in the Chapter) together with that held by the Cuſtos, whence they are frequently ſtyl'd Prebends, and have a ſacerdotal Power; for if they are not in full Orders before they are inſtal'd, they muſt, within a Year after they have enjoy'd their Prebendſhip, be ordain'd a Prieſt, or quit the Benefice.

BY the Bull of Pope Cl [...]ment VI. the Right of preſenting the Canons, Prieſts, Clerks, Alms Knights and other Miniſters, were reſerv'd to the Founder and his Succeſſors; yet we find the firſt Canons were preſented to the Cuſtos, by the Founders of The Order of the Garter, [Page 91] viz. the Twenty Five firſt Knights Companions, every one preſenting ſingularly; yet this was but with the Sovereign's Permiſſion, Pro hac vice; and that none of them ſhould be entitled to it hereafter but the Sovereign alone. And becauſe it might the more effectually be obſerv'd, the Cuſtos was oblig'd upon every Canon's Death, to ſignify the ſame to the Sovereign, that he might pitch on One to ſucceed; which being nominated, he is approved, inſtituted, and inſtal'd, by the Cuſtos or Dean, to whom he ſwears Canonical Obedience, and Obſervance of the Statutes.

THE principal Duty of theſe Canons (and of all the other Miniſters of the College) is continually to attend upon the Service of God in the Chapel of St. George; and the Statutes run upon each Day's Omiſſion of a Canon Reſident, to be mulcted his quotidian Diſtribution 12 d. And tho' we find no Licenſe of Non-Reſidence granted them by their Founder, yet there is mention of Canons Reſident and Non-Reſident, for whom great Defalcations are appointed to be made, to prevent ſuch Neglects, becauſe the reſidentiary Canons bear not only the Burden of that Duty belonging to the Chapel, but the Expence of Hoſpitality and other Works of Charity, occaſion'd from their reſiding at Windſor.

Richard Beauchamp, Biſhop of Salisbury, obtain'd Power from Sextus IV. to make new Statutes, and diſpens'd with the old Ones; and in 1478. he gave to the Dean and every Canon Fourteen Days of Non-Reſidence in every Term, to wit, Fifty Six Days in the Year. By the Viſitation, 1552. they obtain'd a Diſpenſation for Eighty Days; and the Lord Chancellor Hatton yet gave them a further Permiſſion to Two Hundred and Two Days, which the Lord Chancellor Hyde confirm'd; ſo that there remains One Hundred and Sixty Three Days in the Year, in which the Canons ought to be reſident with Hoſpitality, to be conſonant to their Statutes.

THE Canons are particularly oblig'd to pray for the Sovereign, and for the happy Eſtate of the Order. If any Knight Companion, or other Perſon, ſhould beſtow Ten Pounds per Annum, in order to be Partaker of the Prayers appointed for the Benefactors of the [Page 92] College, his Name was to be inſcribed amongſt them, and he alſo prayed for. Which Article, tho' King Hen. V. confirmed, yet with this Reſtriction, it ſhould not be admitted without the Conſent of the Sovereign, or the Knights-Companions of the Order. 4 Edw. VI. ſome one of them were enjoyned to commemorate the Benefactors in a Diſcourſe upon the Tueſday next after the third Sunday in Lent, and on the firſt Tuſedays in June, September and December, and not only to ſet forth the Munificence of the Founder, and of King Hen. VIII. but of all others, ſo as to excite their Auditors to an Emulation, in the Increaſe of Religion, and ſetting forth of God's Glory.

THE civil Obligations of theſe Canons are to attend the Sovereign (or his Deputy) and the Knights Companions at their grand Feaſt, and at the Feaſts of the Inſtallation, or when the Sovereign or Knights Companions ſhall come to the Chapel of St. George upon a Religious Account. On thoſe ſolemn Days, over their Eccleſſaſtical Habit they wear a Murrey Mantle, (at this Day a Taffaty Robe, in Faſhion like the three inferior Officers of the Order) with the Arms of St. George arched within a Rundle on the Right Shoulder.


Thoſe now call'd Petty Canons in the Patent of Foundation went undiſtinguiſh'd with the Canones Majores: only in the Bull of Pope Clement VI. to the Archbiſhop of Canterbury and Biſhop of Winton, for inſtituting the College, they are called Presbyteri; and by the ſaid Biſhop in the very Words of his Statutes, Presbyteri ſe [...] Vicarii, by which laſt Name they are ſtyl'd at the firſt Erection of the Garter. Their Number was originally Thirteen, only King Henry the VIIIth's Engliſh Statutes mention Eight petty Canons, beſi [...]es Thirteen Vicars, (but the Latin takes Notice only of Thirteen Prieſts, ſome called Canonici Minores, others Vicarii.) Ann. 1. Edw. VI. Twelve Prieſts were ap [...]ointed, and named Petty Canons, that is, Four to be added to the Eight mention'd in the Statute of King Henry VIII. Yet in Queen Elizabeth's Ordinances for the continual Charge, the Petty Canons thereby provided for are [Page 93] Thirteen, agreeable to the ancient Number of Vicars [...] but at this Day they are reduced to Seven, and one of them Subchanter.

The Vicars at their Admiſſion are bound to be Prieſts, at leaſt Deacons, and at the next Ordination they muſt commence Prieſts. Their Statutes oblige them to continual Reſidence; and if abſent from Matins or from the grand Maſs, they are amerced 2 d. and for every Canonical Hour, the Maſs of the Virgin Mary, or for the Defunct, a Penny: All which Forfeitures were to be deducted out of their Sallary, and divided among thoſe Vicars that duly attend theſe Duties. But the Statutes 1 Edw. VI. ſtate the Forfeit of Abſence from Matins to be one Half-penny, and the like from Proceſſion, Communion or Even-Song, to be paid to the Poor's Box. And not only they, but all other Miniſters of the Chapel, if they leave the College above Twenty Days, without Reaſons ſufficiently approved of by the Reſidentiary Canons; or any of the Society that lead a vicious or ſcandalous Life, after the Fact manifeſtly proved before the Cuſtos, are to be expelled; but an Abſence leſs than Twenty Days, without Leave granted, is puniſhable at Diſcretion.

Each Vicar enjoy'd at firſt an annual Penſion of 8 l. paid after this Manner, viz. every Kalendar Month 8 s. for their Diet, and at the Expiration of every Quarter Day the Surplus was conſign'd for other Neceſſaries they ſtood in need of. King Ed. IV. encreaſed their Penſions to Twenty Marks a-piece; to which Queen Elizabeth (they being then called Petty Canons) advanced 13 s. and 4 d. per Annum to each out of the Lands confirm'd on the College by King Ed. VI. and now their yearly Sallaries are encreas'd to Thirty Pounds. Out of theſe Petty Canons is elected a Subchanter, (and commonly the ſame Perſon is the Dean's Vicar) who has the Cure of Souls, marries and buries, &c.

4.3.3. CLERKS.

For the Service of the Choir at the Foundation were allotted Four Clerks, one whereof was to be inſtituted a Deacon, and another a Sub-deacon before their Admiſſion, [Page 94] and theſe two were deſign'd (upon Vacancy) to the Vicars Places. But for the other Two, Inſtitution into leſſer Orders, in which they were to continue, were ſufficient. Each of the Two firſt ſort had Eight Marks per Ann. and the other Two but Six. King Ed. IV. encreas'd their Number to Thirteen, and allow'd them 10 l. per Ann. They are mention'd to be Thirteen in Hen. VIII's Statutes. 1 Ed. VI. they were encreas'd to Fifteen; but here appointed to be Laymen, wearing Surplices in the Choir, each having the ſame Allowance. 4 Ed. VI. a Model was propoſed to augment the Number of theſe Fifteen Clerks to Twenty. But in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth they were again reduced to Thirteen, as at this preſent they remain, (one of them as Organiſt hath a double Clerk's Place, and conſequently reckon'd for Two) and an Augmentation to each of 2 l. 13 s. 4 d. three Farthings yearly; which being at firſt oppoſed by the Dean and Prebends, they at length (5 Eliz.) conſented to allow them 40 s. per Ann. a-piece, not out of the new Lands, but out of other Payments which the Dean and Chapter ſhould otherwiſe receive; and 1662. they encreaſed their annual Penſions to 23 l. a-piece. They are obliged to be preſent in the Choir at Divine Service as well as the Petty Canons, and under the ſame Forfeitures; nor may they or the Petty Canons go out of Town above Three at once, left the Choir ſhould be left unprovided.


For the Service of the Choir were appointed Six Choiriſters, and they to be of the Clerical Order at their Admiſſion; to each of which was allow'd Five Marks per Ann. And as the D [...]acon and Sub-deacon were plac'd in the College only in Addition to the Vicars, and deſign'd to ſucceed them in their Vacancies; ſo alſo were there Six ſecular Children, endued with clear tun [...]able Voices, to ſucceed the Choiriſters, when they perceiv'd a Roughneſs or Alteration in their Voices. King Ed. IV. encreas'd the Number of Choiriſters to Thirteen, and allow'd them annually Six Marks a-piece, and which was again confirm'd by King H. VIII's [Page 95] Statutes. Yet the Injunction of 1 Ed. VI. reduced them to Ten; but Queen Elizabeth eſtabliſh'd the former Number, and gave in Augmentation among them all of 3 l. 11 s. 8 d. They are now reduced to Eight, and their preſent Exhibition is 12 s. per Month.


§. 5. The Alms Knights we ſhall treat of in a threefold Eſtate: 1. Under the Foundation; 2. When diſjointed thence by Act of Parliament; and, 3. As eſtabliſhed anew by Queen Elizabeth.

1. THEN, King Edward III. out of the great Regard he had to military Honour, and thoſe who had bravely behav'd themſelves in his Wars, yet after chanced to fall in decay, made a Proviſion for their Relief and comfortable Subſiſtence in old Age, by providing for them in this his Foundation, and making a Coalition in one joint Body with the Cuſtos and Canons; theſe he call'd Milites Pauperes, and we Poor or Alms-Knights. The ſtated Number at firſt were Twenty Four, equal to the Cuſtos and Canons at the firſt Erection. But ſhortly after, upon his inſtituting the Order of the Garter, Two more were added (as there was to the firſt Canons) to make the compleat Number of the Knights-Companions of that Order, which were Twenty Six, as we find ſtated at the Ordination of the College by the Biſhop of Wincheſter, the Pope's Delegate.

THE Intention of the Founder was for thoſe that were real Objects of Charity, as he deſcribes them, viz. poor Knights, infirm in Body, indigent and decay'd, or as the Statutes of the Garter qualifies them, ſuch as thro' adverſe Turns of Fortune were reduced to that Extremity that they had not wherewithal to ſuſtain themſelves, to live ſo genteelly as was ſuitable for a Military Condition, which for greater Caution was reiterated in the Statutes of King Hen. V. King Hen. VIII. and in the Orders of Queen Elizabeth; for it was expreſs'd, in caſe any Eſtate of 20 l. per Annum devolved on them, ſuch Knights were to be diſcharged the College, and they were to proceed to a new Election.

AT the firſt each Knight-Companion of the Order preſented his Alms-Knight, but ever after their Election was to be at the Diſpoſal of the Sovereign. Their Habit [Page 96] was a Red Mantle, with the Eſcutcheon of St. George, without any Garter to ſurround it. Their Exhibition, after their firſt Election was 12 d. a-piece every Day they were at Service in the Chapel, or reſident in the College, beſides 40 s. per Annum for other Contingencies, it being the ſtated Allowance appointed to each of the Canons Reſidents.

ABOUT the Beginning of King Hen. VI's Reign, their quotidian Diſtributions and Annual 40 s. had been unpaid upon the Account of ſome Diſſentions riſen between them and the Dean and Canons; but upon Complaint of John Biſhop of York, Lord Chancellor of England, and Viſitor of the College, 10 Hen. VI. they were redreſſed, and their Arrears of both diſcharged, without any Deduction, and likewiſe obtained this Clauſe, That if the Treaſurer of the College became negligent in future Payments, he ſhould loſe his own Quotidians, from the Time of his voluntary Omiſſion, and the ſame to be divided among the Alms-Knights. Their Duty was to pray for the Sovereign and the Knights Companions, to be every Day preſent at High Maſs, the Maſſes of the Virgin Mary, at Veſpers and Compline, and in default to be mulcted their 12 d. toties quoties, which was to be converted to the Uſe of the other Alms-Knights, then reſiding in the Caſtle of Windſor; notwithſtanding which Decree, the Dean did afterwards break in upon them, and diſpoſed of theſe Forfeitures at his Pleaſure, till 2 Rich. II. Adam, Biſhop of St. David's, then Chancellor of England, and Viſitor of the College, redreſs'd it, and another Complaint of like Nature being made of the Deans diſpoſing of Donations and other Liberalities of the Knights Companions in wrong of the Alms-Knights, this Chancellor decreed an equal Diſtribution between the Alms-Knights and Canons, till the King and Council ſhould otherwiſe determine.

Theſe and other Differences between the Dean and Canons and Alms Knights, grew up to that height, that they became irreconcileable, inſomuch as in the Act of Parliament, 22 Edw. IV. for incorporating of the Cuſtos and Canons, by the Name of Dean and Canons, the Alms-Knights were not only omitted; but this Clauſe inſerted, That the Dean and Canons, and their Succeſſors, [Page 97] ſhould for ever more be utterly quit and diſcharged from all manner of Exhibition or Charge of or for any of the ſaid Knights. And this under the Cover, That the King has greatly augmented the Number of the Miniſters of the Chapel, that the Revenue was inſufficient to maintain both them and the Alms-Knights; but in the Dean and Canons Anſwer to the Knights Petition to repeal this Act, the Cauſe is alledged, For that ſome of theſe Knights uſed their utmoſt Endeavours before this Act, to incorporate themſelves, and to be exempt from the Obedience and Rule of the Dean and Canons.

AFTER this Act, which ſtruck off their Quotidian Portions and Fees aſſigned by King Edward's Foundation, how the Alms Knights ſubſiſted we find not; but ſo ſoon as King Hen. VII. came to the Crown, they petitioned the King and Parliament for Repeal of the Act, 22 Edw. IV. and alledged it was obtained without their Knowledge, or being called thereunto, which Plea availed not at all; but on the contrary, the Dean and Canons, ſome Years after, got an Exemplification thereof under the great Seal, dated Feb. 4. 18 Hen. VII.

AND it is very evident from King Hen. VIII's Letter to the College, that what they did in this Nature after this Act commenced, was merely upon Courteſie; for he returns them Thanks for a Penſion of Twenty Marks conferred upon Peter Narbone, whom he had recommended to an Alms-Knights Place, and Promiſes to burthen them no more with Requeſts of this ſort, but that he would ſettle Lands for their Maintenance. So great was their Caution, Narbone was by Covenants indented between him and the Dean and Canons, to relinquiſh his Penſion upon that King's ſettling Lands on the College, for the Proviſion of ſuch Knights. In the Interval between the Diſunion of the College and Alms-Knights, to their Eſtabliſhment by Queen Elizabeth, their Habit and Badge continued the ſame, and was ſo confirmed by Hen. VIII's Statutes. It may be collected by his laſt Will, there was an Intention to draw the [...] about the Eſcutcheon of St. George, which Projection came to nothing, and expired. In this Interval it is obſerv'd that ſeveral Perſons of conſiderable Rank and Diſtinction became Alms [...]Knights; ſome of which [Page 98] were rendred great Objects of Charity; among which Number was Sir Robert Champlayne, a valiant Knight, an Honour to our Nation, for his renowned and martial Serv [...]ces abroad. He was of King Henry VI's Party in the Civil Wars againſt King Edw. IV. Immediately after whoſe coming to the Crown he left England, and travelled into Hungary, (with an Equipage of Three Servants and Four Horſes) where in the Aſſiſtance of Mathou [...] Corvinius King of Hungary againſt the Turks, he behaved himſelf very gallantly; but proſperous Fortune not always attending him with Succeſs, he receiv'd many Wounds; and at length was taken Priſoner, loſt all, and forced to pay 1500 Ducats for his Ranſom; for the Atteſtation of which he had the Great Seals of the King of Hungary, the Archbiſhop of Crete, Legate de Latere in Hungary, the Emperor of Germany, the King of Sicily, the Count Palatine of the Rhin [...], and the Duke of Burgundy; and laſtly, a Declaration thereof under the Privy Seal of King Edw. IV. And being reduced to ſo low an Ebb of Fortun [...], he was, thro' Hen. VII's Favour, admitted an Alms-Knight.

But ſome obtained Admittance, probably out of Devotion, rather than Poverty, as Thomas Hulme, Claren [...]ux King of Arms, Temp. Edw. IV. Lodowick Carly, the King's Phyſician, and John Mewtes, Secretary of the French Ton [...]ue, both Temp. Hen. VII. and Bartholomew Weſthy made ſecond Baron of the Exchequer, 1 Hen. VIII.

IT is evident King Hen. VIII. deſigned a R [...]-eſtabliſhment of half the ancient Number of Alms-Knights, viz. Thirteen; for which purpoſe he appointed by his Will 600 l. per Annum, in Mannors, Lands, and Spiritual Promotions, ſettled upon the Dean and Canons, and their Succeſſors for ever, upon the Proviſo's that they ſhould find Two Prieſts to ſay Maſs at his Tomb, to commemorate yearly Four Obits for him, and at every Obit diſtribute 12 l. in Alms, likewiſe to pay 12 d. a Week to thoſe Thirteen Alms-Knights, who were to have once a Year a long Gown of White Cloth, and a Mantle of Red, b [...]ſides Five Marks annually, to ſuch one among them as ſhould be conſtituted their Governor, and ſo much for a Sermon every Sunday throughout [Page 99] the Year. In Performance of which Will, King Edw. VI. in the firſt Year of his Reign, did confer ſeveral Lands upon the College; but 600 l. per Annum of theſe Rents were by the Dean and Canons paid back, to be employed on erecting of Houſes for the Alms-Knights, intended to be ſettled by King Hen. VIII. This Work began not till the 3d and 4th of Philip and Mary, and was finiſhed the 5th and 6th of their Reign, the Charge amounting to 2747 l. 7 s. 6 d. Theſe Houſes are ſituate on the South ſide of the Lower Ward of the Caſtle, and contain Thirteen Rooms, beſides an Hall, a Kitchin, and a Paſtry; the Stone was brought from Reading, the Timber from the Foreſt, and the Lead, and Apparels for the Chimnies, from Suffolk Place in Southwark. At a Chapter of the Garter, held the 1ſt of June, the 4th and 5th of Philip and Mary, the Houſes being then near finiſhed, a Debate aroſe about placing ſome Alms-Knights therein, if poſſible, by M [...]chaelmas following, whereupon the Marquiſs of Winton, Lord-Treaſurer, had Orders to aſſign Lands for their Maintenance; and towards the compleating of this the Queen had nominated Nine of the Thirteen deſigned; but falling ſick in Auguſt, a ſtop was put to the Affair, till Queen Elizabeth coming to the Crown confirmed her Siſter's Grants to the Nine nominated Knights, and made up the Number full Thirteen, ordained by King Henry VIII. under which Eſtabliſhment they ſtill remain; for afterwards, viz. Aug. 30. in the firſt Year of her Reign, minding the Continuance of King Edward's Foundation, the Intent of her Progenitors, and Advancement of the Order of the Garter, and King Henry VIII's Will, for the Support of Thirteen poor Men decayed in Wars, to be called Thirteen Knights of Windſor; and having erected certain Orders for their better Regulation, and declar'd how and in what manner the 600 l. given by her Father ſhould be employ'd for the Maintenance of theſe Knights and their Succeſſors, ſhe laſtly decl [...]red, That the Dean and Canons ſhould for ever cauſe theſe Rules and Orders to be obſerved.

Impr. That there be Thirteen Poor Knights, all Gentlemen, one whereof to be Governour, that have ſpent their Time in the Wars, or other Service of the Realm, [Page 100] having little or nothing to live upon, to be elected by the Sovereign and Succeſſors.

2. It. The Governour and Knights muſt be unmarried, yet that the Crown may diſpence withal; and upon their marrying are to loſe their Place.

3. It. None deformed, and convicted of Hereſie, Felony, or any notable Crime, is to be admitted of the Thirteen, and after admittance, ſo convicted, to be expelled.

4. It. Each Knight to have yearly, for their Liveries, a Red Gown of Four Yards, and a Mantle of Blue or Purple of Five Yards, at 6 s. and 8 d. per Yard.

5. It. An Eſcutcheon of St. George embroidered without the Garter, to be upon the Left Shoulder of the Mantle.

6. It. The Charges of the Cloth, Lining, Making, and Embroidering, to be paid by the Dean and Chapter, out of the Revenue of the Foundation.

7. It. That the Knights attend, Morning and Afternoon, Divine Service, within the College, in their ordinary Apparel, without a reaſonable Let to be allowed by the Governour.

8. It. That they keep their Lodgings appointed, and Table in a common Hall appointed, and to have their Proviſions by a c mmon Purſe, except for a reaſonable Cauſe any be licenſed to the contrary by the Dean, and that Licenſe not to endure above Twenty Days in a Year, excepting only for Sickneſs.

9. It. They are not to haunt the Town, nor Publick Houſes, nor call any Woman into their Lodgings, without reaſonable Cauſe and Licenſe of the Dean.

10. It. Twelve of them to be obedient to him appointed to be Governour, and all Thirteen to the D [...]an and Chapter, in the Obſervation of theſe Statutes.

11. It. The Thirteen Knights to have Places within the Church, where the Dean and Canons ſhall think beſt to hear the Divine Service together.

12. It. To be preſent at the quarterly Service, for the Memory of the Patrons and Founder of the College, and eſpecially of King Hen. VIII. and Queen Elizabeth, and have each of them, at that Time, 20 d. and the Governour 2 s. The ſaid Service to be the Sundays next [Page 101] before the Quarter-days, the Annunciation, St. John Baptiſt, Michaelmas, and Chriſtmas.

13. It. Any of the Twelve Knights diſobeying the Governour, in any of theſe Statutes, to incur the Forfeiture the Dean and Chapter ſhall put on him, the Governour to report the Offence, which if more heinous, the Dean and Chapter are to give a Warning, and regiſter the ſame, and after a ſecond Warning Expulſion is to follow; the like Puniſhment to the Governour, diſobeying the Dean and Chapter in the Obſervation of theſe Statutes.

14. It. The Penalties of the Puniſhed to be imployed by the Dean and Chapter at their Diſcretion, upon any of the Miniſters or Choriſters of the Church.

15. It. Upon the King or Queen's coming to or going from Windſor, the Thirteen Knights are to ſtand before their Doors in their Apparel, and do Obedience.

16. It. At the keeping of the Feaſt of St. George, they are to ſtand likewiſe in their Apparel before their Doors, at the coming and going out of the Lieutenant, and of other the Knights-Companions.

17. It. At every Feaſt of St. George thèy ſhall ſit together in their Apparel at one Table, and have Allowance of Meat and Drink at the Royal Charges.

18. It. They are daily in their Prayers to pray for the Sovereign and the Knights-Companions.

19. It. They are always to lie in their Lodging, and upon lying out of them and the College, without Licenſe from the Dean, to forfeit 12 d.

20. It. If Lands or Revenues of 20 l. per Annum fall to any of the poor Knights, he is to be removed, and another put into his Place.

21. It. They are every Day (excepting Cauſe of Sickneſs) to be preſent at Divine Service in the College, as afor [...]ſaid, and receive a daily Diſtribution of 12 d. per Day, to be paid them monthly, if it may be, or at leaſt in ſuch ſort as the other Miniſters of the Chapel be paid; and he that ſhall abſent himſelf one Day, without leave from the Dean, ſhall loſe his Diſtribution of 12 d.

[Page 102] 22. It. The Governour is to keep a Book, and regiſter, the Abſenters, and other Defaulters of the Statutes, whereof he ſhall deliver one to the Dean, and another to the Steward, or him that payeth the poor Knights, who by Order of the Dean is to make proper Defalcations at the Time of paying them.

23. It. The Dean once a Year is to appoint a Day and Hour, at which the poor Knights are to be warned to be preſent, to hear theſe Statutes read, and any Knight abſenting after that Warning, and without Licenſe, is to forfeit 6 s. 8 d.

24. It. Any elected poor Knight, before he take any Commodity of his Room, ſhall take a corporal Oath before the Dean, to be faithful and true to the Crown, and that for the time of their tarrying there to truly obſerve the Statutes and Ordinances upon the Penalties contain [...]d in the ſaid Statutes.

THE 25th Article is a Diſpenſation for thoſe poor Knights choſen before theſe Statutes, who were not certainly known Gentlemen, yet Men well reported for Honeſty, and meet to be relieved; but with an Intent that none hereafter be admitted, unleſs a Gentleman born, agreeable to the firſt Order.

The annual Allowance of each, upon this new Eſtabliſhment, is 18 l. 5 s. to be paid by the Dean of Windſor, (but their Governour has 3 l. 6 s. and 8 d. more) beſides their Gown and Mantle men [...]ioned in their Statutes. King James I. doubled this Penſion, and made it payable out of the Exchequer quarterly.

TO theſe Thirteen Alms-Knights, temp. Car. I. Five more were added, Two of the Foundation of Sir Peter la Maire, Knight, and Three of Sir Francis Crane, Knight, Chancellor of the Garter; for Sir Peter, by his laſt Will, dated Jan. 8. 1631. bequeath'd 1500 l. to charitable Uſes, to be diſpos'd as Sir Francis (who had marry'd his Siſter) ſhould think [...]it, within Four Years after his Death; whereupon Sir Francis, determining to er [...]ct certain Houſes in Windſor-Caſtle, for the dwelling of Five Alms-Knights, deſign'd the ſaid 1500 l. towards that Uſe, and what was deficient made up at his own Coſt, charging his Brother Executor, Sir Richard Crane, by his Will, dated Aug. 27. 1635. to ſee the Pile which [Page 103] he had began, finiſh'd. Sir Francis alſo bequeath'd 200 l. per Annum to be ſettled in Lands, by his E [...]ecu ors, for the perpetual Maintenance of Five Alms-Knights, after the rate of 40 l. per Ann [...]m to every one of them; but his Executor growing ſlack in the Performance, the Work being rather expos'd to Ruin, than forwarded by him; upon Complaints made to the Sovereign and Knights-Companions in Chapter, Orders were iſlu'd out to quicken him, and a peremptory Letter, dated Mar. 7. 1639. to go on with the Work faithfully; which Commands he evading, and bad Times coming on, the Building was totally negiected. Sir Rich [...]rd Crane afterwards dying, by his Will, dated Sept. 20. 1645. he appointed that his Mannor of Carbrooke in Norfolk, ſhould ſtand bound for ever for Payment of the ſaid 200 l. per Annum; whereupon, by Inquiſition taken at Wi [...]dſor, Mar. 4. 1652. (by Virtue of a Commiſſion upon the Statute Anno 43 Eliz. for charitable Uſes) the Mannors of Woodriſing and Wesfield, &c. in Norfolk, were found liable to ſatisfie for building and finiſhing the ſaid Five Houſes, and payment of the 200 l. yearly; and further, that the Arrears thereof, from Sir Fran [...]s Crane's Death, came at that time to 3200 l. ſome Conteſt enſu'd in Chancery; nevertheleſs the 200 l. per Annum was, Ju [...]y 19. 1655. decreed to be paid out of all the Lands which were Sir Richard's, and the building of the Houſes out of his perſonal Eſtate. At Two Years Expiration aroſe that fair Pile of Building, between the Chancellor's and Garter's Towers, againſt the Weſt Wall, in the lower Ward of the Caſtle, which was begun again and finiſh'd the next Year; the Expences amounting to 1700 l. But for a final End of this Suit, it was decreed, Jan. 27. 1659. the Mannor of Carbrooke ſhould ſtand charg'd with 200 l. per Annum, payable half-yearly at Michaelmas and Lady-day, or within Thirty Days after, for the Maintenance of Five Alms Knights, together with 30 l. yearly for Repairs, payable alſo then; which annual Sum of 230 l. Anno 12 Ca [...]. II. in a Chapter held at Whitehall, Jan. 14. the King decreed the Chancellor of the Order, for the Time being, ſhould receive and diſpoſe thereof thus: 200 l. per Annum among the Five new Alms-Knights quarterly, at [Page 104] the Four uſual Feaſts of the Year, and to employ the reſidue upon Repair of the new Buildings erected for their Lodgings; which Powers were inſerted in the Patent for his Office, bearing date the 20th of the ſame Month. And it was moreover decreed, that theſe Five Knights ſhould be ſubject to the ſame Rules and Government of the Thirteen of Queen Elizabeth's Foundation, and made equal Partakers of the ſame Privileges, and wear the like Habits.

KING Charles I. taking into Conſideration the Donation of Sir Francis Crane, which made the Alms-Knights Eighteen, (tho' they were not yet ſettled) intended to make up Twenty Six, as they were at the Inſtitution of the Order; to compleat which Deſign, a Chapter was held at Whitehall, Apr. 18. 1637. for the Knights-Companions to conſider the beſt Way how the ſame might be effected, and report their Opinions; but nothing was done thereupon, and this Affair waits a more propitious Opportunity.

4.5. 6

§ 6. THE other Miniſters of the College and Chapel of St. George, call'd Miniſters in the Foundation Patent, are the ſuperior Officers, viz. The Chantor, Steward and Treaſurer.

THE Chantor is elected from among the Canons, whoſe Office is chiefly to govern thoſe that ſing in the Choir, and ſuch as are employ'd about Divine Service. Before the Reformation he appointed who ſhould begin the Antiphones, celebrate Maſſes, and read the Leſſons, Epiſtles and Goſpels. To his Care was committed all the Books, Croſſes, Chalices, Veſtments, and all the Sacred Ornaments of the Chapel. He receives the Offerings there made, and Accounts for them; for all which Services an annual Penſion of 5 l. is allow'd him.

THE Steward and Treaſurer are annually choſen on the Morrow after Michaelmas-day from out of the Canons Reſident. To the Steward's Office appertains the Government of all the Revenues of the College, the Rents and Profits whereof he is to pay the Treaſurer. In his Cuſtody are repos'd all the O [...]naments, Jewels, and other Treaſure of the Chapel, not committed to the [Page 105] Chantor, under the Obligation of rendring an Account; and his yearly Penſion is 5 l.

THE Treaſurer is to diſtribute to the Cuſtos, Canons, Vicars, &c. their Penſions and Allowances, which if he fail Eight Days after their prefix'd Times of Payment, he is debar'd of his own quotidians, as Canon Reſident, until ſuch Arrears be diſcharg'd; as likewiſe the Steward, if he be found delinquent. His Penſion is alſo 5 l. per Annum. There is one Treaſurer to receive the Rents of the old Lands, and another choſen from the Canons to receive the new, who have been allow'd the like annual Penſions. The former is term'd Seneſchallus veteris, the latter Seneſchallus novae Dotationis.

MOREOVER, there is a Steward of the Courts, and Clerk of the Lands, which is an Officer under both the before-mention'd Stewards. He keeps the Courts by himſelf or Deputy, and is a Barreſter at Law, and the ſtanding Council for the College. His yearly Penſion is 20 Nobles. But the Council in Spiritualibus is uſually a Graduate in the Law.

THE Chapter-Clerk enters and regiſters all Acts of the Chapter-Houſe; he draws and engroſſes all Indentures, Patents, Grants, Leaſes, &c. which paſs the common Seal of the Dean and Canons. His Penſion is 3 l. 6 s. 8 d. per Annum. The Under Stewardſhip and Chapter Clerkſhip heretofore were enjoy'd by one Perſon, but of late they are divided, and now he muſt be a Barreſter at Law.

OF the Virgers Inſtitution the Statutes of the College make mention, that in Proceſſion and other Solemnities, they were to go before the Dean and Canons, bearing their Rods, for which Service they were to have annually a Robe, and 6 d. per Diem. And beſides theſe, there are Two Sextons, Two Bell-ringers, a Clockkeeper, and a Porter who attends the ſhutting and opening of the Gates.

4.6. 7

§ 7. FOR the Endowment of the College we ſhall only treat upon thoſe Lands given to the Maintenance of this Foundation by the Founder himſelf, or by his [Page 106] [...]ucceſſors, or by Sovereigns of The Order of the Garter, [...]uch as have been Knights-Companions.

KING Edw. III. by his Letters Patent of the Foundation [22 Edw. III.] aforeſaid, gave them [the Cuſtos, Canons, Alms-Knights and Miniſters] the Advowſons of the Churches of Wyardesbury [Rasbury] in Lincoln, South-Tanton in Exeter, and Uttoxater in Coventry and Litchfield Dioceſs, in Frank Almoigne, free from all Secular Exactions; which Licenſe, to appropriate the ſame to the College, notwithſtanding the Statute of Mortmain, he appointed as much out of his Treaſure for their Support, as amounted to an immoveable Eſtate of 1000 l. per Annum; and leſt there might be any Defect in the Knights Title to Uttoxater and South-Tanton, Henry Earl of Lancaſter, 23 Edw. III. and Thomas Beauchamp Earl of Warwick, that Year had ſpecial Licenſes granted them in Right of Patronage to the ſaid Two Advowſons, and they to receive the ſame. Another ſuch Licenſe, 28th of January, 24 Edw. III. was given to William de Bohun Earl of Northampton, for aſſigning to the Cuſtos and Chaplains the Advowſon of Dodyngton in Com. Oxon, which he held of the King in Capite. The 28th of January following, this Royal Founder conferr'd on them (by the Name of Cuſtos and Chaplains of his free Chapel at Windſor) one Meſſuage, Seventeen Acres of Land, one of Paſture, and 3 s. Rent, in Wyrardesbury in Com. Bucks, which had been convey'd to him by Richard de Glouceſter, Heir to Iſabel de Ditton; and the 22d of May enſuing granted unto them the Advowſon of Dachet near Windſor.

Anno 25 Edw. III. the King gave them the Advowſons of the Churches of Eure in Com. Bucks, of Riſton in Com. Norſolk, and of Whaddon and Caxton in Com. Cantab. and in May that Year the Advowſon of Simondeſbourne (ſurrender'd temp. Edw. IV. to Richard Duke of Glouceſter) and of St. Stephens of Saltaſh. The firſt of theſe Queen Philippa purchas'd of Sir John Darcy, and the other of Edward the Black Prince; and gave them both, firſt to the King, that by his Grant afterwards to the College its Title might be more corroborated. The ſame Year, October 26. the King beſtow'd on them 100 Marks per Annum, out of the Farm of the Town [Page 107] of Northampton, to be paid by the Bailiff of the Town at Eaſter and Michaelmas by equal Allotments: And it was at the Founder's Inſtance (therefore worthy to be inſerted) that the Town of Yarmouth, 26 Edw. III. under their Common Seal, granted them a Laſt of Red Herrings yearly, well dry'd and cleans'd, to take the Corporation into their Prayers; tho' ſome ſay it was a Penance enjoyn'd them for murdering a Magiſtrate.

IN the 26 Edw. III. the Founder granted them and their Succeſſors the Mannor of Eure near Weybrigg, in Com. Bucks, the Mannor of Craſwell in Bray in Com. Berks, and a Wear call'd Braybrook, ſituated in the Thames, with all the Lands in that Pariſh convey'd unto him by Sir John Philibert, together with the Knights Fees, Advowſons, &c. belonging to thoſe Mannors. He gave to the Cuſtos and College ſoon after the Seiſin thereof, as alſo of a Wood call'd Temple-Wood in Stoke-Pogeys, convey'd to the King by John de Molyns: But deeming all the Lands too ſmall for the End he intended, 28 Edw. III. the King granted the Cuſtos and College, by Letters Patent, a Penſion of 100 l. per Annum out of the Exchequer; and upon the vacating the ſame, 34 Edw. III. he gave them yearly Lands of 101 l. 11 s. 11 d. out of the Poſſeſſions of religious Aliens, which fell into his Hands by Occaſion of the French Wars: But leſt theſe Poſſeſſions ſhould be again reſtor'd upon a Treaty of Peace, they were to receive the annual Sum of 101 l. 11 s. 11 d. out of the Exchequer, till they were provided of Lands of the like Value. Upon ſeveral Reſtrictions, he granted them 51 l. 9 s. 9 d. yearly to be receiv'd out of 126 l. which the Prior of Takkele paid him for the Farm of that Priory, it being then in the King's Hand by reaſon of the War with France. And by reaſon the Revenues did not amount to 1000 l. per Annum, as he deſign'd at the Foundation, in the 35th Year of his Reign, he granted them ſo much Money yearly out of the Exchequer, as would make up the Deficiency, till Lands or Rents of that Value ſhould be ſettled on them. Laſtly, 39 Edw. III. the Founder beſtow'd on them a Piece of Ground in New Windſor, (whereon had ſtood an Houſe of John of London) in lieu of the great Garden [Page 108] South of the Caſtle, formerly given them by him; and alſo a Garden oppoſite thereunto on the other ſide of the Way. Beſides theſe Largeſſes of the Founders, there were others made by pious and devout Perſons, ſaid to be incorporated into the firſt Foundation, and made up that Revenue which William Biſhop of Wincheſter adjudg'd ſufficient for the Support of the College, which we ſhall ſilently paſs over with the bare mention only.

THE Mannor of Dodyngton-Caſtle; two Paſtures call'd Frith and Aſhcroft; the Chapel of Langeley; the Parſonages of Eſtriton, Langeley-Maries, Wantynge, Shaldeborne, Wedonbeek, Glynde and Ryſlepe; the Penſions of the Vicarages of Wantynge, Clyffe, Tylthey and Gottesford; and the Portions of Baſſyngborne and Preſtwyke, in Haſeley magna, Chalgrave, Adewelle, Aſton, Rowhand, Sevyndon, Kyngeſton and Henton, in Stoke-Baſſet, and Clopecote in Gatehampton; Whytechyrche, Maplederham, Retherfeld, Eſthenreth Stretham; of Thornecroft in Letherhed; of Totynbeek in Wodeſdon; Evington, Woodmerſhthorne; of Fordham, Ethrope, Newenham, and in Tolleſworth.

IN ſucceeding Times other conſiderable Donations were made by the Sovereigns and Knights Companions (omitting others.) Some of which, as they fall in our way, we ſhall ſpeak of.

13 Rich. II. that King gave them a Croft in Northmolton, with the Advowſon of that Church.

9 Hen. V. John, Duke of Bedford, third Son to King Hen. IV. conferr'd on them the Priory of Okeborne in Wilts (a Cell to Bec in Normandy) with all its Appurtenances: Which Donation was confirm'd by King Hen. V. and afterwards by King Edw. IV.

7 Edw. IV. that King, who had a ſingular Reſpect for the College, conferr'd on them the Mannor of Atherſton in Com. Warwick, the Mannors and Advowſons of Cheſingbury in Wilts, and of Quarle in Hantſhre; the Church and Priorate of Uphaven, and the Deanry or Chapel of St. Burien in Cornwall, with an Addition of an annual Penſion, which the Abbot of Sautrie diſcharg'd for the Church of Fulburne, to the Abbey de bona Requ [...], and another yearly Income of 20 l. paid by the Abbot of Rousford for the Mediety of the Church of Rotheram.

[Page 109] 13 Edw. IV. he conſign'd to them the Mannor or Priorate of Munclane, in Com. Hereford.

14 Edw. IV. he gave unto them the Cuſtody, Patronage, and free Diſpoſition of the Hoſpital or Free Chapel of St. Anthony, London, (a Preceptory to St. Anthony of Vienna, with all the Liberties, Privileges, Lands, &c.) upon the firſt Vacancy. The ſame Year he endow'd them with the Priorate of Brimsfield in Com. Glouceſt. the Mannor of Blakenham in Suffolk; the Priorate of St. Elene in the Iſle of Wight; the Priorate or Mannor of Charleton in Wilts; and all the Lands, &c. in Northmundon, Compton and Wel [...]igh in Suſſex and Southampton; the Mannor of Ponyngton and W [...]don in Dorſet, together with an annual Penſion of 12 Marks, payable by the Priory of Monte acuto, with all the Lands, Tenements, Rents, Advowſons, &c. annex'd to the ſaid Priorates and Mannors. The ſame Year he beſtow'd on them the Mannor of Membury in Com. Dorſet; the Lordſhips of Preſton and Monkeſilver in Com. Somerſet; the Advowſons of Puryton and Wollavington in that County, together with the Knights Fees, Advowſons, Profits, Righrs, &c.

18 Edw. IV. his Feoffees, the Queen, the Arch-Biſhop of York, and others ſeiſed to the Uſe of the King, demis'd to them the Mannor of Wykecombe, call'd Baſſetsbury, the Fee-Farm of the Town of Great Wykecombe, the Mannor of Crendon in Com. Bucks, and the Mannors of Haſeley and Pyrton in Com. Oxon: And that Year the King gave unto them the Advowſon of the Church of Cheſhunt, being of his own Patronage, provided the Vicarige was ſufficiently endow'd, and a compleat Sum of Money annually diſtributed among the poor Pariſhioners, according to the Dioceſan's Ordinance. To theſe he united the Cuſtody or Deanry of the Free Chapel of Wolverhampton in Com. Staff. to the Cuſtos or Dean of this College, and his Succeſſors for ever; which Church, cum membris, is exempt from not only the Juriſdiction, &c. of the Biſhop of Litchfield and Coventry, but by a Papal Bull from all Legates and Delegates; nor is it ſubject to any terrene Power, but the King of England alone, and under it to the perpetual Viſitation of the Keepers of the Great Seal, pro tempore.

[Page 110] 20 Edw. IV. he reſign'd to them the Advowſon o [...] Patronage of the Prebend of Ewern in Com. Dorſet, wit [...] all its Rights and Privileges: And laſtly, in the 21 [...] Year of his Reign, he granted them Two Parts of th [...] Mannors of Old Swynford and Gannow, in Com. [...]ygorn [...] and the Reverſion of the Third Part of them, with the Advowſon of the Church of Old Swynford; nor was he thus munificent alone, but excited and ſpurr'd on others to the like Example, licenſing, in the firſt Year of his Reign, all his Subjects to confer what they pleas'd to the Dean and Canons, within the Value of 300 Marks per Annum, as well ſuch as held of him i [...] Capite or otherwiſe, notwithſtanding the Statute of Mortmain; and afterwards increas'd this Licenſe to Lands of 500 l. per Annum Value, (which King Hen. VIII [...] extended to 1000 l.) Hereupon, Anno 20 Edw. IV. John, Duke of Suffolk, and Elizabeth his Wife, the King's Siſter, were permitted to aſſign to them the Mannor or Lordſhip of Grovebury, otherwiſe call'd Leighton Buſ [...]rd, in Com. Bedford, the Church of Tintagell in Cornwall, as alſo Nineteen Meſſuages, Seven Tofts, One Hundred and Forty Acres of Land, Fourteen of Meadow, One Hundred and Forty of Paſture, One Hundred of Wood, and Four Shillings Rent in Newford and Blanford, in Com [...] Dorſet, and Seventy Meſſuages, Twelve Tofts, Five Hundred Acres of Land, One Hundred of Meadow, Two Hundred of Paſture, Forty of Wood, and Twenty Shillings Rent, in Stokeley, Northall, Ed [...]lesburgh and Rodenach, in Com. Bucks, and Twenty Meſſuages, Eight Tofts, Three Hundred Acres of Land, Sixty of Meadow, Two Hundred of Paſture, Forty of Wood, and Twenty Shillings Rent, in Compton St. John, in Com [...] Suſſex, and Ten Meſſuages, Nine Tofts, Two Hundred Acres of Land, Twenty of Meadow, One Hundred o [...] Paſture, Ten of Wood, and Twenty Shillings Rent, in Portſmouth and Burghegge, in Hampſhir [...], and One Meſſuage, Three Tofts, Sixty Acres of Land, Six of Meadow, Forty of Paſture, and Twenty Shillings Rent, in Stodeham, in Com. Hertford, held of the King in Cap [...] without any Reſtriction whatſoever, for which the Duke and Dutcheſs were to be had in the perpetu [...]l Oriſons of the Dean and Cano [...]s. The ſame Ye [...]r [Page 111] Sir Walter Devoreux de Feners, Knight, together with Sir John Devoreux and others his Feofees, made over to them the Mannor, Church, and perpetual Advowſons of Sutton Courtney in Com. Berks.

All the before-mentioned Endowments are called the Lands of the old Dotation, to diſtinguiſh them from thoſe confirmed on the College by King Edw. VI. which are term'd the Lands of the new Dotation; of which hereafter. But ſeveral of them given by King Edw. IV. the College never poſſeſſed, viz. Atherſton, Quarle, Uphaven, St. Burien, Fulburne Penſion, Brimfi [...]ld, St. Elen, Charleton, Blakenham, Ponyngton, Wedon, Old Suynford, and Gannow, and of ſome others they were ſeized but a ſhort time, viz. Cheſingbury, the Lands in Newford, Blandford, and Portſmouth. Beſides theſe, the College was diſpoſſeſs'd of Gottesford, temp. Hen. VI. of Cheſhunt, temp. Hen. VII. temp. Hen. VIII. or a little before of Wodemerſhthorn, Tylthey, Retherfeld, Levyngdon, Stoke-Baſſet, Stretham, Totingbeek, Fordham, Elthorp, Newenham, and Tolleſworth; afterwards they ſurrendred into the Hands of King H [...]n. VIII. Eure, Clyff, Aſhton, Rowhand, Kingſton, Eſthenreth, Northmundon, Compton, Weleg, Compton St. John, and Shobingdon Portion; and upon the Reformation the College loſt at leaſt 1000 Marks per Annum, in the Profit made by St. Anthony's Piggs, which the Appropriation of the Hoſpital of St. Anthony's London brought to it, and no leſs then 500 per Annum, the Offerings of Sir John Shorne's Shrine at Northmarſton in Com. Bucks, a Man of great Piety and Veneration with the People, and ſometime Rector there. The Advowſon of this Church was appropriated to the Dean and Canons, by the Convent of Dunſtaple, temp. Edw. IV. in exchange for Wedenbeck in Com. Bedford.

THE Dean and Canons having convey'd unto K. H. VIII. the Mannor and Rectory of Ivor in Bucks, the Mannor of Dammery-Court in Dorſet, and other Lands, Rents, Portions, and Penſions in the Counties of Somerſet, Hants, Middleſex, Oxford, and Suſſex, to the yearly Value of 160 l. 2 s. 4. d. for which they had no Recompence in his Life, that King, by his laſt Will, ordered them [...]n Equivalent upon the Commutation and Agreement of an Exchange; which Will, King Edw. VI. his Son [Page 112] and Succeſſor performed, as well for the Aſſurance of Lands, to the yearly Value of 600 l. to the Dean and Canons for ever, to the Uſes in the Will, as for the Aſſurance of other Lands, of the annual Value of the ſaid 160 l. 2 s. and 4 d. wherefore by Letters Patent, dated the 7th of October, in the Firſt Year of his Reign, he granted them the Rectories of Bradnynche, Northam, Iplepen, Ilſington, and Southmolton in Com. Devon, the Tithe of Corn of Otery, in that County, as alſo Bloſſoms-Inn in St. Laur [...]nce-lane, London, the Tithes of Grain, &c. of the Rectory of Ambrosbury, in Wilts, and all the Tithes of Bedwyn, Stoke, Wilton, Harden, Harden-Tunrige, Knoll, Pathall, Chisbury, Eaſt-Grafton, Weſt-Grafton, Grafton-Martin, and Wexcomb, the Prebend of Alcannyngs and Urchefounte, the Rectories of Urchefounte, Stapleford, Tytcombe, and Froxfeild, all in Com. Wilts, and all the annual Penſion of 8 l. iſſuing out of the Manner of Icombe in Com. Glouceſter, the Rectory and Vicarige of Ikelington in Cambridgeſhire, the Rectory of Eaſt-Beckworth in Surrey, the Reverſion of the Portion of Tithes of Trequite in Cornwall, and the Rent of 13 s. 4 d. reſerved upon the ſame, the Rectory and Church of Plympton, and the Chapels of Plymſtoke, Wembury, Shagh, Sandford-Spone, Plympton, St. Maurice and Brixton, in Com. Devon, the Rectory of Iſleworth and Farickenham in Com. Middleſex, and Shiplake in Com. Oxon, the Reverſion of the Rectory of Aberguille, and of the Chapels of Llanlawet [Llanbadock] and Llanpenyſaunt, with the Rent of 30 reſerved thereon, the Reverſions of the Rectory of Talgarth, with the reſerved Rent of 11 l. 6 s. 8 d. the Reverſion of the Rectory of Mara in Com. Brecknock, and 6 l. Rent, and that of St. Germains in Cornwall, with 61 l. 13 s. and 4 d. Rent, to have and to hold, &c. for ever, except the Tithes of Woolpat and Fitzwaren in Wilts, the Vicarige-Houſe of Ikelington, Marriage-Money, Dirge-Money, and Maſs-Money, and the whole Profit of the Bedrolls of Ikelington; nevertheleſs to pay the Crown in the Court of Augmentation, for the Rectories of Aberguille, Talgarth and Mara, the Chapels Llanbadock and Llanpenyſaunt 4 l. 2 d. 8 d. in the Name of Tenths, and for all Rents, Services, &c. of the other Rectories, &c. 48 l. 7 s. 4 d. annually at Michaelmas. Moreover, within [Page 113] all theſe Premiſes, the King granted them Court Leets, or Views of Frankpledge, and to levy Fines, Amerciaments, Free Warrens, Waifs, and Felons Goods, and all other Profits, &c. whatſoever, and the ſaid Rectories, Tithes, Penſions, Rents, and all other Gifts and Grants in the Poſſeſſion of the Dean and Chapter, were confirmed to them by Act of Parliament, 2 Jac. I.

THE ancient Rate of theſe New Lands in the King's Books was 661 l. 6 s. and 8 d. per Annum; but according to the improved Rents, as they were then turned over to the College, 812 l. 12. 9 d. out of which 160 l. 2 s. 4 d. was yearly allowed them in Requital of their Lands paſſed to King Hen. VIII. and 600 l. per Annum, for accompliſhment of his Will; but the remaining Sum, viz. 52 l. 10 s. 5 d. was reſerved in lieu of Tenths, to be paid into the Court of Augmentation; nevertheleſs, this laſt reſerved Sum was not aſſented unto by the Dean and Canons to be ſo paid, becauſe the Charges iſſuing out of the Lands were larger than were expreſſed in the Rental. And we find that, ſhortly after, the Rents of St. Germains, Northam, Ilſington, &c. part of the New Lands, were received and accounted for, according to the old Rate in the King's Books, to wit, 162 l. 13 s. 4 d. per Annum, in Recompence for the Lands conveyed to King Hen. VIII. and out of which they paid a yearly Surpluſage of 2 l. 2 s. 1 d. This Sum, together with the Rents of the reſt of the New Lands, being upon the ſaid Improvement accounted to be 597 l. 17 s. 11 d. made in all 600 l. per Annum; and this was laid out by the Dean and Canons for ſome time towards erecting the Alms-Knights Apartments.

THUS ſtood the Lands accounted for till the Settlement made by Queen Elizabeth, who in the Firſt Year of her Reign appointed the Dean and Canons to convert the Rents of theſe New Lands to ſuch Uſes and Intents as ſhe had ſet down in a Book ſigned with her Sign manual, and annexed to an Indenture made between her and the Dean and Canons; by which Indenture they were obliged to apply the Rents and Profits of theſe Lands, as was preſcribed in the Book, and to obſerve the Ordinances therein, and upon Default, to abide [Page 114] ſuch Orders as the Crown, or any Knight-Companion, deputed by the Sovereign, ſhall ſet forth.

  l. s. d.
In this Book the Total of the Revenue reckon'd at the ancient Value 661 06 08
The Annual Charge and Disburſements therein ſet down 430 19 06
And ſo Remains 230 07 02

Which Remainder has been and is aſſigned for Payment of Tenths to the Crown, Vicars, Curates, Annual Stipends, Officers Fees, Reparation of the Premiſſes, and for the Relief of the Dean and Canons, in Maintenance and Defence of the ſaid Lands.

AND to the End the Queen might know how the Revenue was diſpoſed of, ſhe gave charge that her Lieutenant and the Knights-Companions ſhould annually (at the Feaſt of the Order held at Windſor) ſtate the Accompt, and ſee how the Income was expended, and that her Lieutenant ſhould yearly be put in mind of it by one of the Officers of the Order. This Ordinance was renewed, 21 Jac. I. and the Chancellor of the Order was appointed to be the Remembrancer, and in Obedience thereunto, the Account of theſe new Lands (which begins at Lady-Day, as that of the old Lands doth at Mi [...]haelmas) was afterwards exhibited in Chapter, and in particular that Account, 9 Car I. which was ſubmitted to the Sovereign and Knights-Companion's Conſideration, who referred the Inſpection thereof to the Knights-Commiſſaries, who were to conſult over the Affairs of the Order.

4.7. 8

§. 8. THE Privileges of the Chapel and College are Eccleſiaſtical and Temporal: As to the firſt, Pope Clem [...]nt VI. exempted the Chapel, College, Canons, Prieſts, Clerks, Alms-Knights and Officers, from all ordinary Juriſdiction of Archbiſhops, Biſhops, Archdeacons, and all Judges and Officers, and received them within the Protection of the Papal-See; and granted a farther Privilege, That the Cuſtos ſhould have Eccleſiaſtical Juriſdiction over the Canons, Prieſts, &c. as alſo the Cure of their Soul [...], notwithſtanding any Papal Conſtitution [Page 115] Provincial, or Synodical, yet allowing that the Cuſtos ſhould receive that Cure from the Dioceſan of the Place. In Conſideration of this Exemption, the Cuſtos was to pay annually, on St. George's Day, a Mark in Silver, to the Pope's Chamber. Two Years preceding, the Chapel was called the King's Free Chapel, which Title it ſtill enjoys; for it owes S [...]bjection to none but the Sovereign of England, the Supream of the Church, as heretofore it ſtood divided between the King and See of Rome. The Privilege of Exemption included in the Confirmation of Liberties, made by the Founder in his Charter, dated Anno Regni ſui 47. and all other Emoluments granted by him, are confirmed by Act of Parliament, 8 Hen. VI. As the College has its ſole Dependance on the Crown, it is viſitable only by the Lord-Chancellor, whoſe Viſitations and Power are reſerved to him by the Statutes of the College, and himſelf called in the King's Commiſſion for Viſitation, 2 Rich. II. Governor of the ſaid Chapel, as well in Spirituals as Temporals, and, under the King, immediate Cuſtos. And ſo jealous were the Dean and Canons, left the Power of the ſaid Exemption ſhould be infringed, that when Sixtus IV. had granted the Biſhop of Saliſbury, and themſelves, to make new and interpret the ancient Statutes, they ſoon obtained [...] Revocation of that Authority, left the ſaid Biſhop (in whoſe Dioceſs the College is ſituate) being ſo unpowered, might by Degrees bring them under his Juriſdicton, in prejudice to their Exemption. And, A. D. 1485. to prevent [...]uch deſign, the Archbiſhop of Canterbury, &c. were commiſſion'd to ſee the Bull revoked, and Salisbury enjoyned not to intermeddle further in the College Affairs. Moreover other Biſhops, and the Chancellor of England, were to r [...]new, alter, or new make ſuch Statutes as might accrue to the Advantage of the College.

IF the Archbiſhop of Cant [...]rbury be preſent in the Chapel, he ſits below the Dean, nor can he conſecrate there, without his Licenſe. And this is very remarkable, that at the ratifying the Peace between King Charles I. and L [...]wis XIII. A. D. 1629. in the Chapel at W [...]ſor, Dr Wren, then Dean of the College, gave the [Page 116] Oath to the French Ambaſſador, and not the Archbiſhop of Canterbury, tho' he was then preſent.

THE Dean and Chapter are to weigh well and debate at their yearly Chapters all things fit to be diſpatched in reference to the College Affairs, and whatſoever Determination they come to, not repugnant to their Statutes, all Perſons are firmly obliged to obſerve.

THE Deans have no Inſtitution from any Biſhop, but his Inſtitution, Inveſtiture, and Inſtallation into the Cuſtos-ſhip, Canonſhip, and Prebendſhip, is conferred from ſuch of the Canons Reſident, to whom the King (who collates) doth recommend him. Other Marks of Exemption appear in the conſtant proving of Wills before him, or in his Abſence before his Lieutenant. In uſing the Power of Excommunication within their Juriſdiction (the Precincts of the College) granting a Diſpenſation for eating Fleſh in Lent, a farther Mark of their Privilege appears, that the Ordination for the Chantry Prieſts were confirmed by the Dean and Chapter, and not the Biſhop of the Dioceſs, as were the Statutes of the new Commons. The Dean is exemp [...] from paying all Synodals, or Procurations, nor can any of the King's Chaplains preach in the Chapel of St. George, unleſs he be a Canon there, or have Licenſe from the King, or from the Dean and Canons. They ſend no Delegates to the Synod, and when the Point was debated, 1640. it was carried in the Negative, as being againſt their Liberties, and might intitle them to the Paym [...]nt of Subſidies; nor are they intitled to any Share in the Government of the Church, more than the Colleges in the Univerſities, where there are many nominal Deans. In ſhort, when by the Act of Uniformi [...]y, 14 Car. II. every Clergyman was bound to ſubſcribe before the Arch biſhop or his Ordinary, the Canons ſubſcribed before the Dean; and tho' ſome of them ſubſcribed before the Biſhop, yet was it with a Salvo, ſaving the Ri [...]hts and Privileges of this Free Chapel.

THEIR Temporal Immunities and Privileges are theſ [...], as [...]r [...]nt [...]d th [...]m by Chart [...]r, 6 Mar. 27 Edw. III. and confirmed by ſeveral of his Succeſſors.

T [...]E C [...]ſtos [...]nd Canons were fr [...]e from p [...]vin [...] Aid upon making the King's eldeſt Son a Knight, and marrying [Page 117] his eldeſt Daughter, and exempt of all Aids to the King's Contributions and Tallages.

WHENSOEVER the Clergy ſhould give a Tenth, or other Impoſition, out of their Spiritualties, or the Commons give a Tenth, Fifteenth, or other, out of their Temporalties, Subſidy, or the King tax his own Demean, or the Pope impoſe any Money to be raiſed upon the Clergy, to give it the King, this College and their Poſſeſſions were to ſtand freed thereof.

THEY were diſcharged from any Contributions of arraying Soldiers, and from ſending them to guard the Sea-Coaſts, and from every Fine and Compoſition of the like Nature. Their Houſes within the Caſtle of Windſor, as elſewhere, are quit from any Livery of the King's and Queen's Stewards, Marſhals, Purveyors, Officers, and Servants, and from the like Officers of the Peers or Nobles, and the ſaid Officers were not to intermeddle there, without L [...]ave of the Cuſtos and Canons.

NO Duke, &c. or Nobleman, nor any Stewards, Marſhals, Eſcheators, Sheriffs, Coroners, Bailiffs, or Officers, nor other Perſon of what Condition ſoever, upon any Pretence, were not to lodge or rem [...]in in their Houſes without their Conſent.

THE Cuſtos, Canons, and their Tenants, were not to pay any Toll, Paviage, Piccage, Barbicanage, Terrage, Pontage, Murage, Paſſage, Payage, Leſtage, Stallage, Tallage, Carriage, Peſage, and from Scot and Geld, Hidage, Scutage, working about Caſtles, Parks, Bridges, Walls for the King's Houſes; and from Suits to the County, or Hundred Courts, and Wapentakes, or Court Leets, Murder, and common Amerciaments, before either King, Juſtices of the Bench, or Itinerant, and from ever [...] like Cuſtom had an Immunity.

WITHIN their Lands, Fees, and Precincts, the Chattels of all Felons and Fugitives were ſeized to their own Uſe. All Fines for Treſpaſſes, and all other Contempts and Miſdemeanors, F [...]nes pro [...] concord [...]nd [...], and for all other Cauſes, Amerciaments, Redemptions, Iſſues, and Forfeitures what [...]oever, Annum D [...]em Vaſtum [...] Streppum, and all Things which might belong to the [Page 118] King and his Heirs, and all Wrecks, Waifs, and Strays, were granted them.

NO Purveyance of Corn, Hay, Horſes, Carts, Carriages, Victuals, or any Goods, Chattels, or any thing whatſoever, ſhould be carried off by any of the King's Officers, upon their or their Tenants Land.

THEY were to be free from paying any Penſion, Corrody, or other Suſtentation to be granted to the Crown.

THEY were to have free Warren in all their Demain Lands whereſoever, and that altho' they lay within the Bounds of the King's Foreſt.

THAT they ſhould enjoy for their Conveniency a weekly Market on W [...]dneſday, at their Mannor of Ever in Bucks, and Two Fairs to laſt Eight Days, one on the Eve and Feaſt of St. Peter and St. Paul, and Two Days after the other, upon the Eve and Feaſt of St. Pet [...]r ad Vincula, and Two Days following.

THAT they ſhould, in all their Lands have Socage and Sackage, Infangthef, Utfangthef, and View of Frankpledge, with Thewe, Pillory, and Tumbrel for puniſhing Malefactors, and Power to erect Gallows upon their own Soil for executing thoſe apprehended in their Juriſdiction.

THEY were to be exempt of all Suits and Pleas of the Foreſt, and of all Charges or Fees which the Officers of the Foreſt might demand, and from the Expeditation of their Dogs and Suits of Court there; as likewiſe all from Gelds, Dane Gelds, Knights Fees, Payments for Murder and Robbery, Building or Repairing of Bridges, Caſtles, Parks, Pools, Walls, Sea Banks, Cauſeways, and Incloſures; and of all Aſſizes, Summonſes, Sheriffs Aids, their Bailiffs, or Officers, bearing of Treaſure, and all other Aids whatever; as alſo from the common Aſſeſſmen [...]s and Amerciaments of the County, and Hundred, and all Actions relating to them; they were diſcharged from the Payment of Ward-penny, Averpenny, Tithing-penny, and Hundred-penny, and quit from Grithbreck, Foreſtal, Homeſoken, Blodwite, Wardwite, Hangwite, Fightwite, Leyrwite, Laſtage, Pannage, Aſſurt, and Waſte of the Foreſt; ſo that ſuch Waſte be not committed in the Foreſts, Parks, and [Page 119] Woods belonging to the Crown, and then reaſonable Satisfaction, without Impriſonment, ſhould be accepted.

ALL Writs and Attachments were returnable to them, as well relating to the Pleas of the Crown as other, thro' all their Lands and Fees, and no Sheriff, Bailiff, or Officer, ſhould execute any ſuch there, unleſs in Default of the Cuſtos and Canons, and they to have and hold Leets, and Lawdays, and Cognizance of all Pleas betwixt their Tenants, as well of Treſpaſſes and Contracts, as others. And laſtly, They were to have and hold Wards, Reliefs, Eſcheats, Forfeitures, and other Profits, Iſſues, and Emoluments whatſoever, within their own Fees, from all their Tenants, which might appertain to the Crown, as if the Tenants did hold of the Crown or others in Capite.

5. CAP. V.


WE come now to treat of the moſt Noble and Illuſtrious Order of the Garter; which, if we conſider either its Antiquity, or the Nobleneſs of the Perſonages, that have been enroll'd, it excels and outvies all other Inſtitutions of Honour in the whole World. It owes its Original, as is confeſſed on all Hands, to Edward III. King of England and France; yet as to the Occaſion, there are ſeveral Opinions which we ſhall rectifie. The vulgar and more general is, that the Garter of Joan, Counteſs of Salisbury, dropping caſually off as ſhe danced in a ſolemn Ball, King Edward ſtooping took it up from the Ground, whereupon ſome of his Nobles ſmiling, as at an amorous Action, and he obſerving their ſportive Humour, turned it off with a Reply in French, Honi ſoit qui mal y penſe; but withal added, in diſdain of their Laughter, That ſhortly th [...]y ſhould ſee that Garter advanced to ſo high an Honour and Renown as to account themſelves happy to wear it.

BUT upon Examination of this Tradition, let others judge what Credit it bears to eſtabliſh its Belief; for Sir John Froiſſart, the only Writer of the Age that treats [Page 120] of this Inſtitution, aſſigns no ſuch Original, nor for 200 Years after is there any thing to the Purpoſe in our other Hiſtorians, till Polydore Virgil took occaſion to ſay ſomething of it; but had it been Fact, ſome French Hiſtorian or other, would not have neglected to regiſter it at a convenient Time with a Scoff and Ridicule, ſince that Nation was ſo ready to deride King Henry V's Deſign of invading them with a Return of Tennis Balls.

IN the Original Statutes of this Order, there is not the leaſt Conjecture to countenance the Conceit of ſuch a Feminine Inſtitution, no not ſo much as laying an Obligation on the Knights-Companions to defend the Quarrels of Ladies (as ſome Orders then in being enjoyned;) nor doth the Author of that Tract entitled Inſtitutio clariſſimi Ordinis Militaris a praenobili ſubligaculo nuncupati, prefaced to the Black Book of the Garter, let fall the manifeſt Paſſage to ground it on.

As to what Polydore ſays, he is not ſo confident to aſcertain the Perſon whoſe Garter it was; but cautiouſly declining that, ſays, it was either the Queen's, or the King's Miſtreſs's; and if it were the latter, yet doth he omit her Name and Title, both which (on what Authority we find not) are ſupplied by modern Hiſtorians, who call her Joan Counteſs of Salisbury, the ſame elſewhere celebrated by the Name of the Fair Maid of Kent, (whom Edward the Black Prince, afterward married) whereas no Hiſtorian ever gave the leaſt Inuendo that King Edward III. ever courted her as a Miſtreſs. Selden points at her when he calls the Lady, from whom the Garter ſlipp'd, Counteſs of Kent and Salisbury: But about the Time when this Order was founded ſhe in truth was dignified with neither Honour; for altho' ſhe was Daughter to Tho. of Woodſtock, Earl of Kent, and had been ſometime the reputed Wife of William Mountague, ſecond Earl of Salisbury, yet then ſhe cou'd not properly be accounted Counteſs of Salisbury. She was actually Wife to Sir Thomas Holland, (one of the Firſt Founders of the Order.) Nor was ſhe yet (tho' afterwards) Counteſs of K [...]nt, becauſe her Brother John Earl of Kent, at the Inſtitution of this Order, ſurvived, and died not till 26 Edw. III.

[Page 121] THAT there was a Counteſs of Salisbury with whom King Edward III. became greatly enamour'd, Froiſſart reports after this manner, That this King having relieved a Caſtle of that Earl's in the North, wherein his Counteſs had been beſieged by the Scots (the Earl himſelf being at that time Priſoner in France;) upon ſight of her extraordinary Beauty he fell in love with her; but ſhe ſo virtuouſly demeaned her ſelf, during his Abode there, that he declined further Solicitation. However, ſome time after, the King out of Deſire to ſee her, proclaim'd ſolemn Juſts in London, whither this Counteſs and other Ladies being invited, came up. This Caſtle it ſeems was Wark upon Tweed in Northumberland, which King Edward had formerly beſtowed on her Husband, for his good Service paſt, when he firſt eſpouſed her, being then but a Knight.

ALTHO' it ſhould be admitted that this Counteſs of Salisbury was the King's Miſtreſs, yet muſt it be remark'd, That ſhe was Wife to William Mountague, Kt. created Earl of Salisbury, Anno 11 Edw. III. Mother to William the before-mention'd ſecond Earl, that her Chriſtian Name was Catherine, not Alice, as Froiſſart, not Joan, as others call her, Daughter to William Lord Granſton, and that ſhe expired 28 Edw. III. But that the whole may appear, what indeed it is, a meer Fable, we ſhall inſert the Judgment of Dr. Heylin, who took great Pains in this Particular. This, ſays he, I take to be a vain and idle Romance, derogatory both to the Founder and the Order firſt publiſhed by Pol. Virgil, a Stranger to the Affairs of England, and by him taken upon no better ground than Fama Vulgi, the Tradition of the common People, too trifling a Foundation to ſo great a Building.

OF the ſame Contexture with the former is another Tradition in Andrew du Cheſne, That the Queen departing from the King to her own Apartments, and he following ſoon after, chanced to eſpy a Blue Garter lying on the Ground (ſuppoſed to have ſlipp'd from her Leg) whilſt ſome of his Attendants careleſly paſſed by it, as diſdaining to ſtoop at ſuch a Trifle; but he knowing the Owner, commanded it to be given him; at the Receipt of which he ſaid, You make but ſmall account of this Garter; but within few Months, I'll cauſe the b [...]ſt of you all to reverence it alike. Some ſuppoſe that the Motto was the Queen's Anſwer, when the King asked [Page 122] her, What Men would conjecture of her, upon her loſing her Garter in ſuch a manner?

BOTH Relations are far diſtant from Fact; nevertheleſs it has thus far'd with other Orders of Sovereign Foundation, and an amorous, inſtead of an honourable Account, has been falſly render'd of their Inſtitution; as for Inſtance, The Order of the Annunciade, and that of The Golden Fleece.

THERE is a third Opinion grounded on a Relation made of King Rich. I. who, whilſt his Forces were employ'd againſt Cyprus and Acon, and extremely tir'd and harraſs'd with the Siege, he, by the Aſſiſtance and Mediation of St. George (as imagin'd) was inſpir'd with freſh Courage, and bethought himſelf of a new Device, which was to tie about the Legs of a Number of Knights, a Leathern Thong Garter, for ſuch had he then at hand, whereby they being emulated to future Glory, with Aſſurance of Reward if they prov'd victorious, they might be excited to behave themſelves intrepidly and well, much after the Examples of the old Romans, among whom were diſtributed various Crowns for ſeveral Cauſes, to adorn the Soldiers: But if King Richard I. did make uſe of this Device in the Holy Land, as a Signal or Mark of Diſtinction of a Party, upon ſome warlike Exploit, yet that he took Occaſion to create a diſtinct Order of Knighthood thereupon, there is not ſufficient warrant to believe; (for it is only put down in the Preface of the Black Book, but not in any Part of the Annals of the Order; nor can it plead higher Antiquity than the Reign of King Hen. VIII. when written.) All the Advantage that can be made of it, is, to heighten the Reputation of that Saint among the Engliſh, by which Means the Garter came to be dedicated to him, and not that it contributed to its Inſtitution.

5.2. 2

§ 2. THE true Motive was therefore, neither the Ladies Garter, or King Richard's Leathern Thong, that it owes it Original to: But King Edward, being a Perſon of conſummate Vertue, gave himſelf up to military Affairs; and being engag'd in War for recovering his Right to France, made uſe of the beſt Martialiſts [Page 123] of the Age, did thereupon firſt deſign (induc'd by its ancient Fame) the Reſtoration of King Arthur's Round Table, to invite hither the Gallant Spirits from abroad, and endear them to himſelf; and adjudging no Place more requiſite than Windſor, upon New-Year's-Day, A. D. 1344. he iſſu'd out Letters of Protection for the ſafe going and return of Foreign Knights, to try their Valour at the Solemn Juſts to be held there on Monday after the Feaſt of St. Hilary following (which happen'd Jan. 19.) And theſe Letters of Safe-Conduct continu'd in force until the Octaves of the Purification of our bleſſed Virgin enſuing, being the 18th Year of his Reign. At the Time appointed, he provided a great Supper to begin the Solemnity, and then ordain'd this Feſtival to be annually at Whitſontide; and immediately after theſe firſt Exerciſes were over, for a future and better Accommodation, he impreſs'd Workmen and Carriages for erecting a particular Building in the Caſtle, and therein plac'd a Table of Two Hundred Foot Diameter, where the Knights ſhould have their Entertainment of Diet, at his Expence of 100 l. per Week; to which Building he gave the Name of The Round Table. And as at theſe great Conventions the Days were ſpent in all Kinds of noble Feats of Arms, Juſts and Turnaments, ſo were a great Part of the Nights conſum'd in publick Balls and dancing with the Ladies that attended the Queen thither; and perhaps it was hence conjectur'd, that at ſome of theſe Balls the Queen's Garter, or the Garter of Catherine, Counteſs of Salisbury, might ſlip off, and the King's taking it up occaſion Smiles in the Byſtanders; and afterwards, when the King had modell'd his intended Order, a Garter offering it ſelf for its chief Enſign, might add to the Conjecture; but that it was the principal Cauſe, is a groundleſs Imagination. And tho' King Edward advanc'd the Honour of the Garter, as to denominate the Order, yet was it not to enhance Reputation to, or perpetuate an effeminate Occaſion, but to adorn Martial Proweſs, with Honours, Rewards and Splendor; to increaſe Vertue and Valour in the Hearts of his Nobility, that ſo true Worth, after long and hazardous Exploits, ſhould not [Page 124] enviouſly be depriv'd of that Glory which it hath intrinſically deſerv'd, and that active and hardy Youths might not want a Spur in their Progreſſion in the Paths of Vertue, which is to be eſteem'd glorious and eternal.

IT is further obſervable, that the French King, Philip de Valoys, in Emulation of this Seminary at Windſor, ſet up a Round Table at his Court, and invited Knights and valiant Men of Arms out of Italy and Almaine thither, left they ſhould repair to our King Edward III. which meeting with Succeſs, prov'd a Countermine to his main Deſign; who perceiving that his Hoſpitality towards ſtrange Knights, upon Account of reviving King Arthur's Round Table was too general, nor did ſufficiently ingratiate them to his Perſon, but being unconſtrain'd and at Liberty, did after their Departure take what Side they pleas'd in the enſuing Wars, he at length reſolv'd upon a Projection more particu [...]ar and ſelect, and ſuch as might oblige thoſe whom he thought fit to make his Aſſociates, in a laſting Bond of Friendſhip and Honour: And having iſſu'd forth his own Garter for the Signal of a Battle, that was crown'd with Succeſs, (which is conceiv'd to be the Battle of Creſſy, fought about Three Years after his erecting the Round Table;) upon ſo remarkable a Victory, he thence took Occaſion to inſtitute this Order, and gave the Garter Preheminence among the Enſigns of it, whence that ſelect Number, whom he incorporated into a Fraternity, are ſtyl'd Equites Aureae Periſcelidis, and vulgarly Knights of the Garter. By this Symbol he deſign'd to bind the Knights and Fellows of it mutually unto one anothe [...], and all of them joyntly to himſelf, as Sovereign of the Order; nor was his Expectation fruſtrated, for it did not ſerve only as a vehement Spur and Incentive to Honour and martial Vertue, but alſo as a golden Bond of Unity and internal Society; and for [...]his Conſideration Cambden aptly calls it a Badge of [...]nity and Concord.

BY the Symbols of this Garter the Knights are reminded, with all Religiouſneſs, Sincerity, Friendlineſs, Faithfulneſs and Dexterity, not to leave the Purſuit of whatſoever they take in hand, nor to enterprize any [Page 125] Thing contrary to the Statutes of the Order; neither to fruſtrate the Rights of Peace and Friendſhip, nor vilify the Law of Arms, or proceed in any Thing farther than Faith and Compact, or the Bond of Friendſhip will admit. Moreover, in the binding of the Leg with this enobled Enſign, there was given this Caveat and Exhortation, that the Knights ſhould not puſillanimouſly (by running away from Battle) betray the Valour and Renown which is ingrafted in Conſtancy and Magnanimity. Nay, ſo exactly did the Founder contrive the whole Habit into the Signification of the Garter, that he ordain'd his and the Knights-Companions Robes and Ornaments to be all alike, both for Materials and Faſhion, intimating thereby, That they ought to conſerve brotherly Affection among themſelves. The great Collar of the Order was made of equal Weight, and like Number of Knots and Links, in Token of the like Bond of Faith, Peace and Amity inviolably to be obſerv'd and retain'd amongſt them: In fine, all Things were ſo deſign'd, that every one might plainly perceive how much theſe Things tended to the Maintenance of Amity and Concord.

IN further reference to the eſtabliſhing this Order, the aforeſaid King calling together the Earls, Barons, and principal Knights of his Kingdom, Freely, ſays Froiſſart, and obligingly declar'd his Mind to them concerning this Affair: To which all of them being well inclin'd, entertain'd the Motion with equal Joy and Applauſe, deeming it would prove a very great Advancement to Piety, Nobility and Vertue, and likewiſe an excellent Expedient for the uniting not only his Subjects one with another, but all Foreigners conjunctively with them, in the Bonds of Amity and Peace. And 'tis very improbable the prudent Founder ſhould ſummon his Nobles to conſult about the Grandeur of an Order, that had taken its Riſe from ſo ſlight an Occaſion as the dropping of a Garter from a Lady's Leg. Now, to draw the Tye of Friendſhip more cloſe, the King cauſed thoſe who were (or ſhould be) of the Order, to be call'd Fellows, Aſſociates, Colleagues, Brethren, and Knights-Companions, and the Order it ſelf a Society, Fellowſhip, College of Knights, and Knight-Companionſhip; and their Habits to be all alike, to repreſent how they [Page 126] ought to be united in all Chances and various Turn [...] of Fortune; Co-partners both in Peace and War, aſſiſtant to one another in all ſerious and dangerous Exploits; and thro' the whole Courſe of their Lives to ſhew Fidelity and Friendlineſs one towards another. There are other Reaſons aſſign'd, much to the ſame Effect, That the Order was inſtituted to fortifie the Confidence of the King, the Kingdom and Martial Vertue; that is to ſay, to ſtrengthen the Faith of the Subjects towards them, and for their greater Security, and becauſe the Garter carries with it a Bond or Tye of Fellowſhip, and is a Symbol of Amity between Princes, being Companions of the ſame Order.

IN the laſt Place, if we look upon the Statutes of its Inſtitution, we ſhall find the Injunctions wholly Military, and ſo are the Words of Admonition pronounc'd at the putting on the Enſigns of the Order: And the Ground of the Inſtitution (in the Preamble to King Henry VIII's Exemplar) is ſaid to be for the Honour of God and Exaltation of the Catholick Faith, joyn'd both with Piety and Charity, in eſtabliſhing a College of religious Men to pray for the Proſperity of the Sovereign of the Order and the Knights-Companions, and to perform other holy Duties; as alſo ordaining a Maintenance for a Company of Alms-Knights, who have not otherwiſe wherewith to ſupport themſelves; but not one Word relating to the Engagement on behalf of the feminine Sex.

AND whereas King Edw. III. had laid Claim by his Title to the Kingdom of France, and in Right thereof aſſum'd its Arms, he from the Colour of them, 'tis ſaid, caus'd the Garter to be made Blue, and the Circumſcription Gold: And it may, without ſtraining, be inferr'd from the Motto, Honi ſoit qui mal y penſe, that he retorted Shame and Defiance upon him that ſhould dare to think amiſs of ſo juſt an Enterprize, as he had undertaken for recovering of his lawful Right to that Crown; and that the Magnanimity and Bravery of thoſe Knights, whom he had elected into this Order, was ſuch as would impower and enable them to maintain the Quarrel againſt all who thought ill of it. Conſonant to this is the Conjecture of Harpsfield, that this Apophthegm was deſign'd to put the Knights-Companions [Page 127] in mind, Not to admit any Thing in their Actions, or among their Thoughts, derogatory to themſelves and their Honour.

THAT Age did exceedingly abound with Impreſſes, Motto's and Devices, and particularly King Edw. III. was ſo exceſſively given up to them, that his Apparel, Plate, Bed, Houſhold-Furniture, Shields, and even the Harneſs of his Horſes, and the like, were not without them, many of which now to deſcant upon would be a fruitleſs Attempt, ſeeing the Occaſion of the Invention, and the Circumſtances are loſt, that ſhould illuſtrate them; and others, by reaſon of their Brevity, ſeem'd inſignificant, in regard ſomething was deſignedly omitted, and left to be underſtood, which cannot now be rightly ſupply'd, ſo as to arrive at the Mind of the Inventor. Of this Number may be this Motto, It is as it is, which was embroider'd upon a Doublet of that King; tho' there are others which ſeem more eaſy to be decypher'd; as that daring Motto wrought upon his Surcoat and Shield provided to be uſed at a Turnament,

Hay, Hay, the Wythe Swan;
By God's Soul I am the Man.

5.3. 3

§ 3. THE time when the Order was inſtituted, Hiſtorians differ widely about; Selden, Cowper, and others, from Froiſſart (who wrote temp. Rich. II.) would have it in the 18th of King Edw. III. But ſince Froiſſart errs, in making the Number of Knights-Companions no fewer than Forty, which is a grand Miſtake, Why might not he trip in Point of Time, and confound the Year of its Erection, with that wherein the Founder renew'd the Order of The Round Table, Windſor being the Place for both. For ſhould we admit, that during ſome Part of the Solemnity held in this King's 18th Year, when the Accident of the Lady's Garter ſlipping off happen'd, what other Inference can be made, but that he had only an Intention to put in Execution ſomewhat afterwards? Not that an Order was actually [...]rected at that Time: Beſides, the Jollity of the Seaſon, the Greatneſs of the Concourſe, and [Page 128] the Splendidneſs of the Feſtivity, it was too buſy a Time to ſuffer much Conſultation tending thereunto; or at leaſt to mould and model a Deſign ſo compleat and ſubſtantial, as it appears to have been even at firſt. If we joyn Fabian, he is plain, that tho' the King deſign'd the Inſtitution at the End of the Feſtival, (which he places between Candlemas and Lent, in the 19th, and not 18th Year of that King) Yet was it not then, ſaith he, but afterwards eſtabliſh'd by him. Nevertheleſs, Mr. Selden elſewhere obſerves, it had its Original in the 24th Year of the ſaid King. And our induſtrious Stow (with whom Lily, Speed, and Segar agree) tells us, That the firſt Feaſt of the Order was celebrated A. D. 1350. which exactly agrees to the 24th of Edward III. But Polydore Virgil places it after the 25th of Edward III. We muſt therefore have recourſe to ſome other Proofs for elucidating this Point, ſince this Chronological Aera of the true Time of its Inſtitution hath wonderfully ſlipp'd the Pens of all Writers.

ADMITTING then that the erecting this Order was firſt thought of by King Edward, at ſome of thoſe grand Aſſemblies of The Round Table, held after the French King had ſet up the like; yet was it not mature, or brought to any Perfection, till after his glorious Victories and Triumphs over the French and Scots in the Battles of Creſſy and Nevil's Croſs, (in the laſt of which the Scotch King, David, was taken Priſoner) and until King Edward had Calais ſurrendred to him, as will appear very conſpicuous.

AMONG the Rolls of the Great Wardrobe, is one containing the Account of all the King's Liveries, from Michaelmas Anno 21, to the 31ſt of Jan. 23 Edw. III. In the ſame are divers Things mention'd to be adorn'd with Garters, which were provided againſt the firſt grand Feaſt of St. G orge; and among the reſt, the Royal Robes, viz. his Mantle, Surcoat and Hood; likewiſe a Bed of Blue Taffaty was bedeck'd with Garters, containing the Motto, Honi ſoit qui mal y penſe. There were made for the Sovereign Three Harneſſes, whereof Two were of White Velvet, wrought over with Garters de blu & d [...]aſp [...]i per totum compedmein cum Woodhouſes; and the Third de Velve [...]to Ynde cont. Lapp [...]kin [Page 129] quiſſeux & caligas, wrought over likewiſe with Garters. Had the Roll been divided into Years, or had diſtinguiſhing Marks of Time upon it, we might have been guided with more Certainty as to the true Year of the Inſtitution. However, we may thence conclude it was not founded in the 18th of Edw. III. becauſe that the Sovereign's Robes were not made until the 22d Year of his Reign at ſooneſt; perhaps not till the Beginning of the 23d. But to put the Matter beyond diſpute, the Founder's Statutes fix the Time of Inſtitution to his 23d Year; ſo do the Statutes of King Henry V. and the Preface to the Black Book, Leland, Mills and Dr. Heylin. To conclude, when he had fix'd upon the Day and Place for [...]elebrating the firſt grand Feaſt of this Order, he ſent his Heralds into Germany, France, Scotland, Burgundy, Hainault, Flanders and Brabant, to invite all Knights and Eſquires, (with Aſſurance of Safe-Conduct and Liberty for Fifteen Days, both before and after the grand Solemnity) to ſhew their military Proweſs and other publick Exerciſes there to be perform'd, proper to the Place and Occaſion; agreeable to which Invitation, ſundry Knights and Gallant Men came over to ſignalize their Valour; and what made the Solemnity more glorious, King Edward's Queen was there preſent, attended with Three Hundred of the faireſt Ladies, in all imaginable Splendor and Gaity.

5.4. 4

§ 4. THE Patrons of the Order were ſeveral, under whoſe Protection (according to the Cuſtom of the Age) King Edw. III. put himſelf and all the Knights-Companions, that the Affairs of the Order might be defended, preſerved and govern'd.

THE firſt and chiefeſt which he elected, was the Holy Trinity, which in a more eſpecial Manner was invocated to the Aid and Aſſiſtance of this Order.

Secondly, King [...]dward III. intitled peculiarly the bleſſed Virgin Mary, accounted then the general Mediatrix and Protectreſs of all Men; unto whom Kin [...] Edward IV. was ſo ſtrictly devoted, that he thought ſome additional Ceremonies requiſite to her farther Honour, and thereupon ordain'd [...] that on her Five Solemnities [Page 130] the Knights Companions ſhould annually (as accuſtom'd on the Feaſt of St. George) wear the Habit of the Order as long as Divine Service was celebrating, (unleſs they had ſufficient Cauſe of excuſe) bearing on the right Shoulders of their Robes a golden Figure of the Virgin Mary; and that they ſhould go in the ſame Manner and Habit upon all Sundays throughout the Year; and laſtly, that on the ſame Days for ever they ſhould ſay Five Pater Noſters, with as many Ave Maria's.

Thirdly, St. George of Cappadocia, a moſt choice Champion of Chriſt and famous Martyr, was alſo elected one of the Patrons to this Order by King Edward III. not ſo much as he was a Profeſſor of the Chriſtian Faith, or for that he was an armed Soldier or Knight of Chriſt, but ſo much the more becauſe in thoſe Wars, which were waged by the Chriſtians againſt the Infidels, he by ſeveral Appearances manifeſted his Preſence as a moſt certain Encourager and Aſſiſtant to the Chriſtians; the Relations whereof may be ſeen in Dr. Heylin's Hiſtory, who hath laboriouſly and judiciouſly maintain'd the Hiſtory of this Saint, againſt thoſe that will not allow him a Place in Heaven, or a Being in the Church. In like manner the learned Selden hath avouch'd him to be the ſpecial Patron, Protector, Defender, and Advocate of this Realm of England; and has made it plainly appear in what Veneration he hath been honour'd abroad, eſpecially among the Eaſtern Nations. To whoſe corroborating Teſtimonies we ſhall add, That this Title of Patron to our Nation, as given to St. George by the Founder of this Order, in a Patent granted to the Dean and Canons of the Chapel of St. Stephen at Weſtminſ [...]er, and St. George at Windſor, which diſchargeth them from Payment of Tythes; as alſo by King Henry VIII. in the Preamb [...]e of his St [...] tutes. And tho' in general he is ſty [...]'d the Principal Patron of the Affairs of Chriſtendom, and a tutelar Guardian of military Men, yet among all Chriſtians the Engliſh did excel; and in this Nation the Founder of this Order, in making choice of ſuch an approv'd [...] Captain and Patron, in particular Reſp [...]ct o [...] whom the Knights had the Title of [...] St. George's Knights, and the Order it ſelf came to [...] [Page 131] call'd the Ordo Divi Sancti Georgii, The Order of St. George.

IT is remarkable, that Du Cheſn [...] a noted French Hiſtorian, acknowledges it was by the ſpecial Invocation of St. George that King Edward III. gain'd the Battle of Creſſy, which afterwards bringing to his Remembrance, He founded, ſays he, a Chapel within the Caſtle of Windſor. But if we may aſcend a ſtep higher, and give credit to Harding, it's recorded King Arthur paid St. George particular Honours, for he advanc'd his Picture in one of his Banners, which was about Two Hundred Years after his Martyrdom, and very early for a Country ſo remote from Cappadocia to have him in Reverence and Eſteem.

Laſtly, The Founder added a fourth Patron, whoſe Name himſelf bore, viz. St. Edward the Confeſſor, his Predeceſſor, King of Eng [...]and; and we find he was wont to be invocated by this Founder, as well as St. George, in any great Difficulties and Streights. Walſingham gives an Inſtance at the Skirmiſh of Calais, A. D. 1349. when King Edward, in great Anger and Grief, drew out his Sword, and moſt paſſionately cry'd out, Ha St. Edward, Ha St. George; which his Soldiers hear [...]ng, ran preſently to him, and ruſhing violently upon the Enemy, put many of them to the Sword. Theſe Four Patrons we find recorded together in the Preamble of the Foundation of Windſor College by King Edward III. tho' in the Preamble to his Statutes of the Order, and to King Henry V's Statutes, St. Edward the Confeſſor is omitted; nevertheleſs he is enumerated with the reſt in the Preamble to King H [...]nry VIII's.

5.5. 5

§ 5. As to the Honour and Reputation of this Noble Order, either in Compariſon with others, or in Reference to it ſelf, it challenges the Precedency of Antiquity, before the eldeſt Rank of Honour of that Kind any where eſtabliſh'd.

Second [...]y, The Statutes of the Foundation were ſo exquiſitely and judiciouſly deviſed and compacted, upon ſuch ſolid Foundations of Honour and Nobleneſs, that they afterwards became a Precedent to other Orders; and gave the Plan to thoſe Two of The Golden Fl [...]ece and [Page 132] of Monſieur St. Michael, as is manifeſt by comparing their Statutes.

Thirdly, It is no ſmall Honour that accrues to this Order, that the Number of theſe Knights-Companions were never encreas'd, but as they were Twenty Six with the Sovereign, ſo they now thus continue, ut Pretium faciat raritas; for the infringing this Article hath ſplit ſeveral other military Orders into Contempt and Ruin, as nothing more tarniſhing, or throwing a fully on the Worth of Glory and Honour, than when render'd ſo vulgar, and indifferently diſpoſed without Diſtinction and Merit, as is exemplify'd in The Order of the Star, and the now declining Order of St. Michael.

Fourthly, It has receiv'd more additional Luſtre by being honour'd with the Companionſhip of divers Emperors, Kings and Sovereign Princes, who eſteem [...]d it the Summit of their Glory, and the higheſt Trophy of additional Honour, to be enroll'd in the Number. Inſomuch that ſome of them with Impatience courted the Election. For we find recorded in the Regiſter, A. D. 1672. Eight Emperors of Germany, Three Kings of Spain, Five French Kings, Two Kings of Scotland, Five Kings of Denmark, Five Kings of Portugal, Two Kings of Sweden, One King of Poland, One King of Arragon, Two Kings of Naples, beſides divers Dukes and other free Princes; as One Duke of Guelderland, One Duke of Holland, Two Dukes of Burgundy, Two Dukes of Brunſwick, One Duke of Milan, Two Dukes of Urbin, One Duke of Ferrara, One Duke of Savoy, Two Dukes of Holſtein, One Duke of Saxony, and One Duke of Wertemberg, Seven Count Palatines of the Rhin [...], Four Princes of Orange, and One Marquis of Brandenburg.

Fifthly, It entitles thoſe Knights and Noblemen, whoſe Vertue hath rais'd them to this Pitch of Greatneſs, to be Companions and Aſſociates with Emperors and Kings, a Prerogative of an high Nature, and a ſufficient Recompence for the greateſt Merit. We ſhall cloſe up all with the high Elogy beſtow'd on it by the learned Selden, That it exceeds in Majeſty, Honour and Fame, all Chivalrous Orders of the World.

6. CAP. VI. The Statutes and Annals of the Order.

[Page 133]


ORDER and Regularity is not only the Beauty and Symmetry of Government and Societies, but alſo greatly contributes to their Eſtabliſhment and Perpetuity. Statutes and Rules are as well the Bounds to determine, as Bonds to unite Fellowſhip and Societies together; and if either fall into difuſe, or be unadviſedly broken, they open a Field to Diſſolution and Ruin.

SUCH like Conſiderations mov'd and excited the victorious King Edward III. (after he had determin'd the Erection of this moſt renown'd Order of the Garter) to deviſe and inſtitute ſeveral laudable Statutes and Ordinances, to be duly obſerv'd and kept within the ſaid Order; which being collected into one Body, are call'd The Statutes of Inſtitution.

THE Original of theſe was ordain'd to be kept within the Treaſury of the College of Windſor, but hath long ſince wholly periſh'd; yet a Tranſcript of them is recorded in the Reign of King Henry V. in an old Book call'd Regiſtrum Ordinis Chartaceum. Two more ancient Exemplars of this Body of Statutes are alſo in being; the one in the Library of the Lord Hatton, and the other in the Black Book of the Order; and comparing them together, I ſhall here give from the Latin the Heads they conſiſt of.

1. THE King of England, his Heirs and Succeſſors, are to be Sovereigns or Superiors of this Order.

2. NONE are to be admitted, unleſs he be a Gentleman of Blood, and that he be a Knight and without Reproach.

3. THE Knights-Companions were to be Twenty Six, [...]ach to have at Windſor a Mantle and Garter for the better Splendor of the Order; to wear the ſaid [Page 134] Habit whenſoever they go to the Chapel of St. George or Chapter-Houſe, to hold a Chapter, or do any thing relating to their Order. In like manner they are to wear the Habit upon the Vigils of St. George, in their Proceſſion from the King's Lodgings to the Chapel or Chapter-Houſe, and returning back, and during Supper, continue ſo habited till it be over, and likewiſe on the Morrow of St. George's Day, at Chapel, Dinner-time, Supper-time, and afterwards all the ſaid Day, until the Sovereign or his Deputy ſhall depoſite the Enſigns of the Order, and decree their Departure.

4. THERE were to be Thirteen Canons Secular, who at the Time of their Inſtitution, or within a Year, were to be Prieſts, and as many Vicars already Prieſts, or to be made ſo at the next Ordination, anſwerable to the number of the Knights-Companions; theſe religious Perſons to be preſented by the ſeveral Founders each one, and upon the Death or Vacancy of ſuch preſented, the Sovereign of the Order ever afterwards to have the Nomination of them, who were bound to pray for the good Eſtate of the Sovereign and his Kingdom, and particularly for this Order.

5. THE Canons were to wear a Purple Mantle, with the Arms of St. George in a Roundle upon their right Shoulder.

6. THERE were to be Twenty Six poor veterane Knights, [...]ach to have a competent Subſiſtence, their Election to be after the manner of the Canons aforeſaid.

7. THESE Knights were to have a Red Mantle, with the Arms of St. George; but without any Circle of the Garter about it.

8. IF the Sovereign could not be preſent at the ſolemn Feſtival of St. George, his Deputy was to ſupply his Place at the Charge of the Sovereign; but ſuch Deputy was not to make any new Ordinances, tho' he has Licenſe to correct or amend the old Ones.

9. EVERY Year, upon the Vigils of St. George, the Knights-Companions within the Realm, or elſewhere, if conveniently, are to aſſemble, at Windſor Caſtle, and be preſent there at the Celebration of Divine Service, in the Habit of the Order, where placed regularly in [Page 135] their Stalls or Seats, directly over their Heads their Helmets and Swords, &c. are to be hung up, and remain as long as ſuch Knights live, in Honour of them, and to ſignify the Defence of the Church, to which they are obliged as a Military Order; but in caſe the Feaſt of St. George happens to fall within the Quindene or Fifteen Days after the Feaſt of Eaſter, then it was to be prorogued to the Sunday next following, accounting Fifteen Days from Eaſter Day, that every Knight-Companion might have reaſonable time to come, nor be forced to ride upon any of the Three Eaſter Holy-days.

10. THAT they meet in St. George's Chapel yearly, on the Eve of St. George, at the Hour of Three in the Afternoon; and if they come not at the Time aſſigned, without a juſt Excuſe, which the Sovereign or his Deputy allows, their Penalty is to be according to the Ordinance of the Chapter; which is, That they ſhall not enter into the Chapter Door for that time, but ſ [...]ay without, and ſhall have no Voice in any thing that is done in the ſaid Chapter; and if they come not before the Beginning of Veſpers, they ſhall not enter into their Stalls, but ſhall tarry below before the ſaid Stalls in the Choiriſters Places during Veſpers. The like Penalty is ordain'd for not coming to the Maſs or Morning-Service betime, and at Veſpers, on St. George's Day; and whoſoever ſhall abſent himſelf wholly from this Solemnity, without ſufficient Excuſe and Leave from the Sovereign or Deputy, he is not to enter within his Stall the next Feaſt after, but ſhall ſtay below, and before his Stall, as it is ſaid at Veſpers, and in the Morrows Proceſſion muſt walk before the Three proceſſional Croſſes, [now the Cho [...]riſters,] and at Maſs [Service] ſhall ſit below until the Offering, and he to offer laſt. After which he is to come before the Sovereign, or his Deputy's Stall, and ask Pardon, which re-inſtates him in his Stall. Abſenting the next ſecond Time upon the Feaſt, without Leave, he has no Stall allowed him until he hath given and offered a Jewel upon St. George's Altar, to the Value of Twenty Marks, which is to be double every Year until a Reconciliation.

[Page 136] 11. WHERESOEVER they be, they muſt wear their Blue Robes from the Beginning of the firſt Veſpers, on the Eve of St. George's Day, to the ſecond Veſpers on the Morrow incluſive, &c.

12. IF any Knight-Companion appears publickly without his dignifying Garter, upon challenging the ſame, is to pay half a Mark to the Cuſtos and College.

13. AT the Times of Offering, each aſſociated with the other who holds the oppoſite Stall, are to march in Proceſſion together to make their Offerings; but alone, when his Conſort is abſent, and ſo that in all Proceſſions the Sovereign goes laſt.

14. IN the Morrow after the Solemnity of St. George's Feaſt is over, before their ſeparating, a Maſs de Requie or Office de Defunctis was to be uſed, at which the Knights-Companions were all entirely to be preſent, without neceſſary Impediment ſhown to the Sovereign or Deputy for Liberty to depart.

15. THEY were to leave their Robes at Windſor always, to be ready for them there upon any ſudden Occaſions that might evene.

16. JOURNYING near Windſor, in Honour of the Place, unleſs lawful Cauſe obſtructs, they muſt take it in their Way, and aſſuming the Habit of the Order the Canons wore, devoutly to meet and conduct them into the Chapel; where, if it happens to be time of Divine Service, they are to hear the ſame; if not, they are to be detained no longer than while the Canons ſhall ſay the Pſalm de profundis for the Defunct, and during their own Offering: But if any had riden thro' the Town, without viſiting the Chapel and offering there, for every Neglect he muſt go one Mile on Foot from the ſaid Chapel, to ſhew his Obedience, and offer an Half-Penny in Honour of St. George.

17. UPON firſt Notice of the Death of any of the Order, the Sovereign ſhall ordain a Thouſand Maſſes, every Foreign Prince ſhall cauſe Eight Hundred, a Prince of Wales Seven Hundred, a Duk [...] Six Hundred, an Earl Three Hundred, every Baron Two Hundred, and every Knight Batchellor One Hundred Maſſes to be celebrated for the Good of the Soul departed; [Page 137] which neglected for a Quarter of a Year after notice of ſuch Death, the Maſſes are to be doubled; upon half a Year's Neglect, again doubled; and ſo from Time to Time in like Form till the End of the Year, and then the Year's to be doubled.

18. UPON ſure Notice of the Death of a Knight-Companion, the Sovereign, or his Deputy, is to converſe by Letters, the Remainder [not Strangers] that are within the Kingdom, to meet him within Six Weeks in ſome convenient Place, and elect another; which aſſembled, at leaſt Six, with the Sovereign or Deputy, every of them preſent is to name Nine of the worthieſt and ſufficienteſt Knights without Reproof that he knows, whether native Subjects or Foreigners, ſobeit they hold no contrary Party, or be againſt the Sovereign, viz. Three Earls, or of ſublimer Title; Three Barons, and Three Knights Batchellors, which Names the Biſhop of Windſor, for the Time being, was to write, or, in his Abſence, the Dean or Regiſter, and, in their Abſence, the oldeſt Reſidencer in the College, and after ſhew them to the Sovereign, who is to chuſe out of them him that has the moſt Voices, and whom he eſteems the moſt beneficial to the Crown and Kingdom. Every Knight failing to appear at an Election, without an approved Cauſe, was to pay to the Cuſtos and College the Penalty of a Mark, and at his next coming to the Chapter ſhall kneel upon the Ground, in the midſt of the Chapter, before the Sovereign or Deputy, until Reconciliation.

19. SOON after Election, the Knight-Companion elect is to have a Garter, in token of his Election, and that he is a Fellow of the Order; and as ſoon as decreed to take Poſſeſſion of his Stall, but not before, is to have a Mantle, which, if he dies before he receiv'd, he was not to be accounted as one of the Order, becauſe he wanted Poſſeſſion; nevertheleſs he was to have one half of the Maſſes aboveſaid, becauſe he had the Garter deliver'd to him and nothing beſide. If he was not inſtalled within a Year after his receiving the Garter, and eſpecially if within the Realm, and without reaſonable Excuſe to be allowed of by the Sovereign or Deputy, his Election became void, and they might proceed [Page 138] to a new one: Moreover, neither the Sword nor Helmet was to be put upon his Stall within the Caſtle, before his coming; to the End, that if the Knight elect came not, his Atchievements might not be unhandſomly taken down and abuſed, but honourably removed into the Choir for the publick Uſe and Profit of the ſaid College.

20. EVERY Foreigner elected was to have Certification of ſuch his Election from the Sovereign, at the Sovereign's Charge, who was to ſend him the Garter and the Mantle, and a Copy of the Statutes of the Order, under the Common Seal of the ſaid Order, within Four Months after the Election, the better for him to adviſe on; which being accepted, of whatſoever Condition he be, he was obliged within Eight Months after to ſend a ſufficient Proxy, according to his State and Dignity, a Knight irreprehenſible to be inſtalled in his Room, and who was to bring with him a Silk Mantle of the Blue Colour of the Order, alſo a Sword and Helmet to remain at Windſor, which Mantle was be put upon the right Shoulder of the Proxy, by the Sovereign or Deputy at the time of Inſtallment, when he is introduced to take the Stall in the Name of his Lord and Maſter; neither was he to depoſite the ſame till the End of Divine Service; after which he was not to wear it, nor be admitted in the Chapter-Houſe, or have any Suffrage, by virtue of any Powers veſted in him; but this Favour Foreigners elected by Proxy were to have, that could not perſonally come themſelves, they were to be Partakers of the whole Maſſes and Oriſons of the Order; whereas, if they died before the Inſtallation, they were to have but a Moity of them.

21. UPON the Death of any Earl, [or of Superior Dignity] Baron, or Knight Batchellor, his Succeſſor, whether Earl, [or of Superior Dignity] Baron, or Knight, was to have a vacant Stall of his Pred [...]c [...]ſſor, without any changing of Places, except the Prince of Wales alone, who was to have always the next Stall, and oppoſite to the Sovereign; ſo that it may happen for a Knight to have an Earl's Place, or an Earl a Knight's Place; and this becauſe the firſt Founders might be [...]nown.

[Page 139] 22. EVERY Knight-Companion at his firſt Entrance, was to give a certain Alms, according to their Eminence and Degree, for the perpetual Maintenance of the Canons and Poor Knights, viz. the Sovereign Forty Marks, a Foreign King Twenty Pounds, a Prince of Wales Twenty Marks, a Duke Ten Pounds, an Earl Ten Marks, a Baron a Hundred Shillings, and a Knight Batchellor Five Marks, that by theſe pious Don [...]tions they might juſtly entitle themſelves to the Name and Privileges of the Order; wherefore, before theſe Payments were rightly performed, their Sword and Helmet [Atchievements] were not to be hung up, and for Foreigners the Sovereign was obliged to pay himſelf.

23. UPON the Death of any of the Founders his Arms, in a Plate of Metal, was to be fixed upon the Back of his Stall, and their Succeſſors were to have the like, but to be placed underneath their Predeceſſors, and not to be ſo great as thoſe of the firſt Founders.

24. AT Admiſſion every Knight-Companion muſt promiſe and ſwear perſonally, or by Proxy, faithfully to obſerve the Statutes of the Order, and none are to be inſtalled by Proxy but Foreigners only, which cannot conveniently come in Perſon.

25. IF the Sovereign be out of England at the Inſtallation of any Knight-Companion, or could not attend himſelf to do what appertains to him in that Point, he might impower and authorize any of the Fellows to officiate for him.

26. THAT there be a Common Seal or Signet Keeper, whom the Sovereign was to aſſign.

27. EVERY Knight-Companion was to have a Copy of the Statutes under the Seal of the Order, the Original ſealed likewiſe with the ſaid Seal, to remain for evermore within the Treaſury of the College, and upon the Death of any Knight-Companion, his Executors were to ſend back ſuch Copy to be deliver'd to the Cuſtos or Warden.

28. NO Knight-Companion was to go out of the Realm and Dominion of England, without the Knowl [...]dge and Licence of the Sovereign, who of Grace and Favour is bound to grant it upon a Military Expedition, or other notable Act appertaining to the Honour of [Page 140] Knighthood, in Preference and Advancement of this Order of St. George.

29. THEY were not to arm themſelves againſt each other, but in the Wars of their Sovereign Lord, in his right and juſt Quarrel; and if it happen'd that any of the Order ſhould be retain'd in the Cauſe and Quarrel of any Lord, and the adverſe Party deſir'd another Knight-Companion on his Side, that latter Knight isby no means to agree but to excuſe himſelf in all Things, becauſe his Fellow was armed on the other Side, and was retain'd before him. And every Knight was bound to except and agree, at his being retain'd, that he may have his Diſcharge from the Wars, upon any of the Order's being engaged in Arms before him for the contrary Party; and if the ſecond retained knows not of it, upon notice that any of his Fellows were retained before him, and armed on the contrary Side, the ſecond retained Knight was to excuſe himſelf to his Maſter, and relinquiſh the Quarrel.

30. ALL Licences given to the Knight-Companions to travel in queſt of Honour by Military Exploits; alſo all Certificates, mandatous Letters, Certificates, and other Writings whatſoever relating to the Order, were to be iſſued out by the Sovereign, under the Seal of the Order, to remain in the keeping of one of the Order, during the Sovereign's Pleaſure. And if the Keeper of the Seal abſent himſelf upon reaſonable Cauſe, he was to leave the Seal with another of the Fellowſhip that the Sovereign ſhould appoint, to the Intent that the Seal at no time be out of the Preſence of the Sovereign, he being within his Dominion. And in like manner concerning the Seal in the Abſence of the Sovereign or the Deputy.

31. IF any Knight-Companion for Devotion ſake ſhould deſire to dwell at Windſor, he was to maintain himſelf at his own, and not at the College Charge.

32. ANY other Knight, not of the Order, upon the Account of Devotion, that would reſide there, was to be provided for at the Appointment of the Sovereign, and the Fellowſhip alſo. Any Knight or other Perſon giving 10 l. yearly Rents or Lands, or more, to the College, to participat [...] of their Prayers and Suffrages, [Page 141] he was to be regiſtred in the Calendar of Benefactors, and continually be pray'd for by the Canons and Poor Knights.

33. UPON the Death of any Canon, the Cuſtos or Warden is to certify the ſame by Letters to the Sovereign, if beyond Sea, to know whom he pleaſes to preſent to the Canonſhip.

34. THERE was to be a Regiſter appointed by the Sovereign and Fellowſhip, the moſt intelligent Perſon of the College, who was to be preſent at the Chapters, to record their Elections and the Electors, their Puniſhments, and Cauſes of them, with their Reconciliations, all Acts whatſoever adminiſtred in their Council, from Chapter to Chapter yearly; for the faithful Execution of which Office he was to be ſworn at his Admiſſion therein; and whatſoever had been regiſter'd was in the Beginning of the following Chapter, on the Vigils of St. George, to be publickly recited before the Sovereign and the whole Fellowſhip, that what was amiſs and incorrect might be mended and reduced to due Form.

6.2. 2

§ 2. BESIDES theſe Statutes there are Two other Bodies, or Exemplars eſtabliſh'd ſince, the one by King Henry V. the other by King Hen. VIII. King Henry V. finding the Glory of the Order declining, removed the Grand Feſtival and other Solemnities, and commanded a ſtrict Obſervation of all the Founder's Statutes, and brought many more to like Perfection, which he ſubjoined to ſuch of them, where they might be prop [...]rly and are as follow:

To Article
  • 3. That the Knights ſhould mark their Obeiſance in the Choir firſt to the Altar, and next to the Sovereign, or in his Abſence to his Stall.
  • 8. THAT the Deputy ſhould [...]lect, if the Sovereign (when abroad) had not Six Knights with him.
  • 9. THAT the Feaſt of St. George ſhould not be kept upon St. Mark's Day, nor the Days of St. Philip and Jacob, nor of the [Page 142] Holy Croſs, neither upon any Days whic [...] ſhould happen in the Feſtivals of th Aſcenſion or Pentecoſt, or other ſolem [...] Feaſts ordained by the Church to the interrupting their Divine Service.
  • 12. THAT when a Knight ſhould rid [...] out he might wear a Blue Silk Ribbon inſtead of his Garter.
  • 14. THAT the Order and Manner o [...] Offering up the Atchievements ſhould b [...] as is there preſcribed, viz. before the [...] offer their Money, their Swords ſhould b [...] firſt offered by Two Companions, which the Sovereign or his Deputy ſhould appoint, and afterwards their Helmets with their Creſts, by Two others of the Order.
  • 20. THAT Knights abſent in the Sovereign's Service might be inſtall'd by Deputy.
  • 31. THAT the Sovereign ſhould take a Signet of the Order abroad with him, to be fixed to all the Acts he does in Foreign Parts relating to this Order, in Diſtinction to thoſe done at home.
  • 34. THAT no Charge ſhould be admitted upon the College by the Cuſtos or Canons, without the Sovereign's Conſent likewiſe.

THE Statutes with theſe Additions (as the Statutes of Inſtitution) this King cauſed to be tranſlated into French, and tranſcribed into a Roll, which was ordered to be preſented to every Knight-Companion under the common Seal of the Order. In after Times it was tranſcribed into Books; and by a Decree, Anno [...] Hen. VII. an Original Book of theſe Statutes and Inſtitution [...], fair written, was to be repoſed in the College of St. G [...]org [...], and the Scribe or Regiſter to have Tranſcripts of them in Readineſs, to preſent the elected Knights withal.

THE laſt and largeſt Body was firſt began, and received the finiſhing S [...]roke by King Hen. VIII. chiefly in regard ſome of the former Statutes wanted Explication [Page 143] and others Contraction. And for the compleating of which Purpoſe, on St. George's Day, Anno 9 Regni ſui he ſummoned all the Knights-Companions to convene next Year at the Time of the Solemnity, about the Abrogation of what tended to darken the Honour of this Order (if any ſuch were) and for the Advancement of what might promote the Grandeur and Luſtre of it. But theſe Reſolves came to no Perfection till May 28. Anno 11 Regni ſui, when he entred upon this Reformation with all magnificent Ceremony imaginable, for being accompanied with Nineteen Knights-Companions of the Order proceeding in Cavalcade to the Chapter-Houſe, and taking into Conſideration their former Statutes of Knights-Companions, with all due Reverence implor'd the Sovereign to reform and explain them as he ſhould think convenient, which he brought to a ſucceſsful Period, by the Advice and Conſent of the Society aſſembled: That done, all preſent entreated the Sovereign, kneeling, that where any of them had been peccant againſt the Order, he would pleaſe to remit, and iſſue out a general Pardon, which he granted and ratify'd in Chapter next Day. This was a Task of Three Years compleat before it roſe to Perfection, viz. April 23. Anno 14 Hen. VIII. for then the Sovereign, out of right ſingular Love, well-temper'd Zeal, and entire Affection to this moſt noble Order, to the Eſtate of Chivalry, and the Continuance and Encreaſe thereof; as alſo at the humble Requeſt and inſtant Importunity of the then Knights-Companions, and by their Advice, Counſel and Conſent, did interpret and elucidate all the Obſcurities, Doubts and Ambiguities of the former Statutes and Ordinances. Divers Affairs contain'd in Fifty of them being explain'd and amended; he made likewiſe neceſſary Additions, the Original whereof being ſign'd and ſeal'd, were commanded to be carefully laid up in the Treaſury of Windſor College, to remain as a Standard to ſucceeding Times; yet they have not been ſeen there theſe many Years paſt.

THE Articles and Clauſes added to the former Sta [...]utes, in this laſt Body, are theſe:

[Page 144] To Article
  • 1. THAT the Interpretation of the Statutes, &c. belongeth to the Sovereign.
  • 2. THE Three Points of Reproach declar'd, and what is meant by a Gentleman of Blood.
  • 4. OF the Prerogative of the Feaſt.
  • 5. HOW the Feaſt is to be obſerved by abſent Knights.
  • 6. ATTENDANCE on the Sovereign, if he be not at the Feaſt.
  • 7. THAT the Sovereign's Deputy may correct Things in Chapter.
  • 12. THE offering up of Atchievements, and a Taper arm'd with an Eſcutcheon.
  • 13. CANONS to ſit in the lower Stalls, when any Knights are preſent.
  • 14. THAT Six Knights make a Chapter.
  • 20. THE Manner of Inſtallation ſet down.
  • 21. CLAUSE for a Foreign Knight's Deputy to be conducted from the Chapter-Houſe to the Stall; and for making an Election void, if the Knight ſend not his Proxy within Seven Months.
  • 23. FOR advancing and tranſlating of Stalls.
  • 25. PLATES not to be larger than the firſt Founders, except Strangers.
  • 27. THE Time Three Months prefix'd for the Executor of a deceas'd Knight-Companion to ſend back the Copy of the Orders deliver'd to him at his Admiſſion, which might be alſo ſent to one of the principal Officers of the Order.
  • 38. CONCERNING the Collar of the Order.

THIS Body of Statutes was compil'd in Latin, and is recorded in the Black Book of the Order. It was tranſlated into French and Engliſh by Sir Thomas Wriotheſl [...]y, [Page 145] Kt. then Garter King of Arms. The Engliſh Verſion annex'd here to this Treatiſe, is what hath ſince been deliver'd (inſtead of the former Statutes) to all ſucceeding Knights-Companions, according to the Injunction; but of late Times appointed to be ſent to Foreign Princes and other elect Knights abroad, ſealed with the Great Seal of the Order, affix'd to a Label of Blue Silk and Gold.

6.3. 3

§ 3. THERE have been ſeveral Endeavours ſince the Reign of King Henry VIII. for reforming the Statutes. As firſt, King Edward VI. who as Sovereign, by the Orders themſelves, had an undoubted Prerogative ſet him to alter and reform many Things which ſeem'd inconſiſtent with the Religion he eſtabliſh'd. To which Purpoſe, at a Chapter at Greenwich, held April 23. in the Third Year of his Reign, the Lord St. John, the Earl of Arundel, and Sir William Paget, were to peruſe and make them agreeable to the King's other Proceedings, by the Aſſiſtance and Advice of the Protector, the Duke of Somerſet, and other Companions. This was follow'd by a ſubſequent Order paſs'd in the Cha [...]ter at Greenwich the Year after, that the Statutes ſhould be reform'd and corrected as they thought expedient: And for the better Accompliſhment of their Deſign, at the next Feaſt, April 24. 5 Edw. VI. another Order commenc'd, impowering the Duke of Somerſet, the Marqueſs of Northampton, the Earls of Warwick, Arundel, Bedford and Wi [...]ts, to peruſe and amend the Statures and other Books of the Order, which were brought to ſome tolerable Degree of Perfection; for thereupon a new Body was collected (in general very much altering the Laws of the Order) and publiſh'd March 17. Anno 7 Edw. VI. But this King within Four Months after expiring, Queen Mary, his Siſter and Succeſſor, the very firſt Thing ſhe tranſacted was to abrogate and make them void; wherefore we need not mention them, as never in uſe and unrevived. For the Execution of which Purpoſe, ſhe conven'd a Chapter at St. James's, the 27th of September following; and it was then decreed, that the ſaid Laws and Ordinances, as inconvenient, impertinent, and tending to Novelty, [Page 146] ſhould be diſannulled, and no Account to be made of them for the future; and for the quicker Execution, Sir William Petre (that Day admitted Chancellor) had Orders to ſee them ſpeedily expung'd out of the Book of Statutes, and forthwith defac'd, leſt any Memory of them ſhould remain to Poſterity; and only thoſe of her Father, Hen. VIII. and his Royal Predeceſſors, ſhould be retain'd.

IN this Affair King Philip, her Husband, appear'd no leſs zealous; for on the 5th of Auguſt, 1 and 2 Philip and Mary, (which was the 3d Day after he had been inveſted with the Habit) himſelf being preſent at a Chapter at Windſor, it was ordain'd, That all Acts and Decrees in the Great Book, [i.e. the Black Book aforeſaid] which were repugnant and diſagreeable, either with the ancient and receiv'd Statutes of the Order, or elſe with the Laws of the Realm, ſhould clearly be aboliſh'd and eraſed, by the Marquis of Wincheſter, the Earls of Arund [...]l, Pembroke, and the Lord Paget.

No ſooner was Queen Elizabeth fix'd on the Throne, but ſoon after, viz. on St. George's Day, in the ſecond Year of her Reign, a View of the Statutes was committed, by Commiſſion, to Four of the Knights-Companions, viz. the Marquis of Northampton, the Earls of Arundel and Pembroke, and the Lord Howard of Effingham, who were thereby impower'd to peruſe and conſider thoſe Statutes with the utmoſt Care and regard, if any of them were repugnant to the Religion, Laws and Statutes of the Realm; and if any ſuch were recorded, to repreſent them faithfully to the Sover [...]ign, that ſhe, in Conjunction with the Knights-Companions, might eſtabliſh ſuch Decrees concerning them as ſhe ſhould think ſit; but that any thing was done in purſuance hereunto, doth not appear; for the Tranſcripts of her Father's Body of the Statutes, throughout the Time of her Reign, were preſented to the Kn [...]ghts-Companions at their Inſtailations; and the Practice of her Time was purſuant to the Direction therein, except in ſome few Things now and then added or alter'd at future Chapters, when there aroſe freſh Matters for ſuch Expedients.

[Page 147] KING James I. her Succeſſor, revolv'd ſomething towards a new Regulation; and in order to put it in Execution, the 14th of May, in the 9th Year of his Reign, decreed, That Commiſſionary Letters ſhould be granted to the Earls of Nottingham, Worceſter, Pembroke and Northampton, to empower them to examine the Regiſters and other Monuments which pertained to that Order; and where any Paſſage ſhould be found obſolete or obſcure, to make it conſpicuous and clear; where Contrariety appear'd, fitly to reconcile it; yet with no Deſign of innovating any Thing, but an Intention of renewing all, as near as might be, to the firſt Standard and moſt ancient Inſtitution of the Order; ſaving always Power to himſelf, as Sovereign of the Order, to add or diminiſh any Matter (according to the Occaſion) as it ſhould ſeem agreeable to his Prudence for the Honour of this Moſt Noble Order. What Progreſs they made in this Commiſſion, the Memoirs of that Time are [...]ſilent in; but ſome few Years after, this Affair was reviv'd, and another was iſſu'd forth, to the Earls of Nottingham, Worc [...]ſter, Southampton, Arundel and Montgomery, and the Viſcount Liſle, all Knights-Companions, dated April 26. in the 16th Year of his Reign; which Six, or any Four of them, were thereby conſtituted to take an exact Survey of all the ancient Statutes and Articles of the ſaid Order; and authoriz'd to call before them all ſuch Perſons, whether Officers of the ſaid Order, or others, as could give any Light or Information concerning that Affair; and after a ſerious Deliberation, to pen down what in them they conceiv'd meet to be explain'd, and what to be added, whereby to render the Order more illuſtrious, that the ſame being preſented to the Sovereign and the Society, at a Chapter holden, might be reſolv'd on in part, or in all, to be put in Ex [...]cution, if it ſeem'd ſo good to that King.

THIS Affair mov'd very ſlowly; but towards the latter End of his Reign, the Earls of Worceſter, Montgomery, Arundel, Surry and Le [...]ceſter, Five of the Six Commiſſioners above-nam'd, having held divers Conferences, and debated ſeveral Matters repreſented to them, and at a Chapter convened at Whitehall the 19th [Page 148] of May, Anno 20 Jac. I. did preſent to the Sovereign certain Articles, ſubſcribed with their Hands, which, for the Honour of the Order, they thought requiſite to be duly obſerv'd.

BY the firſt of which they made Proviſion for a further Progreſſion and Advancement of the illuſtrious Inſtitution, in propoſing, that every Year a Commiſſion from the Sovereign ſhould be granted, or continu'd to ſuch Knights of the Order as the Chapter ſhould pitch on, to deliberate and weigh all Affairs that fell under the Order, and that the Year after, an Eſtimate, by the Knights in Chapter, ſhould be exhibited, of their Reſolutions and Proceedings by Virtue of the ſaid Commiſſion. This, with Eight other Articles, were confirm'd by the Sovereign and Twelve of the Knights-Companions, the 22d of May following, in a Chapter held at Whitehall; and ſo proſperouſly their Endeavours ſucceeded, that on the Feaſt-day of St. George, at Windſor in the enſuing Year, the Earl of Worceſter, (being then the Sovereign-Deputy) with Ten Knights-Companions more, gave their aſſent to Eight other Articles (moſt of them concerning the Alms-Knights) which the Morning after had the Approbation of the Sovereign; and before the Celebration of Divine Service, by his Deputy and Companions aſſembled in the Chapter-Houſe, the Obſervation thereof was duly decreed.

KING Charles I. deſign'd and endeavour'd the moſt compleat and abſolute Reformation of any of his Predeceſſors; and at the Solemnity of St. George, held at Windſor the 6th of October, in the 6th Year of his Reign, He commiſſion'd Nine Knights-Companions, viz. the Earls of Mulgrave, Pembroke, Montgomery, Arund [...]l, Surry, Salisbury, Carliſle, Dorſet, Holland, Berkſhire and Suffolk, with command to aſſemble Four Times in a Year, to take into their Conſideration the Affairs of the Order; all which, but the Earls of Mulgrave and Dorſet, met at Whitehall the 2d of January following, where ſome few Matters fell under their Conſultation. This Commiſſion was ſeconded by one of a larger extent about Three Months after, and directed to the ſaid Knights-Companions, or to any Eight, Seven, Six, Five or Four of them, empowering them to meet and deviſe, [Page 149] and exactly preponderate all the Statutes and Ordinances of the Order, as well ſuch as were eſtabliſhed at the Foundation, as thoſe that had been ſince made, by Explanation or Addition, and to weigh adviſedly whether any Thing had been enacted, that had cauſed Doubt or Ambiguity, or ſtood in need of any Change or Amendment; and if upon mature Deliberation by them thus conven'd, there ſhould appear any Contrariety or Defect, for want of plain Expreſſion, or other Omiſſion, fit to be ſupplied, tending to the Honour of the Order, That then the Sovereign might, upon Return of their Proceedings, reſolve upon ſome general Declaration in Chapter, to reform and reduce into one Body all the Statutes and Ordinances thereof, that the ſame being compil'd and ſettled in one perfect Model, might be ſo conſign'd to Poſterity, free from all future Queſtions and Doubts.

NEVER THELESS not any thing was done upon this Commiſſion, tho' it ſtood in force even from the 6th to the 13th Year of this King's Reign; but where the Neglect lay Hiſtory does not fully inform us, tho' it may be conjectur'd by what follows.

AT the Feaſt of St. G [...]orge, celebrated by Prorogation at White-hall, for the Year 1636. upon the 17th, 18th, and 19th Days of April, 1637. divers Petitions for Reformation, and reducing of Matters to their priſtine Conſtitution, were preſented to the Sovereign by the Chancellor, and read; ſome of which, more eſpecially, tending to ſet off and encreaſe the Honour of the Order, were received and decreed by the Sovereign, and the reſt referr'd to the ſaid Knights-Commiſſioners. The firſt of thoſe Decrees which at that time had its Sanction, was to revive and renew the Powers given in the former Commiſſion; and thereupon a new one, dated the 7th of May following, was iſſued under the Great Seal of the Order, and directed to the Earls of Mulgrave, Darby, Pembroke, and Montgomery, Arundel, and Surry, Kelly, Salisbury, Dorſet, Holland, Barkshire, Suffolk, Lyndſey, Exeter, Marquiſs Hamilton, Duke of Lenox, the Earls of Darby, Moreton, and Northumberland, or to Three or more of them, to meet and conſult of any Matters contain'd in the Statutes, or for Honour of [Page 150] the Order. Theſe Knights-Commiſſioners were endow'd with all the plenary Powers given in the foreſaid Commiſſion, dated 6 Car. I. unto which was granted a further Addition, for the better effecting the Sovereign's Care: That Three or more of them ſhould meet at the Sovereign's Court, and begin to put the ſaid Commiſſion in execution in Whitſon Week next enſuing, attended and aſſiſted by the Chancellor of the Order, and all, or any other Officers, or ſuch of them as they ſhould fix on, or find ſerviceable. And being aſſembled, to have free Liberty to hear, propound, and debate of whatſoever ſhall fall under their Cogniſance, or that they ſhould conceive conducible to the Honour and perfect Eſtabliſhment of ſo Illuſtrious and Noble a Body. And to prepare all Matters of ſuch their Reſolutions and Debates to be laid before the Sovereign at the next Feaſt of St. George, and ſo ſucceſſively at every Chapter ſo appointed by him, to receive his full Determination, Approbation, and Royal Aſſent, with further Power to adjourn from time to time, after the firſt Opening and Reading of the ſaid Commiſſion; their Meetings to be in ſuch Places, and on ſuch Days as ſhould ſeem moſt convenient to them.

NOW who wou'd ſuppoſe, that after ſo Noble an Intention of the Sovereign, and his earneſt Solicitude to iſſue forth a ſecond Commiſſion, his hearty recommending and exciting their Deligence for a ſpeedy Diſpatch, and laſtly, his expecting an Account of their Tranſactions the next Feaſt, theſe honourable Perſons, Companions of the Order, ſhould need a Spur to accompliſh ſo laudable a Deſign; but it was ſo.

FOR altho' the Commiſſion was opened at White-hall the 30th of May following, in the Preſence of the Earls of Pembroke and Montgomery, Salishury, Holland, Marquiſs of Hamilton, and Duke of Lenox, Commiſſioners; yet Sir Thomas Row Chancellor, in his Letter to Dr. Chriſtopher Wren, dated the 4th of June, 1637. ſadly complained, That it was much as he could do to draw together Five of the Knights-Companions, to open and read the Commiſſion, and this quaſi in [...]ranſi [...], was in Confuſion and Hurry, and all that was tranſacted was to appoint another Convention at Court in M [...]ſummer [Page 151] Week then next enſuing, and charge the Chancellor to prepare Matter (for Propoſitions and Obſervations upon the Statutes) fit for their Conſultations againſt that Appointment, according to the Tenor of the Commiſſion. And in another Place writes, That he found ſuch Difficulty to procure Meetings, and as certain non Chalance in every one, as if it were but a ceremonious Affair, and ſo few hearty in it, that he feared he and the Officers ſhould wait to little Purpoſe: And ſo indeed it fell out; for albeit he att [...]nded in Midſummer Week, according to their Direction, yet there was nothing diſpatch'd, ſave only the adjourning of their Meeting to London.

SOME little Progreſs was afterwards made in this Affair at White-hall the 8th of February following, where Three of them were preſent, viz. the Earls of B [...]rkſhire, Lindſey, and Northumberland, who order'd the Chancellor, Regiſter, and Garter, to prepare an Abbreviation of the Statutes, and reduce every thing of one Head into an Act, to keep up to Method, and avoid Confuſion.

THE 1ſt of February after, another Aſſembly of Seven of the Knights-Commiſſioners was held at White-hall, in whoſe Preſence a few Points were debated; but little or nothing concluded.

6.4. 4

§ 4. As concerning the Annals of the Order, or the Books wherein the ſeveral Reſolutions and Decrees occaſionally made in Chapters, and wherein other hiſtorical and ceremonial Matters relating to it are recorded, [...]t will not be amiſs to give ſome Account of them in this Place.

THE firſt, in Order of time, is an old Paper Book written in French, call'd Regiſtrum Chartaceum, hitherto fortunately preſerv'd in the Paper Office at White-hall, which probably was b [...]gun by John Coningham; for we find him, 1414. (a little before the Annals commenced) made Canon of Windſor, and Regiſter of the Order, and in regard the ſame Hand-Writing is carry'd on from the Beginning of the Book down to 16 Hen. VI. incluſive, where follows an Hi [...]tus till Anno 23 Hen. VI. that the Annals began to be ſet down with another [Page 152] Hand; and that he ſhortly after died in 1445. Henceforward theſe Annals are entred with promiſcuous Hands, which may be preſumed the proper Hand-Writings of the Regiſters of this Noble Order, as they ſucceeded each other in the Office.

AFTER we find Richard Sidnor mention'd in the Regiſter Anno 16 Hen. VIII. (who ſubſcribed his Name at the foot of every Leaf) the Annals were pen'd in one Hand until Anno 26 Hen. VIII. that Robert A [...]drydge, D. D. and one of the Canons of Windſor ſucceeded him; and then 'tis evident the Writing alſo was changed to an old ſet Roman Hand, which ran on to the End of 29 Hen. VIII. in which Year he was advanced to the Biſhoprick of Carliſle; and this Book breaks off in the 31ſt of his Reign.

BESIDES this there is another Book that goes by the Name of the Black Book, wherein the Annals of the Order are tranſcribed in Latin, concerning which there paſs'd a Decree, Anno 3 Hen. VII. that it ſhould be fairly copy'd out, and afterwards that the Sovereign ſhould be put in Remembrance of it; but neither of theſe Decrees was put in execution, nor was this confirm'd till towards the End of the Reign of King Henry VIII. This Book differs very little from the Regiſtrum Chartaceum, for therein is nothing enrolled relating to the Order (except one of the Exemplars of the Founders Statutes, and a Catalogue of the firſt Twenty-five Knights-Companions) before the 4th Year of King Henry V. the Annals of the Order, until that time, being entirely loſt. It hath the ſame Hiatus or Intervals from 16 to 23 Hen. VI. from 7 to 10 of Edw. 4. from 4 to 7 Hen. VII. and from 10 to 14 Hen. 7. It alſo runs parallel therewith for the moſt part, and that it was compil'd by Dr. Aldrydge, whilſt he continu'd Regiſter, is collected from ſome Paſſages in the Preface of all the Sovereigns, ending with King Henry VIII. The Tranſcription of this Book was finiſh'd Anno 13 Hen. VIII. for ſo far is written, as alſo the Appendix, with one and the ſame Hand; (in a middle-ſiz'd Text) but Anno [...]2 Hen. VIII. another Hand appears, which, with ſome Variation, is continu'd to the End of 5 Edw. VI. where this Book breaks off.

[Page 153] THE Regiſter of the Order was oblig'd to provide Two Books, and therein to enter the Ordinances, Statutes, and Acts of this Noble Corporation, one to be lodg'd at the Chapter Houſe at Windſor, and call'd, Index Windeſorienſis, and the other being a Duplicate of the former, to remain in his own Cuſtody, ready to expoſe to the View of the Sovereign, whenſoever he ſhould demand it; this latter was called Aulae Regiſtrum.

AS to the general Directions for Compiling theſe Books, and the Particulars they are to conſiſt of, we are inform'd from the ſaid Statutes and Conſtitutions; for beſides the Entry of all the Scrutinies taken in Chapter and Elections made thereupon, it is his Office to record the Penalties inflicted on Knights-Companions, and the Reconciliation of all Delinquents with other Acts, and their Cauſes appertaining to the Order, all which are decreed to be recited before the Sovereign and Knights-Companions at the Beginning of the Chapter yearly, if Occaſion be, to correct and reduce into Method. Moreover he is to record all the Policies in War, Exploits, Tranſactions, and memorable Atchievements, both of the Sovereign and Knights-Companions, according as he can beſt attain the Knowledge of them, by his own diligent Search, or the Aſſiſtance of Mr. Garter, which having conſign'd to Writing from Year to Year, is to be peruſed at the next Chapter by the Knights-Companions, for their Approbation and Correction; and being reiterated the ſecond time in the Chapter, he is to ſee that they be fairly engroſſed in the ſaid Book, for a perpetual Remembrance.

AND becauſe the time perfix'd for Rehearſal of theſe Particulars in Chapter, had in ſucceeding Years been imploy'd in other Affairs. In one of thoſe Articles which the Knights-Companions exhibited to King Jac. I. the 19th of May, Anno Jac. R. 20. and ratified the 22d of May following, it was decreed that nothing of this Nature, or any other Act in Chapter, ſhould be regiſtred before it had been perus'd and paſs'd the Conſideration of the then Knights-Companions, or at leaſt Four of them, who when they ſhould ſet Times apart to conſult of the Affairs of this Order (for which [Page 154] they were chiefly commiſſion'd) might then alſo make Uſe of ſuch Opportunities as ſhould give this Buſineſs Diſpatch with more Conveniency. Upon mature Conſideration had of thoſe Injunctions, the then Regiſter at a Chapter held 19 Nov. 22 Car. II. preſented the Continuation of the Annals of this Order, which he had ranged in order to regiſter in the Liber Carolinus, and ſubmitted them to the Approbation of the Knights-Companions, whom the Sovereign had commiſſion'd to inſpect the Affairs of the Order; which Tender, when they declin'd, he propos'd that it might paſs the Examination of the Prelate; but they not giving the ir Aſſent to it, in regard the Regiſter himſelf was under the Obligation of an Oath, to deal with the utmoſt Fidelity in his Reports, it was decreed, That the ſaid Annals ſhould be fairly recorded in the Book, without any further Inſpection.

BESIDES the abovemention'd Particulars, there were Materials of another Nature, decreed to be collected by the Chancellor of the Order and Garter King of Arms, to be digeſted firſt, and after entred by the Regiſter; for whereas one part of the Chancellor's Duty was to make a Narration every Year in Chapter, at the Feaſt of St. George, of the illuſtrious Exploits of the Knights-Companions, as well as the Actions that tend to eclipſe their Glory; ſo the Regiſter was to note theſe, and record them from a perpetual Aera or Memorial of their Honour or Diſgrace.

AND it is part of Garter's Duty diligently to enquire after the Valiant, Fortunate, and Renown'd Acts, both of the Sovereign and the reſt of the Knights-Companions, and relate them with all Exactneſs to the Regiſter, for his Engroſſing: But how ſparingly theſe are put in execution, the Annals themſelves bear witneſs. However, Sir Edward Walker Garter-King has drawn up an Account of the ſhining Actions and Characters of the Knights-Companions, beginning with Thomas Earl of Strafford, and continuing it down to his Son, which he deliver'd Dr. Ryves the Regiſter, for the Uſe aforedirected.

AMONG the Articles eſtabliſh'd at the Feaſt of St. George, 21 Jac. I. the laſt is, That the then Regiſter [Page 155] ſhould compoſe a Book, wherein ſhould be orderly tranſcribed the Form and Manner of all the Solemn [...]ties, Ceremonies, and Proceſſions, at the Celebration of the Order; as alſo of taking down and offering the defunct Knight's A [...]chievements, that the Knights-Companions might have free Recourſe to it; but ſuch Book never was extant.

For the Safety and Preſervation of the Annals, the Knights-Commiſſioners determined the 22d of May, An. Jac. I. 20. That a ſecure and convenient Place within the Caſtle of Windſor ſhould be appointed, in which all Acts concerning the Order ſhould be repoſed, and to which every Knight-Companion at all times might have acceſs. And upon the Remove or Deceaſe of the Regiſter of the Order, the Book, containing the Account of all ſuch Tranſactions, ſhould be committed to one of the Knights of the Order.

The ſecond of theſe Books is called the Blue Book, ſo call'd, being bound in Blue Velvet; it begins with the firſt Year of Queen Mary, and ends at the 18th of King Jac. I.

The third being bound in Red Velvet, is denominated the Red Book; it commences where the Blue Book leaves off, and treats of the like Acts and Entries, and is carry'd down to 14 Car. I. having firſt given a full Account of the Inſtallation of the Prince, afterwards King Charles II. And as to great part of this Work, it was perform'd by the elegant and judicious Dr. Matthew Wren, Biſhop of Ely, and Regiſter of the Order, whoſe excellent Pattern his Brother and Succeſſor Dr. Chriſtopher W [...]en hath copy'd in its following Tract. This Biſhop compiled a MS. A. D. 1631. wherein, by way of Comment upon King Henry VIII's Statutes, he hath com [...]endiouſly ſhewn what Alteration there hath paſſed in the Law of the Garter, a Work performed with great Judgment, and exce [...]dingly uſeful to the Curious.

The fourth and laſt Book is, Liber Carolinus, and commences 1640. wherein the Annals are brought down to the beginning of 1670. by Ryves, then Regiſter. And in a Chapter conven'd at Windſor the 16th of April, Anno 1 [...] Car. II. it was decreed, That there ſhould be Two of theſe Books compiled, the one printed in Latin, in the Cuſtos of the Regiſter at Windſor; and the other in [Page 156] Engliſh, to be reſerv'd at Whitehall, and call'd, Regiſtrum Aulicum.

7. CAP. VII. The Habit and Enſigns of the Order.


THE Habit and Enſigns of this moſt Noble Order are moſt eminently diſtinguiſhable and magnificent, and conſiſt of theſe Particulars, viz. Garter, Mantle, Surcoat, Hood, George, and Collar; for as the Romans were very exact and particular in aſſigning each Degree a peculiar Habit and Veſture, by which the Quality and Rank of their Citizens might be diſcernable, the Diſtinction of Apparel was afterwards taken up by divers other Nations, whence every Military, as well as Eccleſiaſtick Order of Knighthood, did appropriate to it ſelf a peculiar Dreſs, Enſign, or Badge, as a Mark of Diſtinction one from another, to ſet off the Luſtre and Honour of their ſeveral Societies.

The four firſt, viz. the Garter, Mantle, Surcoar, and Hood, were aſſigned the Knights Companions, by the Founder, and the George and Collar by King Henry VIII. and all theſe together are called the whole Habit or Enſigns of the Order, which we ſhall treat of ſuccinctly, beginning with the Garter.

The Royal Garter challengeth the Preheminence, for from it this famous Order receiv'd its Denomination: It is the firſt part of the Habit preſented to Foreign Princes [...]nd Abſent Knights, and that wherewith they, and all other elect Knights, are firſt adorn'd; and of ſo great Honour and Grandeur, that by the bare Inveſtiture with this Noble Enſign, the Knights are eſteem'd Companions of the greateſt Military Order in the World.

The Materials whereof it was compos'd at firſt, is an A [...]canum; nor is it deſcribed by any before Polydore Vi [...]gil, and he but in general: As to the ornamental Part of it, it was adorn'd with Gold and precious Stones, and had a Buckle of Gold at the End, to faſten it about

The Garter

The Sovereigns Mantle.



The Collar and Great George

Ribbond & George

A Knight Companions Mantle.

Cap and Feather.

Figure 1. To the Illustrious Potent & most Noble Henry Duke Marqſs & Earl of Kent etc. Conſtable & Govr. of His Maies• Royal Castle, & Honr of Windsor Lord L• of the County of Bed.d & Custos Rotulorū for the ſame: 〈…〉 Bedchamber & of ye most 〈…〉 Priuy Council to his Majes• and Kt. of ye most Noble Order of ye Garr. this Plate is humbly Inscribed.

[Page 157] the Leg; but there's no doubt but it was wrought with rich Embroidery, and the Motto rais'd with Gold, Pearl, and ſundry Sorts of Silk, as may be gueſs'd from the Garters anciently plac'd on the left ſide of the Knights-Companions Mantles, and thoſe other little embroider'd Garters, wherewith their Surcoats and Hoods were heretofore embelliſh'd.

BUT of thoſe wrought in the laſt Age, we have more particular Satisfaction; for we find the Garter ſent to Emanuel Duke of Savoy, Anno 1 and 2 Philip and Mary, was ſet with Letters of Goldſmith's Work, the Buckle and Pendant of the ſame, and on the Pendant a Ruby, and a Pearl hanging at the End. The Garter made for Francis II. Anno 6 Elizabeth, was richly wrought with Letters of Gold, ſet off and garniſh'd with Stones, the Buckle and Pendant weighing Three Ounces and an half-quarter, was richly ſet with Rubies and Diamonds. The French King Henry IV. had a Garter of Purple Velvet embroider'd with Letters of Gold, and deck'd out with Diamonds and Rubies. And the Garter of Chriſtian IV. King of Denmark, was embroider'd with Gold and Pearls: But that Garter ſent to Guſtavus Adolphus King of Sweden, outvied all others conferr'd by former Sovereigns, each Letter of the Motto being compos'd of ſmall Diamonds; and for every Stop, a Diamond within a Range of Diamonds, above and below, on the ſides of the Garter, and beſides other Diamonds on the Buckle, and about the ſame, to the Number in all of 411.

THE Garter which King Charles I. wore upon his Leg at the Time of his Martyrdom, had the Letters of the Motto compos'd likewiſe of Diamonds, which amounted to the Number of 412. It came to the Hands of Captain Preſton (one of the Uſurper's Captains) from whom the Truſtees, for Sale of the King's Goods, receiv'd it, and ſold it to Ireton, ſometimes Lord Mayor of London, for 205 l. But after the Reſtoration, the King's Attorney-General proceeding upon an Action of Trover and Converſion, Verdict was given for the King againſt him for 205 l. and 10 l. coſts of Suits, in Trinity Term, 16 Car. II.

[Page 158] THE Motto of King Charles II. was ſet with Diamonds upon Blue Velvet, and the Borders wrought with fine Gold Wire; the Diamonds which framed the Letters of the Motto, were Roſe Diamonds, much of a Size or Proportion; but thoſe which framed the Stops, Table-Diamonds; the Total which ſet each Letter, compos'd the Stops, Ilot Holes, and adorn'd the Buckle; the Table was Two Hundred and Fifty; the Hinge of the Buckle was pure Gold, and on it the Sovereign's Picture to the Breaſt, curiouſly cut in Flatſtitch, crown'd with a Laurel and the military Garb of the firſt Roman Emperors; the Table or Pendant was Gold, and on the back-ſide thereof engrav'd St. George on Horſe-back encountring the Dragon.

THIS noble Enſign, the Garter, was at the Erection of the Order appointed to be wore on the left Leg, a little beneath the Knee, which Uſage ſtill preſides: And the placing it thus, on the Sepulchral Portraictures of Knights-Companions, was an early Cuſtom; for on the Alabaſter Monument of Sir William Fitz-warin, who was interr'd in the North-ſide of the Chancel at Wantage in Com. Berks, 35 Edw. III. he lies there with his Surcoat of Arms upon his Breaſt, and the Repreſentation of a Garter (but without Motto) carv'd upon his left Leg. In the ſame Poſture lies Sir Richard Pembridge, elected a Knight-Companion, temp. Edw. III. and is portraicted on his Monument in the South-ſide of the Cathedral of Hereford, below the Pulpit, and encompaſs'd with a Rail of Iron-Spikes.

THE next Monument whereon the Garter was depicted, was that erected for Sir Simon Burley, (beheaded A. D. 1388.) and rear'd in the North-Wall near the Choir of St. Paul's, London. Thence-forward the Practice became more frequent, and then the Motto began to be cut thereon; inſomuch that it is now the conſtant and juſt Practice to do it, whenſoever the Knights-Companions are exhibited in Effigies.

AND altho' this Enſign was firſt deſign'd in Ornament to the left Leg, yet it was not confin'd ſo ſolely thereto, but was anciently us'd to incircle the Eſcutcheon of St. George's Arms, worn by the Sovereign and Knights-Companions on their Mantles, who within a [Page 159] ſmall ſpace after us'd it to ſurround their own proper Coat of Arms, which their Succeſſors have retain'd as their peculiar Privilege, permitting it to none but to their principal Officer, the Prelate of the Order.

THE firſt Example that occurs, is the before-mention'd of Sir Francis Burley, where, on the Front, towards the Head, is his own Arms empaling his firſt Wife's, ſet within a Garter, (wanting the Impreſs;) but another having the ſame Empalement, (plac'd below the Feet) is ſurrounded with a Collar of SS. of the ſame Form with that about his Neck.

THE Monument alſo of Joan, Wife of Ralph Nevil, Earl of Weſtmoreland, on the South-ſide of the Choir, in the Cathedral of Lincoln, bears the Arms of Nevil, empaling thoſe of Joan, his Wife, (who dy'd A. D. 1410.) Incircled within a Garter, and fix'd on this Lady's Monument, Daughter to John of Gount, Duke of Lancaſter, is there ſuch a Collar of SS. placed about a Square; but the Paint being faded, was render'd unintelligible.

ANOTHER antique Inſtance is that Eſcutcheon, Sable, Three Oſtrich Feathers Argent, ſurrounded with the Garter, affix'd in the Glaſs-Windows of Greenwich-Church in Kent, by Humfrey, Duke of Gloceſter, and ſupported with a Greyhound and an Antelope. It is reported, theſe Three Feathers were the Enſign of King Henry IV. which were conferr'd by John of Gaunt, his Father, who bore them for his Device, and placed in a Field Sable, as here, but the Pens were powder'd with Ermin, for a difference from the Black Prince's Feather, which were Argent, as the King's Pen was Or, and the Duke of Somerſet's Compony Argent and Azure.

THE Arms of Sir L [...]wis Robeſſart, Lord Bourchier, Knight-Companion, t [...]mp. [...]en. V. we find encompaſs'd with a Garter on each ſide his Monument, in Weſtminſier-Abbey.

AT the Interment of Richard Duke of York, Father to King Edw. IV. at every Corner of the Majeſty-Eſcutcheon (ſet over the Image of the D [...]ſunct) was an Eſ [...]utcheon of the Arms of France and [...]gland quart [...]rly, and [...]our A [...]gels Gold, holding the ſame within a Garter. And ſo ſome of the Funeral Eſ [...]utch [...]ons of John Viſcount [Page 160] Wells, (who dy'd 14 Hen. VII.) were ſurrounded with the Garter, as others bearing his Lady's Arms.

AT the Interment of Thomas Duke of Norfolk, in Thetford-Abbey, (who dy'd 16 Hen. VIII.) there was provided a Shield of his Arms within a Garter, and a Coronet affix'd over it; a Target alſo of the Arms of George, Earl of Shrewsbury, within a Garter, was born at his Funural, Anno 33 Hen. VIII.

IT was the Cuſtom, (begun about the Reign of Hen. VII.) when the Obſequies of any Foreign Prince were celebrated in England, to paint an Eſcutcheon of ſuch Prince's Arms within the Collar of the Order, whereof he was Sovereign or a Fellow-Companion; as thoſe of the French King, Charles VIII. celebrated at St. Paul's, London, had Eſcutcheons of the Arms of France, within the Collar of the Order of St. Michael, at each End of the Hearſe; and when the Obſequies of John King of Portugal were ſolemniz'd at St. Paul's, there was, among others, one large Eſcutcheon of his Arms within the Collar of the Golden Fleece. The Funeral Rites of the Emperor Charles V. being perform'd in Weſtminſter-Abbey, 22 and 23 Dec. 1558. there were Ten great Eſcutcheons compaſs'd with Garters, to ſhew he was a Fellow of this Order: And upon the ſame Account, where Princes were Sovereigns of one, and Companions of another Order, their Hearſes were hung with Eſcutcheons of their Arms, ſurrounded with the Collars or principal Badges of both thoſe Orders; as at the Interment of Francis I. the French King, celebrated at St. Paul's, London, 1 Edw. VI. the Eſcutcheons were the Arms of France, encompaſs'd within the Garter of St. George, and Collar of St. Michael. At the Obſequies of Hen. II. of France, Anno 1 Eliz. at St. Paul's alſo, there were ſome Eſcutcheons of his Arms, incircled both with the Garter and Collar of the Golden Fleece, having been a Knight-Companion of both theſe Orders: Under the Joyſts was a Majeſty Eſcutcheon of Black Taffaty of this King's Arms, within a Garter crown'd with an Imperial Crown, and in ſeveral Places of the Hearſe were faſten'd other Eſcutcheons of his Arms within this principal Enſign of the Garter.

[Page 157] KING Hen. VIII. was the firſt that introduc'd into his Great S [...]al the Eſchutcheon of his Arms incircled within a Garter, as may be ſeen placed on either ſide his Portraicture ſi [...]ting on his Royal Throne; ſince him, all ſucceeding Sovereigns have born their Arms after that Manner. not only in their great and Privy-Seals, but in thoſe other appertaining to their Courts of Juſtice, and generally in all Matters where their Arms were viſible (except Coins); in Imitation of whom, the Knight-Companions have don [...] the like.

BUT there were An. 21 Car. 1. certain Half Crowns ſtamp'd in the Weſt of En [...]and, containing the Sovereigns Arms, ſo encompaſſed, regally crowned and ſupported; and this was the firſt Money whereon the Royal Garter appeared. After him King Charles II. having an Eye to the Advancement of the Honour of this Order, cauſed the irradicated Croſs of St. George encompaſs'd about with the Royal Garter to be publickly ſtamp'd in the Center of his Silver Coin, ſtruck upon the Recoinage of it, A [...]no 14. Car. 2.

THERE were other Medals heretofore ſtamp'd upon ſeveral Occaſions, wherein the G [...]rter was deſignedly expreſs'd, and encloſing Shields of their Arms; as that in the Year 1619. Frederick Prince Palatine of the Rhine, was crowned King of [...]o [...]em [...]a, and Robert Cecil Earl of Salisbury created Lord Treaſurer, both Knights Companions of this Noble Order: Moreover, Gold Rings have been caſt into the Figures of Garters; the Ground on the outſide enamell'd with a deep Blue, through which the golden Letters of the Motto appearing, ſet them off with an admirable Beauty. And it ſeems ſuch Rings were in vogue ſince the Preface to the black Book of the Order makes mention of wearing the Garter on the Leg and Shoulder, and ſometimes likewiſe ſubo ins the Thumb, interdum Pollice geſtare; by which we may naturally conjecture, that Gold Rings were formed into the Faſhion of Garters, and beſtowed by ſome new inſtalled Knights upon their Relations and Friends to wear in Memorial of ſo great an Honour conferred upon them.

AMONG the Officers belonging to the Order the Prelate is permitted to bear h [...]s proper Arms (impaled with [Page 158] thoſe of his See) within the Garter, and the reſt only to wear the Badges of their Offices, ſurrounded with the ſame to expreſs their peculiar Relation.

BESIDES the Manner of bearing Arms, within the Garter of this Order, the Garter either in whole or part, hath been by Way of Armory, but without the Motto; as in the Seal belonging to the Office of Garter King of Arms, where the Garter (encloſing a Crown) is placed on a Chief, between a Lyon of England and a Flower de Lys of France. And to inſtance in Family, we find Argent Three Demy-Garters Azure, buckled and garniſhed, Or, granted by King Hen. VII. to his Servant Peter Nerborne, and ſable a Garter, Or, between Three Buckles of the Second, to be born by Buckland or Bowland in Com. Northampton.

7.2. 2

§. 2. THE ſecond Enſign of the Order is the Mantle, which is the Chief of thoſe Veſtments which the Sovereign and Knights-Companions make uſe of upon all ſolemn Occaſions relating to the Order. That this Pattern was derived to us from the ancient Greeks and Romans, is not at all to be diſputed, ſince it ſo little varies in Faſhion from their Pallium or Toga; for the Grecian Pallium was a ſort of long Cloak, which only wanted a Collar or Cape, and the Roman Toga as proper to them, as the Pallium to the Grecians, and the Cuſtom as Antique as Romulus himſelf; for he is recited by Plutarch to have worn it. The Pallium is more fully deſcribed to be a kind of upper Robe that covered the whole Body, made faſt on the right Shoulder with a Fibula or Claſp. It was uſually worn over the Tunica or ſhort Coat, whence the Proverb Tunica Pallio propior, and is more particularly obſerved to have been a Garment faſhioned without Sleeves, that reached down to the Ancles.

IN deſcribing this upper Robe, called the Mantle, (the Sovereigns being diſtinguiſhed from the Knights-Companions, only by a long Train) we ſhall firſt ſet down its various Appellations it is mentioned by in the Records of the Order; Secondly, the Materials whereof it conſiſts; Thirdly, the Colour; Fourthly, the Quantity; and laſt of all the Ornamental Trimmings, that nothing be omitted to ſatisfy any curious Enquirer.

7.2.1. NAME.

[Page 159]

IN the Founder's Statutes it is called Mantellum, and in Hen. V. Manteau, both which we render Mantle. But the Exemplar of the Founder's Statutes entred in the black Book, and the Statutes of King Henry VIII. call it Trabea, which Roſinus reckons among the different Kinds of Mantles or Gow [...]s. And in 20 Art. of King Hen. VIIIth's Statutes, it is applied both to the Mantle and Surcoat; ſometime it is ſtiled Chlamyda; ſometime Stola; but in other Places more pertinently, Pallium and Toga.


THAT Mantle prepared for the Founder againſt the firſt Feaſt of this Order, appears to be fine Woollen Cloth, and it is not improbable this Material was choſen, rather than any other richer, to the Intent the Founder might give the Preference to our native Commodity, altho' there's permitted in the Statutes of Inſtitution a permiſſion for the Proxies of Foreign Princes to bring over with them Mantle [...] of Silk and Velvet when they came to receive poſſeſſion of their Principal Stalls, either becauſe other Countries were better ſtored with ſuch Commodities than our Engliſh Cloth, or that it might be more agreeable to repreſent the State and Grandeur of Foreign Princes [...] as accounting Silk or Velvet the nobler Repreſentation.

WHAT Duration the wearing Cloth had, is not directly ſet down, but the firſt time we diſcover their Man [...]les to be of Velvet, is about the beginning of the Reign of King H [...]n. VI. which Sort of Silk hath thence remained until this Day. About this Period, 'tis obſerved, that the Mantles of Foreign Princes were made here of Velvet, for ſo was that tr [...]nſmitted to the King of Portugal, elected Anno 1346. Concerning the Mantles of the Knights-Companions, there is no doubt but they were of the ſame Materials with thoſe made for the Sovereign, viz. at firſt of fine Woollen Cloth, and when the Sovereign exchanged it for Velvet, they followed his Example; but we cannot meet with equal Satisfaction in this Point, becauſe the Knights-Companions provided this Robe at their own Expence; and [Page 160] their private Accounts herein paſſing thro' ſo many Contingences, were of no great Durability. But their Surcoats were of the Sovereigns Donation, and conſequently the Particulars of them remain on Record in the Rolls and Accounts of the great Wardrobe.

THE Colour of theſe Mantles is appointed by the Statutes to be Blue, and of this Colour was the Founders; by which, as by the Ground-work of the Royal Garter, it is not improbable he alluded to the Colour of the Field in the French Arms, which a few Years before he began to Quarter with thoſe of England. But the Colour of the Surcoat was changed every Year, as will appear by and by. Of the ſame Colour were the Velvet Mantles, made temp. Hen. VI. who tho' he altered the Stuff, did not vary the Dye. It is apparent, that the blue Colour was retained to King Edw. IVth's Reign, for when this Sovereign tranſmitted the Habit and Enſigns of the Order to Julian de Medicis, the Mantle was of blue Velvet.

BUT in King Hen. VIIIth's Statutes there's no mention at all of the Colour of this upper Robe, ſave only of the Mantle, which the Proxy of a Foreign Prince was enjoined to bring with him when he came to aſſume the Stall of his Principal; which, tho' it does not come directly up to the Poin [...], yet it is to be obſerved to be of blue Velvet. And it's highly probab [...]e that the blue Colour remained ſtill to be uſed; for within a few Months after the compiling the ſaid Statut [...]s, it's plain, the Mantle ſent to James King of Scotland, was of blue Velvet, and in the ancient Form of Admoniti [...]n and Signification appointed to be ſpoke at the Inveſtiture of Foreign Princes, and then in Plea it is called the Mantle of celeſt [...]al [...]ol [...]ur. Likewiſe the Mantle ſent to [...] Duke of Savoy, 1 and 2 Ph. and Mar. was of the ſame Compoſur [...].

IN Queen Elizabeth's Reign, upon what Ground Hiſtory is ſilent, the Colour of Foreign Prince's Mantles was changed from Blue to Purple, for of that Colour were the Mantles ſent to the French Kings, Charles IX. Anno. 6 Eliz. and Hen. III. Ann. 27 Eliz. So alſo to the Emperor Maximilian 9 Elizabeth, to Fredrick II. King of Denmark, An. 24 Eliz. to Joh. Caſimire Count Palatine of the Rhine, Anno 21 Eliz. to Chriſtiern IV. [Page 161] King of Denmark, An. J. R. IV. But that ſent to Fred [...]ruk Duke of Wirtemberg in the ſame Year, was a mix'd Co our of Purple and Violet.

THUS the Purple Colour came in Requeſt, and continued till about the 12 of King Charles I. when he determining to reſtore the Colour of the Mantle to the primitive In [...]titution, gave Directions to Mr. Peter Richaut, Merchant, to provide himſelf with a Quantity of rich blue Velvets from Genoa; and upon their arrival into England, ſignify'd his Pleaſure by Sir Thomas Rowe the Chancellor, That all Knights-Companions ſhould purchaſe as much of the ſaid Velvet as would furniſh them with new Robes againſt St. George's-Day next enſuing; compliance to whoſe Will, all the Knights paid Obedience, at the Rate of Thirty ſeven Shillings a Yard, being the Price the Sovereign paid to Mr. Richaut for the Velvet of his own Robes. And the firſt Eſſay of theſe Mantles was to honour the Inſtallation of the Prince, afterwards King Charles II.

AND becauſe there were many Knights-elect to be inſtalled after the Reſtoration, it was ordained at the Chapter held at Whitehall the [...]14th of Jan. Anno 12. C [...]r. 2. (called to conſider of the Preparations of the grand Feaſt then at hand), That Directions ſhould be given to the Maſter of the Wardrobe to negotiate Abroad for excellent Velvets of Skie Colour, and Crimſon, and other Materials agreeable for the Mantles and Surcoats, both of the old Knights-Companions, and thoſe that were then to be inſtalled; which was accordingly effected, and they were tranſmitted in time to accommod [...]te them at the ſaid Feaſt.

THO' the juſt Number of Ells of Cloth for the Sovereigns Mantle at the firſt Inſtitution are not [...]et down, yet in the Total for his Mantle, Hood, and Surcoat, there was allowed ten Ells of long Cloth. The Mantle of King Henry VI. took up one Piece, five Ells and three Quarters of blue Velvet; and thoſe ſent to Freder [...]ck II. and Chriſtian IV. Kings of Denmark; and to the French King, Henry III. contained each twenty Yards of Velvet.

THIS we find to be the Allowance for Foreign Princes, and a [...]e the more full and extenſive, by reaſon of their [Page 162] long Train, which being more ſcanty in the Mantles of Knights-Subjects, eig [...]teen Yards was ſufficient to make one of them. The full Length of King Charles II. from the Collar behind to the end of the Train, was three Yards the Length of the foreſide, one Yard and three Quarters from the Foot along the bottom to the fixing on of the Train, was two Yards, and from thence the Length or Compaſs of the Train, two Yards.

THE left Shoulder of each of theſe Mantles have from the Inſtitution been adorned with a large fair Garter, containing this Motto, Honi ſoit qui mal y penſe. Theſe were diſtinguiſhed from the leſſer Garters, anciently embroider'd upon the Surcoats and Hoods of the Sovereigns and Knights-Companions, by the Name of Garters Groſs.

WITHIN this Garter was the Arms of St. George, viz. Argent a Croſs Gules, and was heretofore wrought in Sattin, with Gold, Silver and Silk; but in deſcending Times greater Expence and Magnificence became the Practice of the Order, for it was embordered upon Velvet with Damask, Gold, and ſundry Sorts of Purls, Plates, Venice Twiſts and Silks, and the Letters of the Motto and Borders of the Garter compoſed of fair Oriental Pearl. The Garter fix'd upon the Mantle of King Charles II. was encircled with large Oriental Pearl, ſo were the Letters of the Motto and the Croſs within the Garter, the Diameter of which was ſeven Inches, but the Depth from the upper Part to the end of the Pendant, ten Inches.

Temp. Hen. VI. it ſeems to have been the Mode to embelliſh the Mantle with three or four Velts drawn down the ſides, and round the bottom, as it appears by the Monument of John Tal [...]o [...] Earl of Shrewsbury in the South-wall of the Chancel of Whitechurch in Com. Salop.

ABOUT that Time the Lining of this Robe was white Damask, and afterwards white Sattin; but of later Date it was lined with white Taffaty, which continues yet in vogue.

FOR exemplary Ornament, the Mantle had fixed to its Collar a pair of long Strings, anciently woven of blue Silk only (called Cordons, Robe-ſtrings or Laces); but [Page 163] of later Days, twiſted round and made of Venice Gold and Silk of the Colour of the Robe, at each end of which hung a great Knob or Button, wrought over and raiſed with a rich Caul of Gold, and Taſſels thereunto of like Silk and Gold.

AND at the Collar was uſually fixed an Hook and Eye of Gold for its firmer affixing of it to the Shoulders.

7.3. 3

§. 3. The Third Enſign of the Order is the Surcoat or Kirtle, which altho' we find no Place for it in the Founder's Statutes, is nevertheleſs as ancient as the Mantle or upper Robe, that is only taken Notice of there, for ſuch a Veſture King Edward III. then made, together with his Mantle and a Hood to celebrate the firſt Feaſt of the Order in.

ITS Original it owes to the Greeks and Romans; amongſt whom this Garment had its determinated Tunica, and was worn next under the Toga, but amongſt them was both narrower and ſhorter; it was girt cloſe to the Body with a Girdle, and ſo fitted, that the Hem of it reached a little below the Knee, or to the middle of the Ham. It was the proper Mode of the Roman Citizens, and by its trimming were the three Degrees among them known; for the Senators Tunicks were embroidered or purfled over with broad purple Studs, the Knights with narrow ones, and the Plebeians plain.

IN ſetting forth the Surcoat, which was heretofore annually beſtowed by the Sovereign or the Knights-Companions, and therefore called his Livery, we ſhall, as in the Deſcription of the Mantle, treat ſomewhat of the Name, Materials, Colour, Quantity and Garniſhing of it.

AS to the Name in the old Rolls of the great Wardrobe, it is ſtiled Roba, but more properly as the Founder's firſt Surcoat is called Tunica, which Name it bears in the red Book of the Order. In Engliſh it is rendred Gown, Kirtle, Surcoat, Undercoat and Robe. The Appellation of Gown is attributed to Surcoats of the Sovereigns and Foreign Princes, Temp. Hen. VI. Edw. IV. and Hen. VII. But ſince, and very lately, it hath been beſtowed alſo on the Surcoats of Knights-Companions; and that of Kirtle ſometimes given to thoſe ſent to Foreign [Page 164] Princes, as appears by the Books of Warrants in the great Wardrobe, but the reſt are Terms of a later Date: As the firſt Mantles, ſo the firſt Surcoats were compoſed of Woollen Cloth, and tho' the Cloth of the Mantles was in ſome ſpace after changed for Velvet, yet the Surcoats continued afterwards to be of Cloth, at leaſt till after the Office of Chancellor of the Garter was erected by King Edward IV. as is manifeſt by the Precedent of this Livery in the Sovereigns great Wardrobe; but in proceſs of Time they became Velvet, which ſort of Silk is yet retained.

THE Colour of this Veſture was anciently changed every Year, commonly into Blue, Scarlet, Sanguine in Grain, or White. But the Colour of the Mantles remained the ſame as at the Inſtitution, until Queen [...]lizabeth's Reign, and then it commenced Blue: And 'tis remarkable, that the Surcoats of the Knights-Companions, were always of the ſame Colour with the Sovereigns.

THE Founder's firſt Surcoat was of the ſame Cloth and Colour with the Mantle, viz. Blue, but in the 34th Year of his Reign he altered it to Black, and of the ſame Colour were thoſe he conferred that Year upon th [...]ſe following Knights-Companions, viz. the B [...]ack Prince, the Earls of Ulſter, Richmond and Sali [...]bury, Edmund of [...]angly, Sir Richard la Vacle, Sir [...]ugh Wrot [...]ſly, Sir Reginald Cobham, Sir Bartholomew Burgheſt, the Lord Mohun, Sir Wal [...]er Manney, Sir N [...]le Loring, Sir Walter Pavel [...]y, Sir William Fitz Warin, Sir Miles Stapleton, the Earls of Stafford, Warwick and Suffolk, and Sir Thomas Ughtred: The Motive that induced him to pitch upon this [...]able Colour, was conceived to be a kind of Humiliation, becauſe the Peſtilence began again to ſpread its Malevolence, which had furiouſly raged Eleven Years before. The Surcoats which the Sovereign gave the Dukes of Lancaſier and [...] and Fourteen other Knights, Anno 37. Edward III. were of Cloth, Sanguine in Grain. Thoſe Twenty four provided for the Feaſt of St. George, Anno 7 Ru [...]ard II. were Violet in Grain, whereof one was for the Sovereign, the other Twenty three for the Knights-Companions, following John King [...]f Caſtile, and Leonard Duke of Lancaſ [...]er, the Earls of [Page 165] Cambridge, Buckingham, Derby, Kent, Warwick, Stafford, Salisbury, Northumberland and Nottingham, the Lords Nevil, Baſſet, and John Holland, Sir Guy Bryan, Sir William Beauchamp, Sir Thomas Percy, Sir Nele Loring, Sir John Sulby, Sir Lodowick Clifford, Sir Simon Burl [...]y, Sir Richard Burley, Sir Bryan Stapleton and Sir Soldan de la Trane.

Anno 11 Richard II. there were ordered againſt St. George's Feaſt Twenty three Surcoats of white Cloth for the Sovereign, and Twenty two Knights-Companions; and the 12 and 19 Year of the ſame King, the Sovereign beſtowed on the ſame Perſons Surcoats of long blue Cloth, after the Original Model. The Twenty two Surcoats made up for the Feaſt of St. G [...]orge, Anno 1 Henry V. were of white Cloth; AnnoHenry VI. the Sovereigns Gown or Surcoat was of Scarlet, as was that ſent to the King of Portugal in the 13th Year of the ſame King. AnnoHenry VI. the Sovereign had white Cloth; and ſo were the Surcoats given to Twenty Knights-Companions more in the—Year of his Reign. Afterwards the beforementioned Four Colours began to be diſuſed, for the Surcoat preſented to Julian de Medicis, temp. Edward IV. was purple Velvet, and towards the latter end of the Reign of King Henry VIII. and ſince, it is upon Record, the Surcoats of the Sovereign and all the Knights-Companions were Crimſon Velvet, nor did the Colour ſuffer a Mutation in the Surcoat, tho' King Charles I. reſtored the Mantle to its firſt primitive Colour, Anno 12 Regni ſui.

THERE has been ſome diſproportion in the Quantity of the Cloth allowed in the Proviſion againſt one and the ſame Feaſt, for Anno 34 Edward III. the Earls of Stafford, Warwick and Suffolk, as alſo Sir Thomas Ughtred had then for each of their Surcoats fix Ells of Cloth (perhaps the tallneſs of their Stature required it) when the other Fifteen Knights were allowed but five Ells, being the ſame Quantity the Sovereign's Surcoat had contained in it at the ſame time.

THE Dukes of Holland and Clarence, Anno 1 Henry V. with the Earls of Arundel, were allowed Eight Ells apiece, the Dukes of Bedford, Glouceſter and York, the Earls of Weſtmorland and Warwick, the Lords Grey, [Page 166] Fitz Hugh and Roos, ſix Ells apiece; the Earls of Dorſet [...] with ſix Barons and five Knights Batchelors, but five Ells apiece. Afterwards, when the Number of Ells of Cloth, Garters and Furrs came to be aſcertained for each Degree, all the Knights-Companions (even the Pri [...]ce of Wales) were not to exceed five Ells: But ſince Velvet came in Plea, the Allowance for Surcoat and Hood hath been eighteen Yards, when the Surcoat reached down to the Feet; but now it being the Faſhion to wear if ſhorter, the Allowance is ſtinted to Ten. The Length of King Charles II's Surcoat was one Yard and an half, and of the Sleeve one Yard wanting a Nail.

THE Ornamental Trimmings of theſe Garments are next worthy of Note, eſpecially at the Time of Inſtituting this Order, for they were then, and a long time after, powdered all over with little Garters, embroidered with Silk and Gold-Plate, in each of which was neatly wrought the Motto, Honi ſoit, &c. Beſides, the Buckles and Pendants to thoſe ſmall Garters, were Silver gilt; of theſe Garters there were no leſs than 160 upon the firſt Surcoat and Hood made for the Founder.

IN King Richard II's Reign, the little Garters that adorned the Surcoats of the Sovereign, and the other Knights were wrought in Embroidery upon blue Taffaty with Cyprus, and Soldat Gold and Silk of divers Colours, and the Letters Gold. And as the Sovereign was not limited in the Proportion of Cloth or Velvet for his Surcoat, no more was he confined to the Number of Garters, wherewith to adorn it; nor do I find that any of the Knights-Companions were, until the Precedent of the Livery of the Garter was ſettled, for Anno 1 Henry V. the Dukes of Holland and Claren [...], the Earl of Arundel, the Dukes of Bedford and Glouceſter had each of their Surcoats adorned with 120 Garters, but the Duke of York and the reſt wore but 100. The Settlement in the Precedent of the Livery was, in relation to Degrees of Honour, a greater or leſs Number of Garters: Thus,

[Page 167]
A Duke----- 120 Garters.
A Marquis---- 110
An Earl----- 100
A Viſcount---- 90
A Baron----- 80
A Baronet---- 70
A Knight-Batchelor- 60

ABOUT the Reign of King Henry VI. the Sovereigns Number of Garters did not much exceed thoſe which the Founder allow'd to himſelf at the Inſtitution; for the Surcoat and Hood of the ſaid King conſiſted of 173; and the King of Portugal, Anno 13 Henry VI. 120 Garters. But this Drapery of their Robes became at length quite obſolete, perhaps when Cloth was altered to Velvet, and the plain Surcoat hath to this Day continued in Uſe.

WHILE theſe Surcoats remained of Cloth, they were lined with Bellies of pure Minever Fur, only the Sovereigns was purfled with Ermin; and of theſe, it ſeems, a like Proportion was at firſt ſtated to all the Knights-Companions, viz. 200 Bellies. Yet in the Reign of King Richard II. ſome Difference began in the Allowance to the Knights-Companions, for a Baron, and all Degrees upward had 200 Bellies; but under a Baron 120 only. However, Anno 1. Henry V. the Barons were tantamount to the Knights-Batchelors, for all Degrees above a Baron were allow'd, a Fur of 200 Bellies. But the Barons and Knights-Batchelors Furs were only 120 Bellies.

AFTERWARDS, by the Precedent of the Garter, there was another Proportion limited, the Prince, a Duke, a Marquis, an Earl, had each of them Five Timber of pure Minever allowed to a Surcoat; but the Viſcount, Baron, Baronet and Batchelor-Knights but Three Timber apiece. In time theſe Furs were diſuſed, and the Surcoats came to be lined with white Sarcenet, to which, temp. Eliz. white Taffaty ſucc [...]eded, and that ſtill continues.

WHAT became of the old Surcoats, ſince the Knights-Companions had new ones every Year, the Black Book of the Order informs us, That on the Eve of the Feaſt [Page 168] of St. George, the Knights wore to Veſpers, the Sovereigns Livery or Surcoats, uſed by them the preceding Year, which after that Night they threw off, (for the new Surcoats were worn on the Feaſt-Day); but the Enſigns and Ornaments of this Kind were diſpoſed of to the Uſe of the Colledge.

THE Hood and Cap comes in the next Place to be ſpoken of, which Hood in King, Henry VIII's Statutes, and the Black Book of the Order is called Humerale; but in the Rolls of the Great Wardrobe, Capucium. In the French it is Chaperon, a Word uſed in the Statute, Anno 1. Richard II. C. 7. and alſo retained in the Old Engliſh Copy of Henry VIII's Statutes made of his Reign, and annexed to this Treatiſe. They were anciently wore for Defence of the Head againſt the Inclemencies of Weather, but of later Times Caps and Hats have ſupplied their place. How they ſat upon the Head, may be obſerved in the Portraitures of the firſt Founders; as alſo with ſome Variety of Faſhion in ſucceeding Ages: Yet is not the Hood quite thrown by, ſince 'tis ſtill kept reclining upon the Back, almoſt like a Pilgrim's Hat.

THIS Hood was ordained, and is yet retained as part of the Habit of this moſt Noble Order. And tho' neither it nor the Surcoat is mentioned in the Statutes of Inſtitution, or in either its Exemplars, nor doth King Henry V. lay any Streſs upon it, yet it is of equal Antiquity with the reſt, as appears from the Rolls of the great Wardrobe, and Henry VIII's Statutes have made remarkable Obſervation of it, for the Mantle, Surcoat, Hood, and Collar are called the Habit of the Order: And in the Black Book, Anno 22. Henry VII. at the Inveſtiture of Philip King of Caſtile, the Mantle, Kirtle, Hood and Collar are expreſly called Whole Habit.

IT was heretofore, and now is generally made of the ſame Materials as the Surcoat, and was anciently trimmed and ſet off with a ſmall Proportion of Garters lined with Cloth of a different Colour, and ſuch as would beſt ſtrike the Sight; but now with Taffaty, as is the Lining of the Surcoat.

AS to the Cap, which was inſtituted to ſucceed the Hood; it hath been, and yet is, faſhioned of black [Page 169] Velvet lin'd with Taffaty; but the Figure hath ſeveral Times varied; for Temp. Henry VIII. it was flat, in Queen Elizabeth's Reign it was a little raiſed in the Head; but in King James's Time they were much more high-crown'd. This Cap hath been uſually adorn'd with Plumes of White Feathers, and Spriggs, and bound about with a Band ſet thick with Diamonds; ſo was the Cap for the Inſtallation of King Charles II. and ſometimes the Brims have been tack'd up with a large and coſtly Jewel.

THIS Cuſtom of wearing Caps and Feathers at the Grand Solemnities of the Order, had, for ſome Time, about the Beginning of King James I. Reign, been omitted, and thereupon, in a Chapter held the 13th of April, Anno 10. Jac. I. this commendable Cuſtom was re-eſtabliſh'd.

To theſe may be added the Croſs of the Order encompaſs'd with a Garter, which by the Sovereign was ordain'd the 27th of April, 2 Car. I. to be worn upon the Left Side of the Cloaks, Coats, and riding Caſſocks of the Sovereigns and Knights-Companions, of the Prelate and Chancellor at all Times, when they were not adorn'd with their Robes, and in all Places and Aſſemblies (but not embelliſh'd with Pearls and Stones) that the wearing thereof might be a ſufficient Indication to the World, of that Height of Honour they arriv'd to from the ſaid moſt Noble Order, inſtituted for Perſons of the greateſt Merit and Worth.

AND it was not long after e'er the Glory or Star, as it was uſually call'd, having certain Beams of Silver, that ſhot out in Form of a Croſs, was introduc'd and annex'd to it, in Imitation (as thought) of the French, who after the ſame manner wore the chief Enſign of the Order of the Holy Ghoſt, being the Repreſentation of a Dove irradiated with ſuch like Beams.

AND whereas ſome Painters affirm the Symbol of the Holy Ghoſt to be thus adorn'd congruous enough, yet cenſure it improper for a Garter, let them conſider that King Edw. IV. erected his White Roſe with the like Glory, whereof both the Stone Work and Wood Work of St. George's Chapel in Windſor, manifeſtly illuſtrate, whoſe Antiquity makes a Precedent for it long before [Page 170] the Inſtitution of the Order of the Holy Ghoſt; but this King aſſum'd this Device upon appearance of three Suns, which ſuddenly united together into one immediately, before his ſucceſsful Victory at Mortimer's-Croſs, a happy Aera he thought himſelf oblig'd to perpetuate. And they miſtake who ſuppoſe it to be the Garter that is thus irradiated, whereas it is ſomething elſe more worthy of the Glory, for from it, not the Garter, do the Rays diffuſe, viz. the inclos'd Croſs of the Order, celebrated as glorious, ſince it darted its bright Beams from Heaven, when it appear'd to Conſtantine the Great; as the ſame is repreſented on a Silver Medal: On the one Side whereof was a Buſt in profile, or ſide Face of King Charles I. and on the Reverſe, this Badge of the Order, within a Garter, inſcrib'd, Honi, &c. a Croſs irradiated, diſperſing its Beams in a Rhombular Form of Eight Angles, beyond the Orbit or bounding Lines of the ſaid Garter, having for Circumſcription, Priſci decus Ordmis Auctum, 1629.

7.4. 5

§ 5. HAVING finiſh'd our Diſcourſe concerning the Robes of the Order, we ſhall ſpeak of the robes and Hoods aſſign'd to the Queen, Knights-Companions Wives, and other great Ladies, by the Donation of the Sovereigns, ſet off and embelliſhed with Minute Garters, and lin'd with Rich Furs, which Robes they were adorn'd with during the Solemnity of the Feaſt of St. George, a Cuſtom almoſt as ancient as its Inſtitution. The firſt Mention we find recorded of the Feminine Habit occurs, Anno 7. R. II. when the Queen, the Sovereign's Mother, the Dutcheſs of Lancaſter, the Counteſſes of Cambridge, Buckingham, Pembroke, Oxford, and Salisbury, the Ladies Philippa and Catherine, Daughters to the Duke of Lancaſter, and the Lady Mohun had ſuch kind of Robes and Hoods provided for them. They were made of Cloth, Violet in Grain, like as the Sovereign and Knights-Companions that Year, the Robes lin'd with Fur, but the Hoods with Scarlet, and both embroidered over with little Garters, and the Proportion of Cloth, Furs, and Garters, were ſtated according to their ſeveral Ranks and Degrees; for the Queen had Eight Ells, and Half an Ell of [Page 171] Scarlet for the Lining of her Hood. The Sovereign's Mother had allow'd her one whole Piece, and a double Proportion of Scarlet; but from the large Quantity it is conceiv'd ſhe had Two Robes and Hoods made at this time: Beſides, the particular Number are but Eleven Perſons, and cannot elſe reach the Total of the Robes that were made up and expreſly ſet down to be Twelve. The Dutcheſs of Lancaſter had the Allowance of Half a Piece, and Half an Ell of Scarlet; the Counteſs of Cambridge Seven Ells of Cloth and Half an Ell of Scarlet, and the reſt of the Ladies the ſame Proportion of Cloth with the Knights-Companions, i. e. each Five Ells a-piece, and Half an Ell of Scarlet. According to their Cloth was alſo their Proportion of Minever; the Queen's Allowance was Two Furs, each containing Three Hundred Bellies of pure Minever; the Sovereign's Mother had twice that Proportion, the Dutcheſs of Lancaſter, and Counteſs of Cambridge had the ſame Allowance as the Queen; but all the reſt of the Ladies had only one Fur of Two Hundred Bellies. Beſides the embroidered Garters to deck out the Twenty-four Surcoats of the Sovereign and Knights-Companions, and the Twelve Robes for the Queen, and other Ladies, amounted to the Number of 2900.

AGAINST the Feaſt of St. George, Anno. II. R. II. there were prepared Fifteen Robes and Hoods for the Queen and other Ladies, of the ſame Livery and ſuit with the Sovereign and Knights-Companions, viz. White long Cloth, and Blue Cloth for the Lining of their Hoods, bearing the ſame Proportion in all Things as the former, Anno 13. Rich. II. the Ladies Robes and Hoods were Sanguine Cloth, and the Lining of their Hoods Cloth in Grain. And in the 19th Rich. II. they were Blue Cloth, and long Cloth in Grain for Lining their Hoods. In both theſe Years we find the Dutcheſs of Aquitaine had double the Proportion of Cloth allow'd her (as had alſo the Dutcheſs of York) viz. Fourteen Ells, (the Queen having then but the former Allowance of Eight Ells) and yet her Proportion of Lining, both for the Robe and Hood, was no more than allow'd the Queen.

[Page 172] BUT Anno 1 Henry V. the ſame Quantities of Cloth, Minevers, and Garters, were the ſame to Ladies of all Degrees, and that was to each Five Ells of White Woollen Cloth, only the Queen-Mother had Eight Ells of White Cloth and Eight Ells of Black Cloth, a Fee containing Two Hundred Bellies of Minever, and an Hundred embroidered Garters, and 12 Henry VI. the Maſter of the great Wardrobe was commanded to make ready the like Livery, both for Colour of Cloth, number of Ells, Bellies of Minever, and Garters, for the Counteſs of Suffolk, againſt the approaching Feaſt of St. George.

A plainer Narrative is made of theſe Liveries, Anno 16 Edw. IV. when at the Feaſt of St. George at Windeſor, the Queen, the Lady Elizabeth, the King's Daughter, and Dutcheſs of Suffolk, the King's Siſter, had for their Livery Murrey Gowns embroidered with Garters.

BESIDES theſe Robes worn by the Ladies at the Feſtivals of the Order, there ſeems to be ſome Imitation of wearing a Garter alſo on their Left Arms, as the Knights did on their Left Leg, as it is obſerv'd on the Counteſs of Tankervile's Monument, where ſhe is ſo pourtray'd.

AFTER a long Diſuſe of theſe Robes, Anno 14 Car. I. there was an endeavour to reſtore it; for the Deputy Chancellor ſollicited the Sovereign in Chapter, That the Ladies of the Knights-Companions might be granted the Privilege to wear a Garter of the Order about their Arms, and an upper Robe at Feſtival Times, according to ancient Uſage, upon which Motion the Sovereign gave Order that the Queen's Pleaſure ſhould be known herein, and the Affair left to the Ladies particular Requeſt, and the Year enſuing, upon the Deputy Chancellor's Report at another Chapter at Windeſor, it was then left to a Chapter to be called by the Knights-Companions, to preponderate of every Circumſtance, how it were fitteſt to be effected for the Honour and Luſtre of the Order; which was appointed to be held at London about All-hollantide next; But the unhappy War breaking out, this Matter entirely broke off.

7.5. 6

[Page 173]

§ 6. THERE remains now the Collar and George, brought in by King Henry VIII. And firſt, of Collars in general, which is an Ornament not of late, but ancient Invention, and the wonderful Conſent of moſt Nations plead for it: Sacred Writ ſets down the Collar of Gold for one of the Ornaments Pharaoh conferr'd upon Joſeph. The Images of Iſis and Oſiris were repreſented with ſuch like Collars, in a manner, extending to their Shoulders, as Kircher informs us. Their Workmanſhip ſeems wonderfully curious, being interſected with various Lines, and divided with Tablets and precious Stones. The Collar was of an illuſtrious Original among the Romans, and gave Denomination to the Family of Torquati, deſcended from L. Manlius, whom the Soldiers ſurnam'd Torquatus, becauſe he fought with a Champion of the Gauls, Anno V. C. 392. and, having foil'd him in fight, cut off his Head, and then pluck'd off his Collar, bloody as it was, and put it about his own Neck. In further Memory of which Action were found ſeveral Roman Coins referring to L. Torquatus, Conſul with L. Cotta, Anno V. C. 688. And it's remarkable that when one of another Tribe was adopted into this Family, he did alſo aſſume this Badge of Honour, as in the Coin of D. Junius Silanus, tho' the Faſhion of the Work ſome what differ'd from the former.

IN priſtine Times none but Kings and Princes wore Collars, and therefore their Uſe ſeems of Dignity and Power, as is evident from Daniel, where the Aſſyrian Kings uſed this Ornament. Afterwards Men famous for Wiſdom and Council, had them as a diſtinguiſhing Badge, as in the Example of Joſeph, and from the Proclamation of Belſhazzar King of Babylon, who propoſed it as a Praemium to him that could interpret the Hand-Writing upon the Wall. And Men famous for Military Atchievements had it conferr'd upon them, in Recompence of their Merits; thus Collars were of the Number of the Dona & Praemia Militaria among the the Romans, and the Honour of receiving them thought worthy to be conſign'd to Poſterity in Marble Inſcriptions. From them the later Emperors receiv'd it, and we read of inveſting a Knight of the Holy Sepulchre with a [Page 174] Collar at his Creation; where, as ſoon as the Ceremony of his Ordination is over, the Padre Guardian Kiſſes the new Made Knight, and puts about his Neck (according to the mode of the Ancients) a Golden Collar, with a Croſs hanging at it.

MOST aptly therefore have the Sovereigns of Military Orders annex'd this Ornament of the Collar to their Habit, and conferr'd it on the Fellows and Companions, many of whom have meritoriouſly deſerv'd it for their great Wiſdom and valorous Exploits, and for this reaſon it was inſtituted in additional Glory to the Enſigns of the Garter, compos'd in a peculiar manner, in Relation to the Name and Title; to the wearing of which the Sovereign oblig'd both himſelf and Knights-Companions, and his and their Succeſſors.

THIS Collar was ordain'd to be of Gold Thirty Ounces Troy weight, but not to exceed it; howbeit that Collar ſent to Guſtavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, weigh'd Thirty-four Ounces and a Quarter, and that of King Charles I. 35 Ounces and an Half; which, after his Sufferings, fell into the Hands of Thomas Harriſon, one of Oliver's Major-Generals, and was by him delivered to the Truſtees for Sale of the King's Goods: They, 1649. ſent it to the Mint, with divers of the Regalia, to ſet the Stamp on work for the firſt Gold that the upſtart Com [...]on-wealth coin'd.

IT was appointed by King Henry VIII's Statutes, that this Collar ſhould be compos'd of Pieces of Gold in Faſhion of Garters, the Ground enamelled Blue, and the Letters of the Motto Gold; in the midſt of each Garter, Two Roſes plac'd, the innermoſt enameiled Red, and the outermoſt White, contrarily in the next Garter, the innermoſt Roſe enamelled White, and the outermoſt Red, and ſo alternately; but of lat [...]r Times theſe Roſes are wholly Red.

THE Number of theſe Garters are ſo many as be the ordain'd Number of the Sovereign and Knights-Companions; at the Inſtitution they were Twenty-ſix, being faſten'd together with as many Knots of Gold, and this Mode hitherto has continu'd invariable; nor ought the Collar to be adorn'd or enrich'd with precious Stones, (as the George may be) ſuch being prohibited by the Law of the Order.

[Page 175] AT the Middle of the Collar before pendant, at the Table of one of the Garters in the Collar is to be fix'd the Image of St. George arm'd ſitting on Horſeback, who having thrown the Dragon on his Back encounters him with a Tilting-Spear. This Jewel is not encompaſs'd with a Garter or Row of Diamonds, as in the leſſer George; but in round Relief. It is allow'd to be beautified and ſett off with Diamonds and other Enrichments, at the Pleaſure of the Knight-Companion who poſſeſſed it, and upon that Score it hath been frequently adorn'd with Variety of coſtly Work, whereon the Diamonds, and other precious Stones, being ſet to that Advantage as might, upon its Motion and Agitation, dart forth a reſplendent Luſtre.

BEFORE the Eſtabliſhment of this Article by King Henry VIII. it appears that the Knights-Companions were inveſted with Collars at their Inſtallations, for the Black Book makes mention of a Collar among the Enſigns of the Garter, wherewith Philip King of Caſtile was inveſted, Anno 22 Henry VII. but whether a Collar of SS's, or of another Model, is not ſpecifi'd: Nevertheleſs this Scruple is in part clear'd up by an old Memorial of the Ceremonies, at the Creating Henry Lord Stafford Earl of Wiltſhire, 1 Henry VIII. where it is ſaid in the Annals, that after he was inveſted with the Robes of his State and Dignity, the Collar of the Garter was put about his Neck at conſtituting him a Knight of the Order. And to make it more conſpicuous in a Vellum Book of the Statutes ſent to Maximilian the Emperor, ſign'd 1508. by the Regiſter T. Rowthale, and in another of Edward Stanley Lord Monteagle, elected ann. 6. Hen. VIII. the Forty Firſt Article, enjoins a Collar to be worn by each Knight-Companion expreſly called the Collar of the Order, which tho' it be not in all Reſpects conſentient to that preſcribed by King Henry VIII's Statutes, yet there is not much Variation, and 'tis reported to be a Gold Collar coupled together by ſeveral Pieces of Links, in Faſhion of Garters, with a Vermilion Roſe, and the Image of St. George hung thereat. The Reaſon of the Knights-Companions wearing it at the Times appointed, the Licenſe for putting it to mending, the Command not [Page 176] to enrich the Collar, but the George only; and under a Penalty not to ſell, pawn or alienate it upon any Neceſſity whatſoever, are wholly the ſame as was afterwards enjoyn'd by King Henry VIII. So that he did but only annex to his Body of Statutes a Decree, which for the greateſt part had been put in practiſe before. In the 11th Hen. VIII. upon Interpretation of the Eleventh Article of the Statutes, the Collar is there enumerated as part of the entire Robes that a Knight-Companion is oblig'd to wear, for a more convincing Proof, That the Collar of Garters was uſed before King Henry VIII's Reign, the Monument of Sir Giles Daubeny plainly Delineates (who departed 22 Henry VII.) in Weſtminſter-Abbey, where his Portraicture in the Robes of the Order is adorned with ſuch a Collar as King Henry VIII's Statutes do afterwards deſcribe.

AS the Garter ſent to Guſtavus Adolphus King of Swed [...]n, ſo the great George (pendant at his Collar weighing Seven Ounces) was ſet with large and reſplendent Diamonds, to the Number of Eighty-Four.

IN what Regard this Noble Enſign of Honour the Colla [...], hath been with the Sovereigns and Knights-Companions, not only of the Order of the Garter, but other Military Orders, may be collected from the Pictur [...]s of ſome of them, as well as from their Seals, Coins, and Medals, for in theſe they have been pleaſed to exhibit their Effigies and Eſcutcheons of Arms; and omitting Foreign Examples, the Collars, both of the Garter and Thiſtle, were expreſs'd in the Coronation Medal of King Charles I. in Scotland, 1633. tho' in that of his Coronation at Weſtminſter, and afterwards in that of King Charles II. 1661. the Collar of the Order of the Ga [...]ter are only put over their Royal Robes.

THESE Ornaments of the Collars, have been affix'd ſometimes encircling the Shields of their Arms; and in a S [...]al of Charles the Bold. Duke of Burgundy, Sovereign of the Order of the Golden Fleece, plac'd to an Inſtrument dated, 1470. it is worthy of Remark, that Collar adorns the Neck of the Lyon of Flanders; but the Sovereigns of the Garter uſually encompaſs'd their Arms, not within the Collar of the Ord [...]r, but the Royal Garter, that being its principal Enſign; and [Page 177] ſometimes, having no Shield of Arms, the void Space within the Garter, exhibits their Arms.

OBSERVABLE is the Seal of Charles Count Palatine of the Rhine, wherein is a Shield quarterly of the Palatinate and Bavaria, obſcuring the Lyon Guardant its Supporter, his Four SS's only appearing quadrangularly, and his Head a top enſign'd with an Electoral Crown; this Shield is encircled both within the Garter and Collar of the Order, and is the firſt Example wherein both theſe Enſigns are jointly together. It is very frequent to expreſs the Collars of different Orders together: Thus I have ſeen the Arms of Robert Dudley Earl of Leiceſter, entour'd within the Garter, and a Collar of the Order of St. Michael, having been Knight of theſe Orders, and the Funeral Atchievement of the late James Hamilton Douglas Duke of Hamilton, had the Garter and a Collar of the Thiſtle about it. And in a Plate under the Effigies of the Duke of Aſpernons, a Shield of his Arms quarter'd, is encompaſs'd with the chiefeſt Enſigns of thoſe Three Orders, whereof he was a Brother and Companion, viz. with the Garter and the Collars of St. Michael and the Holy Ghoſt. And the older the Order is in the Roll of Antiquity, whoſe chief Enſign is there repreſented, the nearer ought it to be plac'd to the Eſcutcheon of Arms, being the more Honourable Poſt. A Miſtake was committed in the marſhalling theſe Collars, when the Duke of Chevereux affixed it over his Stall at Windſor, the Collars of St. Mithael and the Holy Ghoſt are plac'd nearer to his Eſcutcheon than that of the Garter.

7.6. 8

§ 8. AND whereas we have ſpoke of another kind of Collar, call'd a Collar of SS's, worn as Badges of lower and inferior Honour, it will not be amiſs to inform our Judgment in other Affairs concerning them, Wicelius informs us from a Book in the Library of Fulda, where (in the Life of the Two Brothers Simplicius and Fauſtinus, both Senators, and ſuffer'd Martyrdom under Diocleſian) there is a Deſcription of the Society of St. Simplicius, conſiſting of Noble Perſonages in their own Families, and deſcribing the Collar wore as the Badge of it ſays, thus: It was the Cuſtom of thoſe Perſons to wear about [Page 178] their Necks Silver Collars, compos'd of double SS's, which denote the Name of Saint Simplicius, between theſe double SS's. The Collar conſiſted of Twelve ſmall Plates of Silver, in which were engraven the Twelve Articles of the Creed, together with a ſingle Trefoil: The Image of St. Simplicius hung at the Collar, and from it Seven Plates, repreſenting the Seven Gifts of the Holy Ghoſt. As to the manner of their Martyrdom, they were bound together by the Neck to a Stone, and thrown over the Bridge into the River Tyber.

AT what Time the Collar of SS's came into England is not fully determin'd, but it will appear at leaſt Three Hundred Years ſince, and worn as an Ornament for Women, as well as Men; for on a Monument in the Collegiate Church of Warwick, the Figure of Margaret, Wife to Sir William Peito (ſaid to be interr'd Temp. Edw. III.) hath a Collar of SS's drawn about, and ſet cloſe to her Neck, which the Sculpture in The Antiquities of Warwickſhire, by miſtake, repreſented like a Ruff. There was alſo a Collar of SS's about the Neck of Sir Simon Burley's Statue in St. Paul's London.

IN the ancient Creation of an Eſquire in England, part of the Ceremony was the King's putting about his Neck a Silver Collar of SS's. And Selden, in his Titles of Honour contemns not the old Ballad, The Tanner of Tamworth, to prove the Creation of Eſquires in King Edw. IV's Reign, by conferring ſuch Collars on them. But that the Golden one was the undoubted Badge of a Knight, as may be inſtanc'd by many undeniable Examples, deduc'd from the Monuments of ſuch Perſons, Temp. Hen. VI. Ed. IV. Hen. VII. Hen. VIII. and ſince, and ſo legally appropriate thereto, that in the Act 24 H. VIII. made for Reformation of Apparel, there is a Proviſo entred, That Knights, notwithſtanding, might publickly wear a Gold Collar of SS's, tho' ſince it is grown obſolete and uſeleſs. Favin tells us that our Hen. V. inſtituted an Order ſurnam'd Knights of the SS's, on the Day of the Martyrs St. Criſpine and Criſpianus; which tho' he found nothing of it in our Engliſh Hiſtorians, yet from the Chronicle of Juvenal des Urſins, where he treats of the Battle of Agincourt, he collected this following Relation.

[Page 179] THE King of England exhorted his Men, and commanded, That if any had treſpaſs'd againſt another, they ſhould be reconcil'd and confeſs'd to the Prieſts, otherwiſe no good Succeſs wou'd accrew to them in their Attempts. He advis'd them to be civil in their March, and to do their Duty well, and agreed upon theſe Conditions, That thoſe of their Company who were not of gentle Extraction he wou'd make ſo from the Fountain of Honour, and give them Warrants, that for the future they ſhould enjoy the Privileges the Gentlemen of England had; and to the End they might be diſtinguiſh'd from others, he granted them leave to wear a Collar powder'd with the Letter S.’

AMONG the Variety of Collars of SS's now in vogue, there are theſe following: The Lord Mayor of London's Collar is compos'd of Gold, having a Knot (like one of thoſe that tye the Garters together in the great Collar of the Order) inſerted between Two SSs, and they again ſituated between Two Roſes, viz. a White Roſe within a Red, and in the Middle before the Breaſt is a large Portcullis, whereat hangs a moſt rich Jewel ſett with large Diamonds.

THE Collars of the Lords Chief Juſtices of both the Benches, and the chief Baron of the Exchequer, are (in Memory of the ſaid St. Simplicius, a Senator, and conſequently a Gownman) form'd of the Letter S, and a Knot alternately, having a Roſe ſet in that part of it which falls out to be in the Middle of their Breaſts, and another on their Backs; the Five Flowers of theſe Roſes are conſtituted of Five large Pearls.

THOSE Collars, which appertain to the Kings and Heralds of Arms, as well as to Serjeants at Arms, having been beſtow'd by former Kings, and renew'd to them by King Charles II. to be worn upon Days of ſolemn Attendance, are compos'd of SS's link'd together. In the Middle of the Breaſt is a Roſe, at each of which hangs Three ſmall Drops of Silver; but the SS's in the Collars worn by the Kings of Arms are made ſomewhat larger than the other, and in that part lying on either Shoulder, is a Portcullis taken in between the SS's, which are wanting in the reſt.

[Page 180] THE general difference of the Collars appropriate to the before-named Degrees, is this; Knights have allow'd them Collars of Silver gilt, but Eſquires only Silver [...] and therefore in the Creating of an Herald, in part of that Ceremony, he is made an Eſquire, by putting on him a Collar of SS's of Silver; and ſo is a Serjeant at Arms.

THE Kings of England have ſometimes been pictured with a Collar of SS's about their Arms, in like manner as the Garter doth ſurround them, as appears from an Impreſſion of King Henry VIII's Privy Signet; whereon his Royal Arms crown'd are encircled with a Collar of SS's, to the lower End of which are affix'd Two Portculliſſes.

7.7. 9

§ 9. WE come now to the leſſer George of the Order; and we do not find that the Effigies of St. George was at any time worn by the Sovereign or Knights-Companions, before the Breaſt or under the Arm, as now uſed till the 13th of Henry VIII. But then that King decreed in a Chapter held at Greenwich, the Morrow after St. George's Day, That every Knight ſhould wear looſely before his Breaſt the Image of St. George in a Gold Chain, or otherwiſe, in a Ribband, the ſame to be faſten'd within the ennobled Garter, for a manifeſt Diſtinction between the Knights-Companions, and others of the Nobility and Knights, who, according to the Mode of thoſe Times, wore large Gold Chain [...], the ordinary Enſigns of Knighthood. And thus the wearing the Medal or Jewel, uſually call'd the leſſer George, to diſtinguiſh it from the other Work at the Collar of the Order, firſt receiv'd the Injunction, and hath ſince been frequently uſed.

THIS George was, for the moſt part, pure Gold curiouſly wrought, but divers of them were exquiſitely graved in Onyx's and Agats, and with ſuch a happy Collection of the Stones, that heightned and received their Beauty by the Skill of the Artificer, in contriving the Figures and Hiſtory, the natural Tincture of the Stones have ſo fitted them with Colours for Fleſh, Hair, and every thing elſe, even to Surprize and Admiration. In this Jewel is St. George repreſented in a Riding [Page 181] Poſture encountring the Dragon with his drawn Sword.

BY the laſt Article of King Henry VIII's. Statutes, it was allowed to be enriched at the Pleaſure of the Poſſeſſor, (as is the great George) which for the moſt Part hath been curiouſly enamell'd, and the Garter about it ſett with Diamonds. And of what weight and bigneſs theſe leſſer George's were, may be gather'd from that ſent to the French King Charles IX. being an Ounce and an half and half quarter Weight. The Variety of Workmanſhip in thoſe Gold Chains whereat this Jewel hung, was uſually great, according to the Fancy and Pleaſure of the Perſons for whom they were wrought. But within a ſhort Space, wearing the leſſer George in Silk-Ribbands, as well as Gold-Chains, was promiſcuouſly us'd and ad Libitum. (So were the Symbols of Foreign Orders, as divers Coins and Medals declare.) But the Colour of theſe Ribbands when they came firſt to be wore, was black. John Dudley Viſcount Liſle, the Lords St. John and Parr, ſo uſed them at their Inveſtiture, 35 Henry VIII. and ſeveral Pictures of other Knights-Companions about that time confirm the ſame. That ſmall Chain whereat hung the leſſer George tranſmitted to Emanuel of Savoy, Ann. 1 & 2 Ph. & Mar. was formed of twelve Pieces of Gold, in every of which was ſett three ſmall Diamonds, and of twelve other like Pieces, wherein were three Rubies and twenty four Pearls.

IT appears by a Letter of Sir Richard St. George, Kt. Clarencieux, dated July 10th, 1627. that the blue Ribband had ſome Years before been additional to the Ornament of the Order; and 'tis reported, that Robert Earl of Eſſex obſerving in France the Jewels of the Order of St. Michael and St. Eſprit worn in blue Ribbands, upon his return was the principal motive thoſe Ribbands whereat the George hung, were exchanged into that Colour. And in a Picture of Queen Elizabeth, drawn towards the Declenſion of her Reign, her leſſer George is repreſented hanging before her Breaſt in a blue Ribband. And this Colour was more careſſed, and grew in great repute, by reaſon it was the Ground of the Garter, and neareſt the Colour of the Mantle of the Order: So that toward the latter End of the Reign of King [Page 182] James I. becauſe the dye of the Ribband had not been peculiarly expreſs'd in any Statute, and the blue and azure accuſtomed for ſome Years paſt, it was decreed, That for the future it ſhould be always of blue, and no other; nor in time of Mourning it ſelf, ſhould be changed.

THE Manner of wearing this Ribband in time of Peace, was of later Times pendant about the Neck, down to the Middle of the Breaſt, where the leſſer George hung; but ſince, for the more Conveniency of Riding or Action, the ſame is ſpread over the left Shoulder, and brought under the right Arm where the Jewel hangs [...]

BUT where the Pictures of the Sovereign and Knights-Companions are drawn in Armour, there even to this Day the George is repreſented as fix'd to a Gold Chain inſtead of a blue Ribband, and worn about the Neck, not brought under the right Arm, as exhibited on the three Pound Pieces of Gold ſtamped at Oxford by King Charles I. 1643. and a Medal of Charles Count Palatine of the Rhine, dated 1645.

AMONG the invaluable Jewels and other Curioſities of King Charles I. which came to the Hands of the Truſtees appointed for Sale of his Goods, were theſe,

  l. s. d.
A George containing 161 Diamonds, Sold for 71 2 0
A George cut in Onyx, with 41 Diamonds in the Garniſh, 37 0 0
A ſmall George with a few Diamonds 9 0 0
A George with 5 Rubies and 3 Diamonds, and 11 Diamonds in a Box 11 0 0
A George cut in a Garnet 8 0 0
Total 136 2 0

THE George King Charles I. had at his Martyrdom, was curiouſly Engraved in an Onyx ſet about with twenty One large Table-Diamonds in the Faſhion of a Garter. On the reverſe of the ſaid George was the Picture of the Queen ſet in a Caſe of Gold, the Lid neatly enamell'd with Goldſmith's Work, and ſurrounded with another Garter adorned with an equal Number of Diamonds, as [Page 183] was that of King Charles II. alſo ſett with fair Diamonds; and after the Defeat given to the Scotch Forces at Worceſter, 4 Car. II. was ſtrangely preſerved by Colonel Blague, one of that King's diſperſed Attendants, who reſigned it for ſafety to the Wife of Mr. Barlow of Blare-Pipe-Houſe in Stafford-ſhire, where he took Sanctuary; from whom Robert Milward Eſq; receiv'd and gave it into-the Hands of Mr. Iſaac Walton, (all Loyaliſts.) It came again to Blague's Poſſeſſion, then Priſoner in the Tower; whence making his eſcape, he reſtor'd it to King Charles II.

IT is worthy of Remark, that beſides the Sovereign of the moſt Noble Order of the Garter, other Princes of Chriſtendom have aſſumed the bearing St. George encountring the Dragon in like Poſture, tho' not ſo anciently, nor upon the ſame Grounds and Foundation as they; probably having elected him Patron and Guardian of their Countries or Families; ſuch as the Emperors of Ruſſia, the Dukes of Mantua, and the Counts Mansfield in Germany, as their Seals and Coins plainly demonſtrate.

IN the Great Seal of Borice Feodorwicke, Emperour of Ruſſia affixed to his Letter ſent to Queen Elizabeth, dated at Moſco, June 12th, 1602, was a double Headed Eagle diſplaid, having each Head crowned, and bearing an Eſchutcheon with the Repreſentation of St. George upon its Breaſt. There is another of this Emperour's Great Seals, fixed to his Letter, dated May 31ſt. 1594. which he alſo ſent to Queen Elizabeth. On one ſide is the above-ſaid Eagle, having on his Breaſt an Eſcutcheon charged with an Horſe currant; the Reverſe the Figure of St. George encountring the Dragon with his Spear. The Great Seal of Alexie Michaelowich, Emperour of Ruſſia, affixed to his Letters ſent King Charles II. 1660. hath a like Eagle with a third Crown ſituated between the two Heads, and bearing in a Cartouch-Compartment upon his Breaſt, the Figure of St. George: Which Repreſentation of St. George and the Dragon, we find aſſigned for Arms, to Anne de Ruſſie, Daughter to Jariſla [...]s King of Ruſſia and Muſcovia, given in Eſpouſal to Henry I. King of France, 1051. and thus Blazon'd [...] D'in St. Marthe de Gueules, a [...]un homme a [...]Cheval, d'argent, tenant [Page 184] une Lance en la main, qu'il darde en la gueule d'un Dragon renverſe.

THE Counts of Mansfield have frequently ſtamp'd it on their Coin. On one ſide is St. George encountring the Dragon with his Sword, with this Circumſcription, Sanct. Geo. Co. do. de Man. on the reverſe, his Arms circumſcribed, Mon. de Arc. Co. do. de Man. Of thoſe of the Dukes of Mantua, we may ſee one of Vincentius Duke of Mantua and Montferat, a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece, wherein is his Effigies to the Breaſt, Vinc. D. G. Dux MANT. III. MONTFERU. on the Reverſe St. George and the Dragon, Motto, Protector noſtra aſpic. 1591. and Caſal at the Bottom.

7.8. 10

§ 10. When the Habit or part of it ought to be worn is the next thing we ſhall ſpeak of.

THE more ſolemn Days and Occaſions which require a fuller conformity, and the wearing the whole Habit, i. e. the Garter, Mantle, Surcoat, Hood, Collar, Great George, and Cap, ar [...] firſt, The High Feſtival of the Order, commonly called St. George's Feaſt, whether it be ſolemnized on the 22d, 23d or 24th of April, annually, or any other Days within the Year by Prorogation, as is apparent by all the Bodies of the Statutes.

FOR, Firſt it is ordained, That the Knights-Companions ſhould be Arrayed in the whole Habit on the Eve of St. George, before the Sovereign proceeded to the Chapter to hear Divine Service, and being ſo Robed, ſhould attend on the Sovereign to the Chapter-Houſe, thence to the Chapel, and return with him back in the ſame manner, until after Supper, as well thoſe that minded to Sup, as thoſe that ſhould not Sup; nor might they diſrobe, until the Sovereign or his Deputy had put off his, or declar'd it ſeaſonable for his or their doing ſo.

BY the ſame Statute they were enjoined to wear the whole Habit on the Feaſt of St. George, both at their Progreſſion in the Morning to the Chapter-Houſe or Chapel, at their return to Dinner from thence to the Second Veſpers, and back to Supper, as alſo till Supper was over, and until the Sovereign or his Lieutenant took leave of the reſt of the Knights-Companions.

[Page 185] Secondly, IT is manifeſt from King Henry VIII's Statutes, That the Eve, the Day of St. George, and Morrow following, were to be obſerved with ſolemn Service, and holding of Chapters whereſoever the Sovereign was reſident; tho' the Grand Feaſt were Prorogued to a longer Duration; and when by reaſon of ſuch Prorogation, they ſhould convene in any Place beſides Windſor to attend the Sovereign for the Solemnization of St. George's Day, they then muſt Adorn themſelves with the whole Habit from beginning of the firſt Veſpers, until the laſt Evening Service of the ſame Day.

Thirdly, ON ſuch other Days of the Year whereon the Grand Feaſt is held by Prorogation, and during ſuch Part of the Eve and Day of the Feaſt, as is before appointed when it is held on its proper Day.

Fourthly, BY abſent Knights, whenſoever the Grand Feaſt of St. George ſhould be celebrated, and whereſoever they ſhould happen at that time to reſide, (if at Liberty, and not under reſtraint) to keep it in like manner as if then preſent with the Sovereign, or his Deputy in the Place where he ſhould Celebrate the Feaſt. The time of wearing the whole Habit in this Point extends but to the End of the ſecond Veſpers, as in the ſecond Inſtance above.

Fifthly, THE Knights-Companions are to wear the entire Habit at the Feaſts of Inſtallation when they aſſiſt at that Ceremony; where, if it commence in the Evening, they are not to diſrobe themſelves till after Supper; and being the next Morning habited as before, then to proceed to the Chapter-Houſe or Chapel, and not to deveſt themſelves till Dinner is ended.

THE leſs ſolemn Occaſions are thoſe, which require the wearing the Mantle or Collar of the Order only.

AND they are firſt, upon the Morrow after the Grand Feaſt-Day, when the Sovereign and Knights-Companions proceed to the Chapel, and make their Offering; then it ſufficeth, that they barely put on the Mantle, which, Service being Finiſhed, they were wont to leave it at the Chapter-Houſe-Door as they retired out of the Chapel.

Secondly, AS often as Chapters are called, and in what Place ſoever aſſembled, either for Elections, or other Cauſes, as it ſhall pleaſe the Sovereign to nominate: [Page 186] And as often as it is requiſite for the Sovereign, or any of the Knights-Companions to enter into the Chapel of St. George at Windſor; and in reference hereunto, is the Article 15 E. 3. was that their Mantles ſhould remain in the Veſtry at Windſor, that upon any ſudden emergency, they might be in readineſs: for in the Inventory of the Chapel taken 8 R. 2. we find remaining at that time in the Veſtry, a Mantle appertaining to the Sovereign, another to John Duke of Britain, a third to John Holland Earl of Huntington, another to Edmund Langley Earl of Cambridge, and one to Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent, all of them then ſurviving [...] And by a Decree paſt at the Grand Feaſt 1 H. 6. the Mantle of the young Sovereign was appointed to be left at Windſor, as the Statutes required; and this Article was confirmed by King Henry VIII. by Virtue whereof, the Mantles of the Emperor Charles V. and Anna Duke of Montmorency, were left in the Cuſtody of the Dean and Canons of Windſor. And heretofore in the Bill of drawing up Matters neceſſary for the Inſtallation of a Knight-Companion, there were uſually two Mantles ſet down; one expreſſed to be left in the College, and the other for all other Occaſions that might intervene.

THESE Mantles thus ordered to be repoſed in the College upon emergent Occaſions, were anciently committed to the Cuſtody of the Black-Rod, as granted by Letters Patent with the Office 1 H. 5. And after the Death of the Owners, devolved to the Dean and Canons of Windſor, either for the publick Uſe of the Knights-Companions when they caſually came to Windſor, or elſe ſold ſometimes to the Heirs of the Deceaſed, or others who ſucceeded in the Order, as that of Charles V. was to the Earl of Bedford, and that of the Conſtable of France lent to the Earl of Warwick, Ann. 7 Eliz. which appears from the Accounts of the Chanter of the College, temp. H. 4. H. 5. H. 8. Q. Eliz. and Jac. 1. who in all times anſwered the full Benefit thereof to the College, as being a certain Perquiſite to the Dean and Canons, which they accordingly had and enjoyed.

AND yet we find ſome of the College made overbold with the Robe of Sigiſmond the Emperour, and ſold it while he ſurviv'd. But the Archbiſhop of York, who, [Page 187] as Chancellor of England, viſited the College, 1431. ſecured the Money from being diſtributed among thoſe that ſold it, and reſerved the Dividend to the Dean and Chapter that ſhould chance to be living at that Emperour's Expiration; and commanded for the Future under Pain of Excommunication, That no Dean and Canon ſhould imbezil or aliene any Knights-Companion's Mantle while he was alive, but the ſame ſhould be decently and faithfully kept and preſerved. But we are informed, that this Statute was altered, Ann. 9 Eliz. and one drawn up to this effect, That the Knights-Companions ſhould be bound by Oath to take care by their Wills, that after their Deceaſe, all the Ornaments which they had received ſhould be reſtored, the Robes to the College, and the Jewels to the Sovereign that gave them.

IN the laſt Place, the Times of wearing the Collar of the Order, with the Great George appendant, which is not only enjoined to be worn (as part of the Habit) at the grand Feaſts and Feaſts of Inſtallation, but alſo at other times when not any of the reſt of the Habit is ordered (ſaving the Garter) is to be worn, as in ſpecial, at the principal and ſolemn Feaſts of the Year, and other Feaſt-Days: To which a particular Order in Chapter, Ann. 4 Eliz. thus directs,
  • The Holy-days and Sundays within the twelve Days.
  • St. Matthias Day.
  • Holydays in Eaſter-Week.
  • St. Mark's Day.
  • St. Philip and Jacob's Day.
  • Holy-days in Whitſun-Week.
  • St. Peter's Day.
  • St. James's Day.
  • St. Bartholomew.
  • St. Matthew.
  • St. Luke.
  • St. Simon and Jude.
  • St. Andrew.
  • St. Thomas.

BESIDES theſe, the Sovereigns and Knights-Companions have been accuſtomed to wear this Enſign upon the Anniverſary of the Sovereign's Coronation, of the Gun [...]Powder Treaſon, and, of later Times, on the Sovereign's Birth-day: So formerly upon ſome occaſional Ceremonies not relative to the Order; as when a Knight-Companion hath been created into Titles of Dignity and Honour, he had the Collar of the Garter added to his [Page 188] Inveſtiture, as appears in the Caſe of Henry Stafford, created Earl of Wiltſhire, Ann. 1 Hen. 8. And at a Chapter held May 22d. 1622. That ſuch Knights-Companions as ſhould afterwards aſſiſt at the Funeral of any Knight-Companion, ſhould wear the Collar apert at the ſaid Funeral. And it was ſo obſerved by the Dukes of Ormond and Richmond, the Earls of Mancheſter and Sandwich, at the Obſequies of George Monk Duke of Albemarle.

Howbeit, the Cuſtom is otherwiſe as to wearing the Garter, the principal Enſign of the Order; for tho' it be injoyned to be wore at the grand Feſtivals, &c. yet it does not imply that it might be left off: For indeed it ought daily to be worn both by the Sovereign and Knights Companions. And therefore was it decreed even in its Inſtitution, That if any Knight-Companion ſhould in publick be found without one buckled about his Leg, upon Challenge he ſhould be mulct a Noble to the Dean and College of Windſor. By King Henry VIII. the Fine was raiſed a Mark, payable as before to any of the five Officers of the Order [...] or to the Dean; beſides which Fine, the Knight lies liable to a Check. But to alleviate the Strictneſs, and obviating other Inconveniencies, King Henry V. admitted of a Qualification; and in caſe of riding with Boots, ordained, That it might ſuffice if the Knight-Companion wore ſome Ribband or Silk-Lace to repreſent the Garter; tho' in this very Article there is a Proviſo, That no Knight-Companion ſhould enter into Chapter, without his Garter buckled about the Leg.

In ſhort, King Henry VIII. ordained, That the Gold-Chain whereat the leſſer George (in that Age) hung, ſhould be worn all other days in the Year, except the Principal and Solemn Feaſts, whereon the great Collar was ordained to be worn, and except in time of War, Sickneſs, or long Voyage, in any of which Caſes, a Silk-Lace or Ribband, with the Image of St. George thereat, was ſufficient; and the blue Ribband having ſince ſucceeded in Place of the Cold Chain, the Injunction of this Statute extends to it in all particulars.

7.9. The preſent Habits, Enſigns and Badges, belonging to the Officers of the Garter.


The Prelate & Chancellors Mantle.

Registers Garters & Black Rods Mantle.

Garters Scepter.

Black Rod

Chancellors Badge

Garters Badge

Black Rods Badge


[Page 189]

8.1. 1

§ 1. CONCERNING the Officers appointed for the ſervice of the Order, to give it a greater degree and augmentation of Honour, the Founder conſtituted a Prelate, R [...]giſter and Uſher, aſſigning them ſeveral Duties. Some of his Succeſſors added the Chanchellor and Garter, and all of them Sworn to be of the Council of the Order; among theſe the Prelate and Chanchellor are uſually nominated the Principal, the other three the inferiour Officers of the Order.

IN this Chapter we ſhall give ſome account of their Inſtitution, Oath, Habit, Enſigns, Privileges and Penſions; for as to the nature of their Offices and their Duties, they are for the general, Recorded in the Black Book, under the Title Conſtutiones ad Officiales Ordinis [Garterij] peculiarit [...]r attinentes, &c. Upon the Eſtabliſhment, Anno 13. Hen. VIII. 1521. and annex'd to his Statutes, and more particularly their Duties, will occur in ſeveral places of the enſuing Diſcourſe, where they properly fall in to be Treated of, as follows;

THE Prelate is the firſt and primier Offic [...]r, and in the Founders Statutes, call'd Praelatus O [...]dinis; and that the then Biſhop of Wincheſter, William de Edyngton was the firſt Prelate is very obious from thence; he is an Officer of Honour only, and hath neither Penſion nor Fees allowed him by the ſaid Conſtitutions; this Office is veſted in the Biſhop of Wincheſter, for the time being; and from the Annals of the Order it's manifeſt his Succeſſors have continued Prelates to this Day, except the interruption only of a few Months, Anno 7. Ed. 6. immediately after the Publiſhing this King's Statutes; wherein the other Four Officers were conſ [...]ituted a new, to attend the Order, but the Prelate wholly laid by.

WHAT high reputation this See hath been favour'd with, may be collected from an Act of Parliament, [...]1. [...]en. VIII. concerning the Placing of the Lords in Parliam [...]nt Chamber, and other Aſſemblies and Conference [...] of Council, whereby thi [...] Biſhop had Place aſſigned [Page 190] him next to the Biſhop of Durham, who hath place by that Act, next the Archbiſhop of York; tho' before in reſpect of the prehemenence of this noble Order, he had precedence and Place granted above all Biſhops, and next unto the Arch-Biſhops. At that Officers admittance he is oblig'd to take an Oath in the preſence of the Soveraign or his Lieutenant, which conſiſts of theſe particulars.

1. To be preſent in all Chapters, whereunto he is Summoned.

2. To report all things truly without Favour or Fear.

3. To take the Scrutiny faithfully, and preſent it to the Sovereign.

4 [...] To keep ſecret, and not diſcloſe the Councils of the Order.

5. To promote and mainta [...]n the Honour of it.

6. To withſtand and reveal what is deſigned to the contrary.

THIS Oath is read in Chapter, by the Regiſter of the Order, the Gentleman-Uſher of the Black-Rod, holding the Book, whilſt the Prelate Kneels between th [...] Sovereign's Knees.

8.1.1. Of the ROBE.

AS the Knights-Companions had their Surcoats beſtowed on them, at the Sovereigns charge, and therefore called the Kings Livery, ſo had the Officers of the Order their Liveries or Robes out of the Sovereign's Wardr [...]be, and in particular the Prelate of the Order: For in the Rolls of the great Wardrobe, we find that William de Edyngton had allow'd him for his Robe of the Sovereign's Livery, againſt the Feaſt of St. George, Anno 37. Ed. III. one Cloth of Sanguine grain, and a large quantity of Furs for trimming it up: And we find this Robe ſo aſſigned the Prelate to be of the ſute or colour of the Knights-Companions Surcoats the ſame Year, viz. Sanguine in grain, and that he had a great allowance of Furr; for his being a Mantle was l [...]rger than any of the Knights Surcoats, tho' they are both call'd by the ſame name Ro [...]a in the Rolls of the Wardrobe. Anno 7. Rich. II. William de W [...]k [...]am [Page 191] then Prelate had the ſame allowance, one Cloth of Violet in grain and other Materials. But the Diſcrimination was in the Bellies of Minevers, whoſe Number was now much encreaſed, and that the ſame allowance was beſtowed on him in the 11th and 19th Years of the ſaid King. But in theſe three Inſtances the Colour of the Cloth was different, and ſuitable to the Knights-Companions Surcoats, thoſe very Years, viz. Violet in grain, White and Blue, and Anno 1 2. Hen. VI. the Robe of Henry Beaufort, Cardinal and Prelate was White, as then were the Surcoats of the Knights-Companions, whence it is evident the Livery formerly allowed the Prelate annually varied in Colour, as did the Knights-Companions Surcoats.

IN that ancient Precedent of the Liveries of the Garter, remaining in the great Wardrobe, wherein the Surcoats of the Knights-Companions are reduced to a Stated proportion in the meaſure of the Cloth, number of Furs and Garters, modeled out according to their ſtate degrees, there the Prelate hath the following allowance for his Livery,
  • 24 Yards of Woollen Cloth.
    • 18 Timber pur
    • 18 Timber groſs.
  • 3 Timber de Biſs.

BY all which it is manifeſt what Materials and colour the Prelate's Robe was of at the inſtitution of the Order, and for a long time after, nor do we find any variation until the Reign of King Hen. VIII. and then this Habit was ordained to be Crimſon Velvet, lin'd with white Taffaty, faced with blue, and thereon down the opening before upon the bordures, ſundry Royal cognizances on the right ſide, the Roſe of England Crowned, on the left ſide oppoſite one of King Edw. IV's. Badges, viz. a Roſe within the Sun Beams Crowned; and then the aforeſaid Badges again vice verſa, with more Damaskings; on the right ſide the Flower de luce of France Crowned, and on the left ſide King Edw. III's. peculiar Badge, viz. The Sun Beams iſſuing out of a Cloud, and thoſe Badges repeated in alternate ſituations; every Badge interpolated, [Page 192] with an Area of Embroidered Damasking; For [...]y of theſe Clouds wrought of Gold, Silver and Silk, having in the middle the Saxon Letter E of Gold, were provided to him ſeveral Garments made for that King 21 Edw. III. and Embelliſhed with Stars. As the l [...]ft Shoulder of a Knight-Companions Mantle, ſo the right Shoulder of the Prelates Robe is injoyned to be Embroidred with a Scutcheon of St. George's Arms, encompaſſed with a Garter, and adorned with Cordons of blue Silk mingled with Gold. After a while the colour of this Robe became changed to Murray. The allowance of Velvet 16 Yards, of white Sarcenet for Lining 12 Yards, and a Garter for the Shoulder, Embroidred with Purls of Damask Gold. But 23 Eliz. for the Livery of Biſhop Watſon then newly admitted, the quantity of Velvet was encreaſed to 18 Yards; but the Lining and Garter remained as it was, ſo alſo the Cordon, having Buttons and Taſſels of blue Silk, and Venice Gold; the like Robe in all particulars were made for Biſhop Cooper, and Biſhop Bilſon, his Succeſſars, Temp. Eliz.

ABOUT 12 Car. I. the Prelate and Chancellor Petition'd the Sovereign to reſtore them their ancient Rights and Privileges of Honour, in relation to their Enſigns and Robes upon their outward Garments, whereupon 13 Car. I. it was Ordered in Chapter, that the Knights-Commiſſioners (newly Eſtabliſhed by that Chapter) ſhould take into their conſideration the Robes the Prelate and Chancellor were to be inveſted with, and certify the Sovereign the a [...]cient Colour and Faſhion; but nothing was effected untill after the Reſtoration, and then by Warrant under the Signet of the Order, Dated February 19. 13. Car. II. the Prelate had aſſigned him for his Livery of the Order, one Robe of Purple Velvet, containing 18 Yards, and 10 Yards of white Taffaty for Lining, as alſo the Arms of St. George within a Garter, wrought with Letters, and Purls of Damask, Gold and Pearls, having Laces, Buttons and Taſſels of purple Silk, and Venice Gold; but what inducements the Sovereign had for ſo changing the Murray Colour for Purple, has not reached our Intelligence. The time he is obliged to Wear this Robe, is in expreſs text [Page 193] of the Conſtitutions, to be Yearly on the Vigil and Day of St. George, whereſoever he is at liberty, whether it be in Parliament, or any other ſolemn Occaſion, or Feſtival whatſoever.

THE Honours conferred on this Officer, are, that his Poſt in all Proceedings and Ceremonies of the Order, is on the right Hand of the Chancellor; that he hath the Privilege of Marſhalling his Arms within the ennobled Garter, and accordingly hath it been cuſtomary to ſurround them, impaling his See. He hath allott [...]d him convenient Appartments within the Caſtle of Windſor, in a Tower Situated on the North-ſide, called Wincheſter Tower; and as often as he ſhall Arrive thither, or to any other Place at the Sovereign's Command, upon the Affairs of the Order, he ought to have a [...] lowed him of the Court Livery for Himſelf and Retinue, according to the Stipends, that Earls reſident in Court do poſſeſs. 2 Car. I. This Officer (ſo well as the Chancellor) had the Honour allowed him, to Wear upon the left Part of his Cloak, Coat, and riding Caſſock, at all ſeaſons, when he ſhould not be Inveſted with his Robe, and in all Places, and Aſſemblies, a Scutcheon of the Arms of St. George, but not inriched with Pearls and Stones. But not long after there was ſome reſtraint upon this Act, tho' I do not find it repealed.

8.2. 2

§ 2. THE inſtitution of the Chancellors Office, his Oath, Robe, Badge, and Penſion next follows to be handled. At the Erecting this Noble Order, the common Seal was ordained to remain in the cuſtody of whomſoever the Sovereign ſhould pleaſe to lodge it, but expreſly to be one of the Knights-Companions; among whom in after times, Sir John Robertſack is Stiled Cuſtos Si [...]illi Ordinis, having the cuſtody of it by Decree, 1. Hen. VI. by a Prolepſis of Speech, Styled Chancellor in the Black Book. But King Edw. IV. finding it requiſite to fix the Office of Chancellor of the Garter, in a Perſon diſtinct from the Knights-Companions, and ſubſervient to them, Decreed in a Chapter at Weſtminiſter, 16 R [...]gni ſui, That the Seal of the Order ſhould be reſigned to Richard Beauchamp, then Biſhop of Salisbury to keep [Page 194] during pleaſure, and he to be called Chancellor of this moſt noble Order; not long after by Letters Patent, under the Great Seal of England, Dated the 10th of Oct. 15. Edw. IV. this King declared, that tho' this Office was not expreſſed by the Founder's Statutes, yet was it nevertheleſs very uſeful, and therefore for the Advancement, and good of the Order, he conſtituted an Officer named Chancellor: And foraſmuch as this Office was of great Import and Concern, and required an expert and able Perſon, it was His further Pleaſure, that none but a Biſhop ſhould Execute it; moreover conſidering the Chapel of St. George at Windſor, was Founded within the Dioceſs of Salisbury, and having regard to the prudence and diligence of the ſaid Beauchamp, who out of meer love to the Order, attended daily the progreſs of the Work, wherewith the King was then in hand for enlarging the Chapel at Windſor; he did therefore Ordain the ſaid Biſhop for the Term of his Life, Chancellor of the Order, and after his deceaſe, his Succeſſors, Biſhops of Salisbury, ſhould always have and hold the ſaid Chancellor-ſhip; Nevertheleſs, provided that the King's Conceſſion ſhould be put in execution, by the Advice of the Knights-Companions, and without prejudice to the Biſhop of Wincheſter, in thoſe things which ought by the Statutes of Inſtitution to belong unto him.

THIS Office thus conferred upon Beauchamp perſonally for Life, and perpetually to his Succeſſors, Biſhops of Salisbury, by vertue of this Grant continued Chancellors, nor doth it appear that any other Perſon had been inveſted therein, until Ann. 7. E. VI. that Sir William Cecil, then principal Secretary of State, was made Chancellor.

FOR upon Reformation of the Order by that King, his Statutes wholly excluded the Eccleſiaſticks, and appointed that the Chancellors-Office ſhould be executed by a Knight qualified, with Honour and Reputation to manage a Poſt of that Care and Fidelity; he thereupon appointed Sir William Cecil, Chancellor; And here firſt entred a ſecular Perſon, notwithſtanding which in a Charter to the Biſhop of Salisbury, 4 Eliz. (containing the Charters of Queen Mary, H. VIII. and [Page 195] H. VII. and in another 4. Car. I. the forementioned Letters Patents, made to Beauchamp, by King Edw. IV. are therein recited totidem verbis, and confirmed as a Tacit Reſervation of the Right and Title of thoſe Biſhops, whenſoever the Sovereign ſhould have a benign and propitious Aſpect towards that See. The firſt of theſe Biſhops who concerned himſelf for recovering this high Station to that See, was Biſhop Cotton, who upon the Death of Sir Edward Dyer, ſometime Chancellor, Petitioned the Sovereign, 6. Jac. I. and prayed Reſtitution thereof to the Church of Salisbury; but before any determination, the two chief Juſtices, and chief Baron was adviſed withal, who were of Opinion, that this Office was not compleatly or ſufficiently annexed to the Biſhoprick of Salisbury by King Edw. IV. But Cook in his Inſtitutes, reports the point Void, upon the incertainty of the Grant, for that a new Office was Erected, and not defined what Juriſdiction or Authority the Officer ſhould Exerciſe; and there's aſſigned a third Reaſon, That the Grant was in the Sovereign's diſpoſal, becauſe the Patent was obtained without Fee; with one or more of theſe Opinions, the Sovereign's judgment being ſwayed, He forthwith nominated Sir John Herbert, one of His privy Council to the Chancellorſhip, and ſo this affair remained Silent, until Anno 12. Car. I. when John Davenant, Biſhop of Salisbury, upon Sir Francis C [...]anes deceaſe, remonſtrated to the Sovereign his Claim to this Office, whereupon at a Chapter held at Windſor, 5th of Dec. that Year, the Sovereign propos'd to the Knights-Companions preſent, that tho' he had made Election of Sir Thomas Rowe for his Chancellor that time, yet underſtanding a Claim made by the Biſhop of Salisbury, that the Place was annexed to that See, he commanded the Lords-Companions to take the pretence of right into their conſiderations; to which propoſition of the King's, they anſwered that they thought it not their duty to ſearch for the Title of any Perſon, but that if the Biſhop did produce his Evidence and Proofs, he might preſent it in Chapter to be conſidered.

UPON this Encouragement, the Biſhop preſented a Petition, which was read in the Chapter at Windſor, [Page 196] the 18th of April enſuing, to this effect, That King Edw. IV, by Letters Patent, had Erected this Office of Chancellor, and did then grant the ſame to Richard Beauchamp, Biſhop of Salisbury, and his Succeſſors for ever, in conſideration that the Chapel of St. George was within their Dioceſs; that thoſe Biſhops had enjoyed the ſame, according to the Charter, which Charter had been confirmed under the Great Seal of England, by ſome other Kings and Queens, and laſtly by the King himſelf. But that the uſe and exerciſe of that Office had for many Years been diſcontinued from them, praying therefore an Hearing, and Examination, that the right of the ſaid Church might be preſerved and reſtored. To the ſubſtance of which it was objected.

Firſt, THAT the Great Seals of England did not work within, or upon the Statutes and Rules of the Order of the Garter.

Second, THAT no Grant could preſcribe the preſent Sovereign, it being a Law Fundamental within the Order, Suprema Lex was Suprema Voluntas.

Third, THAT it did not appear by the Records of the Order, that the Office of the Chancellor was any otherwiſe conferred upon Richard Beauchamp, Biſhop of Salisbury, than quam diu Regiae celſitudini complaceret.

TO the Firſt, It was anſwered by way of Exception, as to the Grant of Offices, foraſmuch as the Great Seal of England was took into, and became legal within the Order in like caſes; and not any Patent for an Office, had paſt under the Seal of the Order, but under the Great Seal of England, and in particular the Office of the Chancellor-ſhip, which had not been tranſacted, if any legal defect had been therein.

TO the Second, granting it was ſo as was Objected, it appeared that the Sovereign was as much at liberty to reſtore this Office to the See of Salisbury, as continue it to ſecular Dignities.

TO the Third, what was alledged out of the Records of the Order, related only to the time of delivering the Seals to Biſhop Bea [...]champ: But afterwards when the Office was Erected by Letters Patent, it was then granted to him during Life. Something was replied from the Judges Opinions, even in this caſe, Ann. Jac. [Page 197] R. VI. But the Sovereign thought it was not then well canvaſs'd and weighed, to permit the Chapter Acts of this Order, wholly independant from other Laws, to receive conſtruction and determination from the common Law, and therefore declared that the Biſhop ought to be heard; and to that purpoſe, gave him Orders to prepare the Vouchers and Proofs of his pretenſions in vindication of his Petition, and to ſend them to be delivered to the Knights-Commiſſioners, elected for the affairs of the Order, for their conſideration at the next Chapter, which was accordingly put in execution, and then refierred to them again to be conſidered, prepared and abbreviated, to be peruſed by the Sovereign, for his final determination. But the Scotch War ſhortly after breaking forth, and troubles running high at Home, the further Proſecution was laid aſide, and not revived until the 19th of Nov. Anno 21. Car. II. When Seth Ward, Biſhop of Salisbury, took encouragement upon the former grounds, and the Sovereign's favour, to ſet on foot this Claim, by a Petition preſented to the Chapter then held at Whitehall, where, after a full debate and mature deliberation had of its equity and juſt Foundation, he obtained a Decree for Re-eſtabliſhment of this Office on the Biſhops of that See, upon the firſt vacancy, Dated the 19th of Nov. 1669. and preſent his Majeſty the Sovereign, the Dukes of York, and Ormond, Earls of Oxford and Mancheſter, Prince Rupert, Earls of Briſtol and Sandwich, and the Duke of Monmouth.

8.2.1. Of the OATH.

THE Oath the Chancellor takes at his Admiſſion which we find to be the ſame with the Prelates, and in the like humble Poſture upon the Knee, and uſually Adminiſtred by the Regiſter of the Order. As to his Robe, it was at firſt the ſame with the Prelates, both for Cloth and Colour, but his proportion of Cloth far leſs, having allowed him but 5 Yards, when the Prelate had 24, nor but 3 Timber of Minever groſs, where the Prelate had 19, beſide a large quantity of other Furs; nor was the Colour confined to one kind, until the conſtitutions of this Office appointed it to be [Page 198] Crimſon, as was the Prelates, for no doubt it was before annually changed, as his was to the Colour of the Knights-Companions Surcoats; however by the Picture of the ancient Habits of the Officers, it is conſpicuous, it was debared the Royal Badges, wherewith the Prelates Roſe was Embroidred; when the Colour of the Prelates Robe was changed to Murray, the Chancellors had the ſame Alteration and was Trim'd alike in all other particulars. The proportion allowed to Sir Thomas Smith for his Livery, Anno 14. Eliz. was 18 Yards of Murray Velvet, 12 Yards of Sarcenet for the Lining, one Garter wrought with Pearls of Damask Gold for the Shoulder, one Lace (or Cordon) with Buttons, and Taſſels of blue Silk and Venice Gold, and the ſame Materials and Quantities were afterwards diſtributed out of the Sovereigns great Wardrobe, to the ſucceeding Chancellors.

BUT Anno 13. Car. I. The Prelate and Chancellor endeavouring a Reformation in this Habit, the Dye both of the Prelates and this Officers Robe was changed into Purple.

BESIDES this Robe, the Chancellor of the Order hath an honourable Badge of Diſtinction aſſigned him to wear, firſt granted to Sir William Peters and his Succeſſors, the 9th of October, 1 and 2 Ph. and Mar. viz. a golden Roſe encloſed within a Garter, which he and his Succeſſors, Chancellors of the Order, have ever ſince worn daily about their Necks; at firſt it was Pendant in a Gold-Chain, but ſince in a Purple Ribband. It ſeems ſomething of this Deſign had been in Agitation a little before, ſo ſoon as the Chancellorſhip became veſted in a Layman; for King Edward VI's Statutes did Ordain, That the Chancellor ſhould wear about his Neck a Croſs of the Order, with a red Roſe, in a white, of Gold, all compaſſed within a Garland of red and white Roſes.

AND becauſe it was ſuggeſted to King Charles I. That there were different Accounts and Uncertainties contained in ſome Books concerning the Wearing of this Badge, He, by Warrant dated at Oxford the 16th of December in the 21ſt Year of his Reign, 1645. ordained Sir James Palmer Kt. and Bart. Chancellor of the ſaid Order, (and his Succeſſors) ſhould wear about his Neck at [Page 199] all times in Honour of his ſaid Place, (that thereby he may be known to be of that Office and Dignity, as hath been accuſtomed) a Medal or Jewel of Gold enamelled with a red Roſe [...] (within a Garter of Blue enamel, with this Sentence inſcribed, Hony ſoit qui mal y penſe) or ſuch an one as we or the reſt of the Knights-Companions of the ſaid Moſt Noble Order of the Garter do or ſhall from time to time hereafter wear in our Collars of the ſaid Order in particular Reference to us or them. And in the Reverſe thereof, he ſhall bear the Eſcutcheon of St. George enamelled within a Garter alſo in reference to the Order it ſelf, which he only ſhall wear hanging by a light purple Ribband, or in a gold Chain, as hath been accuſtomed.

AMONG the Officers of the Order, the Chancellor is ſeated next beneath the Prelate, and in all Proceedings and Seſſions, goeth, and ſitteth, on his left Hand: And as it was ordered by the Conſtitutions of the Officers, That if the Chancellor hapned to be a Layman, he ſhould be alſo a Knight, and have other perſonal Endowments. So did King Charles I. conceive it requiſite to confer ſome further Mark of Diſtinction upon this Officer, in relation to Place and Precedence without the Order; to which effect, there paſſed a Decree in a Chapter aſſembled by the Sovereign at Whitehall, the 23d of April, 1623. preſent, the Earls of Mulgrave, Montgomery, Rutland, Carliſle, Holland, Suffolk, Pembroke, Arundel and Surrey, Salisbury, Dorſet, Bark-ſhire and Northampton, That Sir Francis Crane, the preſent Chancellor, and all others that ſhould ſucceed him in that Place hereafter, ſhall, in right of that Place, in all Aſſemblies, and upon all Occaſions, be ranked and placed immediately aft [...]r Knights-Privy-Councellors, and before the Chancellor of the Exchequer, the Perſons holding both Places, being in Pari gradu, and conſequently before all others, whom the ſaid Chancellor is to precede, &c.

AND to the intent the Chancellor of the Exchequer's Place may be certainly known, May the 20th, 21 Jac. I. it was thus eſtabliſhed, That the Knights of the Moſt Noble Order of the Garter, the Privy-Councellors, the Maſter of the Courts of Wards and Liveries, the Chancellor and Under Treaſurer of the Exchequer, Chancellor of the Dutchy, the Chief Juſtice of the Court of King's Bench, the Maſter of the Rolls, the Chief Juſtice of the Court of Common-Pleas, the Chief Baron of the Exchequer, and all other Judges and Barons [Page 200] of the Degree of the Coif, ſhould have Place and Precedency in all Places, and upon all Occaſions before the younger Sons of Viſcounts and Barons, and before all Baronets, &c.

THE aforeſaid Conſtitutions provide the Chancellor of the Order an Habitation within the Caſtle of Windſor, as well as the Prelate, which is the South-Weſt Tower in the lower Ward of the Caſtle, call'd the Chancellor's Tower. The Poſſeſſion thereof had been for ſome time in the Power of others; and therefore by a Chapter convened at White-hall, Nov. 5th, 5 Car. I. it was reſtored unto Sir Francis Crane, then Chan [...]ellor of the Order, and after his Deceaſe, to deſcend to his Succeſſors. Theſe Conſtitutions alſo ordained him the like Liveries at the Table and Court of the Sovereign, as were allowed to the Prelate.

AT the firſt Erection of this Office, the Chancellor had no Penſion awarded him, until the Conſtitutions in reference to the Officers were Eſtabliſhed. At that time there was conferr'd on him a Penſion of 100l. per Annum, in conſideration of his Employment, or elſe an allowance proportionate in Fees, Offices or other Promotions, over and above his Lodgings in the Caſtle, and Liveries at Court. But as to Fees and Perquiſites, there are none to be Claimed by this Officer; and for that Reaſon, he not only poſſeſſes the ſaid Penſion, but all his disburſements allowed him, even to Paper, Wax, and Wafers; and indeed thoſe who enjoyed the Office eſteem'd it as a degradation of their Poſt, to receive either fee, or gratuity for any affair Tranſacted within the Order; and Sir Thomas Rowe, ſometime Chancellor, affirmed That his Office was an Office of Honour, and not of Fees, and that he had always excepted againſt Fees, for the disburſement of the Sovereign's Money: Tho' he acknowledged ſome had beſtowed on his Clerk a ſmall gratuity, for the bare Ingroſſing of an Alms Knights Patent, but nothing farther.

AND becauſe the Cuſtody of the Seals of the Order, appertains to this Officer; it will be here the fitteſt Place to mention ſomething of them. By the Statutes of Edw. III. they were to have a Common Seal. This is confirmed by the Statutes of King Hen. V. and ſince named the Great Seal of the Order. The uſe of this is [Page 201] not only to Seal the Original Statutes, appointed to remain perpetually within the Treaſury of Windſor College, as alſo thoſe Copies of which each Knight-Companion is obliged to conſerve one, but likewiſe all Letters of Licence to any of the Knights-Companions deſirous of winning Honour abroad, and all Mandates and Certificates, relating to the Order.

AFTER what Model the firſt Seal was compos'd, we have no exact Relation. Polydore Virgil tells us, That when the Founder of the Order had fixed Choice of St. George for its Patron, he repreſented him Armed, and Mounted on an Horſe, bearing a Silver Shield, and thereon a Red Croſs, but whether St. George thus deſigned, was on the firſt Seal, or only a Scutcheon of his Arms, as in latter times, is uncertain. But his Author obſerves that the Founder Habited his Soldiers in white Jackets or Coats, and on their Breaſts and Backs ſowed Red Croſſes, parallel to the Arms aſſigned to St. George, as well as to the Kingdom of England, put under his Patronage, which Arms the Sovereigns of the Order, have ever ſince exhibied in their Standards. But beſides this Common Seal King Hen. V. in the 9th Year of his Reign, Inſtituted a privy Signet, in caſe the Sovereign ſhould be called out of this Kingdom upon weighty Affairs. The intent thereof was to affix it to all Acts paſſed by the Sovereign beyond Sea, to diſtinguiſh them from thoſe of his Deputies in England. King Hen. VIII's Statutes, Ordain the making both of a Common Seal and Signet, and direct that the Arms of the Order ſhould be Engraven upon each of them. The Common Seal uſed in his Reign was a Garter, within it a Shield having the Croſs of St. George, impaling the National Arms, the ſaid Shield encompaſſed with two Branches hanging from the Regal Crown, which debruſes part of the Garter; the Signet being deſigned after the ſame manner, but leſs: Temp. Jac. I. it ſuffered no other alteration, but only in the National Arms, by admitting the Quarterings of Scotland and Ireland, and new-faſhioning the Crown, omitting the ſuſpenſion of the Shield.

THERE was a Seal made at the beginning of the Reign of King Cha. I. which being eſteemed too little for the Grandure and Honour of the Sovereigns Commiſſions, [Page 202] it was afterwards Decreed in Chapter, held 18th of April. 13. Car. I. That a new one ſhould be made of a larger Size, with the accuſtomed Arms and Motto, and the care thereof commited to Sir Thomas Rowe, Chancellor; which Command he Executed with all due care and regard, as is manifeſtly evident by the nobleneſs of the deſign: One Repreſentation being St. George, in Armour, adorned with a waveing Mantle, his Bever open, his Helmet plumed, holding a Shield of his Arms in his left Hand, and ſtriking with a Sword in his right, his Body mounted on a bold Horſe, Trampling over a Dragon, which Aſſails the Champion, the whole Figure is well contracted, and the Sun, a Rock, the Bones of devoured Men, and a Mountain in Lointon, in it is Circumſcribed, Magnum ſigillum Nobilis Ordinis Garterij; having the enrichments of feſtons between every Word placed pentagonally: The other Repreſentation, is the Royal Garter imperially Crowned, encloſing a Shield of the Arms of St. George, impaling the Sovereign's Arms, the ſame Bordered with Fret-work, and other Ornaments in Cartouche. In the ſame decree, direction was given alſo for a new Signet, the former being thought too big for Letters, and this was an Oval ſhaped ſo from its Impreſſion, which was the Garter Crowned, wherein was St. George, and the Sovereigns Arms impaled.

IT was at the ſame Chapter further 'decreed; ‘That all Legations to deliver this Order to Foreign Princes, all other Acts, bearing the Stile of Commiſſions, all Patents of Offices and Fees, all Grants or Licences ſent out of the Kingdom, ſhould be Sealed with this Seal, which ſhould be henceforward called the Great Seal of the Order; ſo alſo the Book of Statutes, ſent to Elect Knights or Foreign Princes, being fixed to a Label of Blue Silk, and held according to antient Cuſtom; and that all Letters concerning the Order, whether of ſignification of Election, or Lieutenancy, or Summons upon prorogation, or other Directions from the Sovereign, ſhould only be Sealed with the Signet: Moreover, theſe Seals were appointed to be thenceforth Born before the Sovereign in all Publick Aſſemblies, during the [Page 203] Celebration of St. George's Feaſt, or in other its Solemnities by the Chancellor of the Order, in a Purſe of blue Velvet,’ and Command given to Sir Thomas Rowe, to provid one a [...]cordingly; on the foreſide of which Purſe was richly Embroidred (by a Gold-Smith) with Venice Gold and Silver, Gold and Silver Purls and Plates, and variety of Naples Silks, the Arms of St. George impaling the Sovereign, ſurrounded with a Garter Crowned, having a very fair Running Work, or Compartment round about it, the charge of which amounted to 13 l. 16 s. 10 d.

BY the Statutes of Inſtitution, it was ordained, That in caſe the Knights-Companions, to whoſe care the Sovereign did commit the Seal of the Order, ſhould upon lawful Occaſions, be abſent from Court, it behoves him to leave it behind him, with ſome other Knight-Companion to preſent, to the Sovereign, to the intent it might be always in readineſs; but if the Sovereign be out of His Kingdom, then the diſpoſal of it, was commited to the Deputies, and the Signet of the Order ſhould have a Warrant for all ſuch Acts and Decrees as ſhould b [...] confirmed there.

THE diſtance from Court was by the Conſtitutions, reſtricted to 10 Miles, and by the Statutes of King Hen. VIII. to 20. upon conſideration whereof we find Sir Thomas Rowe Chancellor, having ſome occaſions, A [...]no 13 Car. I. to be abſent above 20 Miles, tendred the Seals to the Sovereign, who was pleaſed to diſpence with the Statutes, and permitted him to keep them nevertheleſs.

8.3. 3

§ 3. THE Regiſters Oath, Mantle, Badge, Privileges and Penſion, fall next under our conſideration; he was one of the three, Conſtituted at the Inſtitution of the Order, under the Title of Regiſtrator and Regiſtrarius, and ſo is called in the Statutes of King Hen. V. elſewhere in the Books of the Order, Scriba and Actuarius. What were the firſt Regiſters, names we cannot diſcover, till the Reign of King Hen. V. But it may be preſumed, they were Canons of Windſor; becauſe this Office was at firſt aſſigned to one of that College; beſides the Regiſters from the Reign of King Henry V. to the beginning of King Henry VIIIth Reign, were alſo Canons of this College, among [Page 204] whom was John Coningham, (and the firſt found called ſo) as the Fragments of a Glaſs Inſcription in Clare Church near Windſor, where he was Rector, atteſts. The firſt Dean of Windſor, Conſtituted Regiſter of the Order was John Veſey, Anno 8. Hen. VIII. many of whoſe Succeſſors in this Deanry, have ſince been admitted; nevertheleſs, as they were Canons not Deans of Windſor, and tis not improbable the Deans were Elected to this Office, as being enabled to ſupport the Reputation of the Regiſterſhip, with the Revenue of his Deanry, better than any of the Canons, with the addition of the Penſion. But at a Chapter held at Whitehall, the 22d of April, 11 Car. I. The Sovereign thought it convenient that the Office of Dean and Regiſter ſhould concenter in one and the ſame Perſon, as formerly, and therefore commanded this his Pleaſuer to be Enrolled among the Annals of the Order, that ſo it might paſs in the future Times, from Example into Rule.

BY the Conſtitutions of the Office, a ſecular Perſon is made capable of it, no leſs than an Eccleſiaſtick, how be it, He is to be a Man of ſingular integrity, eminent quality, a Knight, and ſignalized for Experience and Learning; but if an Eccleſiaſtick, then muſt he be a Perſon of conſummate Erudition, a profeſſor of Divinity or Law, either Canon, or Civil, and a Dignitarian in ſome Cathedral Church, or elſe a Canon at Windſor.

THE ſubſtance of his Oath in the Statute of the Inſtitutions was, That he ſhould enter upon the Regiſtry, with all Fidelity, the Scrutinies, Elections, Penalties, Reconciliations, and all other Acts relating to the Order, to which was added, that he ſhall faithfully Diſcharge his Duty in all things. But in King Hen. VIIIth Days, the Oath enjoyned him, differs nothing from that of the Prelates and Chancellors.

AT his Admiſſion, he takes this Oath Kneeling, while the Prelate uſed to pronounce the Words as Anno 1 Mar. 5. and 6. Ph. and Mar. but in his abſence, as Anno 3 Eliz. the Chancellor adminiſtred it. Anno 4. Car. I. the Prelate, Chancellor, and Regiſter, took their Oaths at one time, and then it was thus Ordered; firſt the Regiſter took it Kneeling between the Sovereign's Knees, the Black Rod holding the Evangeliſts, and the Garter [Page 205] read the Words out of the black Book; this done, the Regiſter read the Words of the Prelates Oath, when he was Sworn; and in the laſt place, did the like to the Chancellor; after this manner did Garter read the Words to the Regiſters, admitted 11 Car. I. and 12 Car. II. We cannot trace the Habit this Officer had aſſigned him at the Erection of the Order; but it afterwards appears, that his Allowance was the ſame with the Chancellors, conſiſting of 5 Yards of Woollen Cloth, and 3 Timber of Minever groſs, equalent to what thoſe Knights-Companions had allotted, who were under the degree of an Earl: The Habit he is pourtrayed in, at a proceeding of King Hen. VIIIth Reign, ſhews it to be Eccleſiaſtical, a black Gown, a Surplice over that, reaching to his Ancles, and thereon a Mantle of Furs; but the Conſtitutions of his Office reſtricted him to none, wherein there ſeems a defect, ſince they have aſſignd Habits to the Garter, and black Rod. Notwithſtanding by a Draught of the Officers in their ancient Dreſs, it is plainly demonſtrable to be a Mantle, ſomewhat of a Ruſſel colour, Faced with a Pane of blue, whereon is Embroidred a Flower-deluce Crowned Gold, then another Pane red, thereon a Lyon Paſſant gardant Crowned Gold, and ſo they are alternately placed to the bottom; to this Mantle belong Cordons of Silk, blue and yellow.

SINCE that time, not only the Regiſters, but alſo Garters and Black Rods, Robes, underwent ſome Alterations; for by a Decree in Chapter, called at St. James, Jun. 1. 4 and 5. Ph. and Mar. theſe Officers were aſſigned Mantles of crimſon Satin, Lined with Taffaty, and a Scutcheon of St. George's Arms, Embroidred on the left Shoulder, but not encircled with a Garter, having the ſame Buttons and Taſſels as wereappointed to the Prelate and Chancellor; the proportion of Satin aſſigned to each Mantle, was 14 Yards, and as many Yards of white Taffaty.

AND tho' the Regiſters Mantle was Ann. 27 Eliz. compoſed of the preceeding Materials, and had like Trimming, yet they agree not in their Proportions, here being allowed 18 Yards of crimſon Satin, and but 12 of Taffaty; from hence theſe Mantles continued immutable [Page 206] until the 20th of Feb. 13 Car. II. when there Iſſued a Warrant to the Maſter of the great Wardrobe, to prepare for this Officer, as alſo for Garter, and the Black Rod, for their Liveries Mantles of ſcarlet Satin, each containing 18, and 10 Yards of white Taffaty for Lining, but conſonant in all other Punctilio's with the former; yet why the colour was altered, is not expreſſed.

THE Regiſter ſeems to have been repreſented with a Scrowle in his Hand, for his Badge, and by the proceedings in Queen Elizabeth's Reign, Pictured with a Book, both proper Symbols of his Office. In Dr. Chriſtopher Wren's Regiſterſhip, the Sovereign Commanded him to cover the red Book of the Order with crimſon Velvet, and aſſigned for the Garter, two Pens in Saltire, interlacing the Garter above with theſe two Letters C R Crowned, all being richly Embroidred, (as alſo the Border) with Venice Gold and Silver, and various colours of Naples Silk, by Harriſon the Sovereign's Embroiderer, with a Claſp, in Imitation of the Garter, ſurrounding the Repreſentation of St. George, which coſt 12 l. 17 s. 6 d. This Book he was Ordered to bear before his Breaſt, on all Solemn Occaſions when he wore his Mantle, and for his better Convenience, he made a Belt and an Ouch to hang it by.

So high a Regard had the Sovereigns of this Order, not only to this Officer, but likewiſe to Garter and Black Rod, that they took them into a particular Protection, and by the Conſtitutions of their Offices granted them, ‘That they, their Goods and Servants ſhould ſeverally remain under the Safe-guard of the Sovereign; and if any Injury or Violence ſhould chance to be offered them either by Subjects or Forreigners, whenſoever they ſhould exhibit their Complaint to the Sovereign, either himſelf or the Knights-Companions ſhould afford them Juſtice [...] but if the adverſe Party ſhould refuſe to ſubmit his Cauſe to the Sovereign, then the Sovereign and Knights-Companions ſhould ſhew themſelves ſo far inclinable towards theſe Officers, as to be ready to allow them all favour, countenance, &c.’ conſiſtent with Juſtice and Equity.

[Page 207] UPON the ſtrength and Security of this ancient Privilege, to avoid the prolongation of a Law Suit, Dr. Chriſtopher Wren Regiſter, Petitioned the Sovereign in Chapter, held at Whitehall, the 19th of April, 13 Car. I. againſt one Thornhill, who under Pretence of Digging for Salt-Peter, had ſo Undermined his Pigeonhouſe, Built on the Rectory of Kno [...]l Magna in Wiltſh. that it fell down; and upon reading of the Petition, it was reſolved by the Sovereign, and Knights-Companions, ‘That they would confider the Grant in the Conſtitutions, and, until it was farther declared, the Chancellor of the Order ſhould have Power upon Information of any rigour upon Controverſe begun in any other Court, to write Letters under the Signet of the Order, that all vexation againſt them ſhould be ſuperſeded until Information of the cauſe were given to and determination in the Cauſe reſumed by the Sovereign, or leave of him obtained to Proceed.’ After this it is ſet down, that Thornhill was Summoned before the Lords Commiſſioners of the Navy, and his negative Anſwer given in, and repreſented to the Sovereign in another Chapter, conven'd the 4th of October enſuing; whereupon it was ordered, ‘That the Chancellor ſhould write to the ſame Lords Commiſſioners, and another to the Earls of Pembroke, Arundel and Dorſet, three of the Knights-Companions, to Empower them, that they or any three of them, ſhould cauſe the ſaid Thornhill to be brought before them, and likewiſe write to any of the Inhahitants of Knoil, to view and teſtifie the Truth, to hear any further proof on the behalf of either Party, and to give Sentence according to Juſtice, that ſo a tedious Suit of Law might be prevented, and the Dignity of this moſt noble Order protected.’ Theſe Commands of the Chancellor being Executed, and Certificates returned from the Country, the Knigh [...]s Companions, in a Chapter held the 23th of May, 14 Car. I. were moved to peruſe them; but before they could meet, Thornhill fled, and the Proſecution of this buſineſs ceaſed. Upon the ſame footing was it, that the ſaid Dr. Wren obtained from King Cha. I. His Gracious Protection for himſelf, Servants, and Eſtate, literally expreſſed in the late War, as t [...] [Page 208] Violaters of that Order would anſwer this our contrary at their Peril, Da [...]ed at Oxford, under the Signet of this our Order the 12th Day of Dec. in the 19th Year of our Reign.

THIS Officer by the Conſtitutions hath a Penſion of 50 l. per Annum, or proportionable in Fees, Offices, or other Emoluments; and Ann. 1. and 2 Ph. and Mar. the ſame numerical Penſion was conferred on Owen Oglethorp, Dean of Windſor, out of the Exchequer, until ſome Eccleſiaſtical Preferment of like value ſhould devolve on him. The ſame was confirmed to Dr. Maxey, by Decree in Chapter, 16 Jac. I. and afterwards to Dr. Beaumont, by Letters Patent, under the Great Seal of [...]ngland, 20 Jac. I. but there needed no Allotment of Lodgings at Windſor to this Officer, as there was to the reſt, ſince both the Canons and Dean were provided of Houſes belonging to their Eccleſiaſtical Dignities within the College, at the Er [...]ction of the Order.

8.4. 4

§ 4. THE fourth Officer of the Order is Garter. He was ordained by King Henry V. with the advice and conſent of all the Knights-Companions, who for the Honour of the Order, was pleaſed he ſhould be the principal Officer within the College of Arms, and chief of the Heralds. The Services enjoyned him, relating to the Order, were in preceding Times, performed by the Windſor Herald of Arms, an Officer created with that Title by K. Edward III. much about the time of his Erecting this Order, and an Annual Penſion of 20 Marks, payable out of the Exchequer, by Letters Patent for Life, which was confirmed by King R. II.

SIR William Brugges was the Perſon firſt created Garter, and called in the Inſtitution of his Office, Jartier Roy d'armys des Anglois, but elſewhere ſtiled Willielmus Brugges, alias Dictus, Gartier Rex Armorum. This Sir William became a great Benefactor to St. George's Church at Stamford, and in the Windows of the Chancel cauſed to be Repreſented King Edward III. with his twenty five Knights-Companions kneeling, Habited in their Mantles and Surcoats of Arms, but now much ſhattered and defaced; John Smert his Succeſſor had this Office conferred on him by Letters Patents, under this Title Rex Armorum de Garteria, and John Wrythe was ſtiled [Page 209] Principalis Heraldus, & Officiarius inclyti Ordinis Garterij, Armorum que Rex Anglicorum, but Sir Gilbe rt Dethick leaving out Heraldus joyned Principalis Rex, which ſtill continues.

IN the Conſtitutions of his Office he is called Garterus, R [...]x Armorum Angliae, whom the Sovereign and Knights-Companions have decreed to be a Gentleman of Blood and Arms, of unſpotted Reputation, and Born within the Kingdom of England; beſides as King Hen. V. did before, ſo doth King Hen. VIII. declare that he ſhall be chief of all the O [...]ficers of Arms, dependant upon the Crown of England.

THE ſubſtance of his Oath adminiſtred by the Regiſter at his admiſſion, whilſt he humbly kneeleth at the Sovereign's Feet, in the Chapter Houſe; is,

1. To yield Obedienc [...] to the Sovereign, and Knights-Companions.

2. To k [...]ep Silence, and not diſcloſe the Secrets of the Order.

3. To m [...]ke ſignification of the Death of each Knight-Companion.

4. To execute all things fa [...]thfully committed to his Care.

5. To enquire diligently after all the noble Acts of the Knights-Companions, and certifie them to the Regiſter.

6. To be faithful in the exerciſe of his Office.

AND ſuch an Oath Sir Chriſtopher Barker took at a Chapter held at Greenwich 28 Hen. VIII. when he was made Garter.

AS for a particular Habit, we do not find any inſerted in the Great Wardrobe, whence it is preſu [...]ed, he was at firſt diſtinguiſhed from the reſt of the Officers of the Order, by his Coat Embroidred with the Sovereign's Arms, like as the Provincial King's then wore. But after the Conſtitutions of the Officers were Eſtab [...]iſhed, there was aſſigned him a Habit or Mantle in all reſpects, reſembling the Regiſter, (ſaving that the Ground whereon the Lyons and flower-de-luces were Embroidred, was entirely Red) and this to b [...] wore only at the publick Solemnities of the Order. Queen Mary Commanded it to be made of crimſon S [...]tin, and ſo it remained till the Reſtoration, when the Colour was altered to ſcarlet.

[Page 210] THIS Officer is appointed to bear a white Rod or Scepter at every Feaſt of St. George, the Sovereign being preſent, gilded at both ends, and at the top the Arms of the Order impaling the Sovereign's Arms pourtray'd on an oblong Cube Crowned, but no directions are given in the Conſtitutions for this Crown, no [...] for that Ducal one on his Head wherewith his Effigies has been repreſented, and yet at all great Solemnities is never uſed that we can diſcover. There was aſſigned him by Queen Eliz. a Badge of Gold to be worn daily by him and his Succeſſors, before the Breaſt, in a gold Chain or Ribband, and thereon Ennamelled the Sovereign's Arms, Crowned with an Imperial Crown, and both ſurrounded with the Garter: But Sir Edward Walker when made Garter, obtained the Sovereign's leave to Impale therein St. Georges's Arms, with thoſe of the Sovereign's, which Badge is alike on both ſides.

THERE is an Houſe appointed for his Habitation within Windſor Caſtle, called Garters Tower. It was by Chapter annexed for ever to the Office of Garter, and reſtored to Sir William Segar's Poſſeſſion, 2d of May, 1630. By the Conſtitution of his Office, he is to be allowed Barons Service in the Sovereign's Court, and his Table Served next after the Dean of the Chapel, with ſuch Liveries as of old were accuſtomed.

IT appears that King Hen. V. after his erecting this Office, died before he had ſettled a Penſion upon Sir William Brugges, for ſupportation of his little Eſtate, which the Knights-Companions taking into conſideration, and that he might more honourably comport himſelf to the Service of the Order, till the young King ſhould come to Age, they being aſſembled in a Chapter, with the conſent of the Prelate, decreed the ſaid Sir William to receive of each of them at every Feaſt of St. George, as is ſet down, viz.
  • Of the Biſhop of Wincheſter Prelate 5 Marks.
  • Dukes— 5 Marks.
Of every
  • Earl— 6 Nobles.
  • Baron or Baronet 4 Nobles.
  • Knight Batchelor 2 Nobles.

[Page 211] THE firſt payment was agreed to be pay'd down, and ſo to remain in force annually with requeſt to the abſent Knights, that for the Honour of the Order, and cauſes in th [...] Inſtrument expreſs'd, they would approve of their Ordinance which paſſed under the Seal of the Order, Dated at Windſor, 1422. Afterwards King Hen. VI. in conſideration of his Services to his Father and himſelf, with conſent of his Council, granted to the ſaid Brugges, by Letters Patent, a Penſion of 20 l. [...]er Annum, out of the Fee Farm of the City of Wincheſter during his pleaſure, which Penſion upon the ſurrender of his Patent he granted anew to him and Agne [...] his Wife, for their Lives and the longer liver of them; and when this Office upon Sir William Brugges death, was devolved on John Sm [...]rt, Guyenne herald (3 April 28 Hen. VI.) he had the yearly Sum of 20 l. granted him therewith for Life out of the Exchequer: But his Succeſſor John Wrythe, Norroy, obtained an increaſe of Penſion to 40 l. per Annum, made payable out of the ſmall Cuſtoms of the City of London; this annual Sum was afterwards confirmed to Garter by the Conſtitution of his Office, and an Augmentation from the then Knights-Companions additional to the Penſions granted by their Predeceſſors, upon the Death of King Hen. V.

  • A Duke— 4 Pounds.
  • A Marqueſs— 5 Marks.
  • An Earl— 4 Marks.
  • A Baron— 6 Nobles.
  • A Knight Batchelor 4 Nobles.

IN ſucceeding times the Sovereign thought fit to augment this Penſion to 50 l. per Annum, (now payable out of the Revenue ſettled upon the Order,) and the Knights-Companions yet to enlarge their Sallery, which they did, (the Sovereign aſſenting) by the decree made in a Chapter held at Windſor 13, 14, and 15. Sept. An. 1617. wherein it was ordained, That their Officer Sir William Segar Garter Knight, King of Arms of that Order ſhould then, and from thenceforth have renew'd and paid unto him certain annual Fees and Penſions, anciently enjoyed by his Predeceſſors, with a ſurplus of 10 l. per Annum, which his Majeſty's Act of Royal Bounty, hath given to [Page 212] his ſaid Servant for his better ſupport and maintenance, as alſo of Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, the Sum of 8 l. and of every Duke of the Blood 6 l. all other Eſtates, viz. a Duke not of the Blood 4 l. a Marqueſs 5 Marks, an Earl 4 Marks, a Viſcount 7 Nobles, a Baron 40 s. and a Knight Batchelor that ſhall be of the Order, 26 s. 8 d. all which ſaid Sums of Money, according to the ſeveral degrees of their Eſtates, are to be paid, (continues the Decree) unto the ſaid Garter or his aſſigns yearly at St. Georges's Feaſt, or immediately after, as well by the Knights then preſent, as by thoſe that ſhall be abſent, or hereafter are to ſucceed in the ſaid Order; and after the deceaſe of the ſaid Garter, to his Succeſſors for ever.

AT St. Georges's Feaſt, Celebrated at Windſor, 22, 23, and 24 of April, Anno 15 Car. II. Sir Edward Walker then Garter, repreſenting by Petition, that the annual Penſion of the inſtalled Knights then in Arrear for one Year, amounted to 94 l. 13 s. 4 d. according to their proper proportion, the Sovereigns Share, (he being to pay for all ſtranger Knights) amounted at that time, to 32l. 13s. 4d. and humbly praying that his Majeſty would grant to him and his Succeſſors an 100 l. per Annum, out of the Revenue ſettled to the uſe of the Order, in lieu not only of thoſe ſaid Penſions, payable from the Sovereign and Knights-Companions, both Strangers and Subjects; but for reſigning his Claim to his annual Penſion of 50 l. in conſideration for preparing Scutcheons and removal of Atchievements. This Petition the Sovereign was pleaſed to refer to a Committe of the Knights-Companions, who, namely the Duke of Albemarl, the Earls of Lindſey, Mancheſter, Sandwich, and Stafford, who being attended by Garter, and weighing the event of the Petition, offered their opinions to the Sovereign, to grant him the ſaid 100 l. per Annum in lieu of what he offered to quit, whereby the intereſt of this Office might be preſerved in a more compendious Method than it was, his Majeſty exempted from thoſe ſmall payments for Strangers, and the Knights-Subjects themſelves were diſcharged from their annual Penſion, and his Majeſty ratifying the ſame ſhortly after, Sir Henry de Vi [...], the Chancellor, was ordered to pay unto Garter, and his Succeſſors the ſaid annual Penſion of 100 l. which was [Page 213] accordingly put in Execution, as an Equivalent for all Fees and Salaries relating to the Order of the Garter.

THE Duty of this Officer in general is, to perform, or cauſe to be effected all Tranſactions whatſoever, the Sovereign, or Prelate, or Chancellor ſhall enjoyn him, in relation to this Moſt Noble Order.

8.5. 5

§. 5. THE fifth and laſt Officer is the Black-Rod. This Officer was inſtituted by the Founder, King Ed. III. but whether at the firſt Erection of the Order doth not appear. Howbeit, within a few Years after, 35 E. III. the King conferr'd to William Whitehorſe, Eſq; for Life, Officium Hoſtiarii Capellae Regis infra Caſtrum de Windeſore, with a Fee of 12 d. a Day out of his Exchequer.

Anno 3 Hen. IV. this Office is called Officium Virgarij comitivae de la Garter infra Caſtrum Regis de Windeſore; and under that Denomination was confirmed to Thomas Sye, with the Fees and Emoluments thereunto expreſſed. In the Patent to his Succeſſor, John Athilbrigg, Ann. 1 H. 5. it is ſtiled, Officium Virgarij ſive Oſtiarij, &c. Afterwards it hath the Title, Officium Virgae-bajuli coram Rege ad feſtum Sancti Georgii infra Caſtrum Regis de Windeſore. And ever ſince it runs in the Patents by the Appellation of Virgae-Bajulus, Virgarius, or Nigri-vergifer. But in the Conſtitutions of his Office, he hath the Title of Hoſtiarius; and under the reſtriction of theſe Qualifications, that he be a Gentleman of Blood and Arms, born within the Sovereigns Dominions; and if he be not a Knight at his admiſſion into the Office, he ought then to be Knighted. As Garter was Entituled the Principal Officer of Arms, ſo was the Black-Rod, for the Honour of the Order, appointed the Chief Uſher in the Kingdom. And as he is ſo, and frequently called Gentleman-Uſher of the Black-Rod, ſo we ſhall wave, as we did in Garter, all things appertaining to his Employments, otherwiſe than what directly is included in this Moſt Noble Order.

IN a Chapter held at Whitehall, the 13th of February, 6 Car. I. It was decreed, That the Office of the Black-Rod ſhould from thenceforth ſucceſſively, as ſoon as the ſame ſhould become void (James Maxwell, Eſq; then enjoying it) be annexed to ſome one of the Gentlemen-Uſhers, Daily-waiters [...] whom the Sovereign ſhould appoint.

[Page 214] THIS was carried upon the Petition of the Gentlemen-Uſhers, Daily-waiters, ſeconded by the Lord Chamberlain, the Earl-Marſhal; and others, Knights-Companions; as is evident from another Petition of theirs to the Sovereign in Chapter, aſſembled at Oxford, the 17th of January, 20 Car. I. But ſome Years after this, 1642. the Lord Lanrick, Secretary for Scotland, had on Mr. Maxwell's behalf, obtained the Sovereign's Warrant for Letters-Patent under the Great-Seal, for two Lives, Maxwell's and Mr. Alexander Thayn, the longeſt Liver of them; whereby the ſaid Decree was fruſtrate to the Gentlemen-Uſhers; of which making Complaint in the laſt mentioned Chapter, the Sovereign and Knights-Companions (in regard this latter Grant was not only repugnant to the preceding Decree, and the Great-Seal ſurreptitiouſly gained, but ought likewiſe to have paſſed the Seals of the Order) order'd Peter Newton, Eſq; to be preſently ſworn into this Office. Nevertheleſs, after the Reſtoration, A. D. 1660. Newton being then dead, the Gentlemen-Uſhers, Daily-waiters, Petition'd again, and Thayne was demanded to put in his Anſwer; and the reſult of the whole was, after mature Deliberation in a Chapter held at Whitehall, the 20th of February, 13 Car II. the Decree which fix'd this Office to one of the Gentlemen-Uſhers Daily-waiters, was confirmed, and John Ayton, one of the Petitioners, was ſworn Gentleman-Uſher of the Black-Rod, which was performed by the Regiſter in the Preſence of the Sovereign, the Chapter ſitting.

THE Form of the Oath given to this Officer, temp. Hen. VIII. was, Truly and Faithfully to obſerve and keep all the Points of the Statutes of the Order as to him belonged and appertained.

HE hath the like Habit with the Regiſter and Garter before deſcribed, but his Enſign and Badge is ſomewhat different from Garter's; for firſt, it was ordained, That he or his Deputy ſhould carry a Black-Rod (whence he hath his Title) before the Sovereign, or his Deputy, at the Feaſt of St. George, within the Caſtle of Windſor, and at other Solemnities and Chapters of the Order. On the Top of which there ought to be ſet a Lyon of England. This Rod ſerves inſtead of a Mace, and has the ſame Authority to [Page 215] apprehend Delinquents, and ſuch have offended againſt the Statutes of this Moſt Noble Order. And where he apprehends any one of the Order, as Guilty of ſome Crime for which he is to be expell'd the Order, the manner of it is by touching them with this Black-Rod, and his Fee for it, is 5 l.

HE has aſſigned him a Golden Badge to be openly worn in a Gold Chain, or Ribband, before his Breaſt, compoſed of one of the Knots in the Collar of the Order which tye the Roſes together, and encompaſſed with a Garter, being alike on both ſides; which was conferred on him and his Succeſſors, by Decree in Chapter, held the 24th of April, 8 Eliz.

'TIS as ancient as Hen. Vth's Reign, for there's a Houſe in Windſor Caſtle granted to this Officer by Letters-Patent, during Life. And the ſame Proviſion is made for him by the Conſtitutions of his Office. It is ſituate on the South-ſide of the Caſtle in the middle Ward. The ſaid Conſtitutions give him Baron-Service at Court, and Livery thereto appertaining; and beſides theſe, the keeping of the ſaid Caſtle, and the two Parks adjacent.

KING Charles I. having taken into his Hands the little Park of Windſor, and beſtow'd it upon James Maxwell, then Uſher of the Black-Rod, He, at a Chapter held at Whitehall, the 5th of November, 1629. decreed, That as the Cuſtody of the ſaid Park was conferr'd on Maxwell in right of his Office; ſo the ſame ſhould for ever after be annex'd thereto, and not to be diſpoſed of but under the Great Seal of the Order, and that only to the Uſher of the Order for the time being.

LASTLY, this Officer had anciently a Fee of 12 d. per diem, which we find continu'd down in the Letters-Patents, whereby this Office was granted. Beſides which, the Conſtitutions of his Office allow him an annual Penſion of 30 l. heretofore paid him out of the Exchequer, but by King Charles I. aſſigned him out of 1200 l. per Ann. ſettled upon the Order; touching which, and the Payment of the Officers Penſions upon the new Eſtabliſhment, is the next Section.

8.6. 6

[Page 216]

§. 6. KING James I. taking into his Royal Breaſt, the Conſtitution of this Moſt Noble Order, that it was in the Nature of a Diſtinct Sovereignty, govern'd by Laws and Conventions proper to the Body, and himſelf as Sovereign in Matters immediately relating thereunto, had the ſole and uncontroulable Authority of reviſing, adding, or explaining; and finding that the Penſions paid to the Officers of the Order (as thoſe to the Alms-Knights) and ſome other Expences, had been anciently made payable out of his Exchequer by vertue of the Great Seals of England, or otherwiſe by Privy-Seals; and conceiving it incongruous, that the Officers ſhould claim their Penſions by vertue of any other Seal than that of the Order, for it is in ſome kind derogatory to the Honour of the Order, to permit other Seals to be uſed within the ſame: He thereupon with twelve Knights-Companions in a Chapter held at Whitehall, the 22d of May, 20 Jac. I. paſſed a Decree, That all things concerning the Order ſhould hereafter be ratify'd under the Seal of the Order only, and in particular, that the Grants of poor Knights Places, after their being Signed by the Sovereign, ſhould be paſſed under the Seal of the Order only, and none other. And the Year following, the Chancellor was ordered, That he ſhould take Advice of the Sovereign's Attorney-General how by Vertue of the Seal of the Order, the Penſions, (given to the Poor Knights) might be paid and receiv'd, His Majeſty's further Pleaſure being, That all Grants and Payments concerning the Order, ſhould afterwards be confirmed under the Seal of the Order only, and by Vertue thereof.

AS to the Alms-Knights Patents, this Decree was of Force and Validity, but in the other Generals, how far it was purſu'd we know not; for in ſome of them it grew obſolete and uſeleſs. But in a Chapter called at Windſor, the 22d of April, 10 Car. I. a Debate aroſe about ſetting a Part of the Annual Summ of 1000 l. out of the Receipts of his Majeſty's Exchequer, to be employ'd particularly in diſcharge of Expences towards the Feaſts of the Order, Legations to Foreign Princes, Payment of the Officers Penſions, &c. diſburſed for the Neceſſity and Reputation of this Noble Order. Afterwards at a [Page 217] Chapter held the 18th of April, 13 Car. I. that Sovereign ratify'd his Royal Aſſignation, and increaſed his Bounty to 1200 l. per Ann. ſetling it for thoſe deſigns in a Perpetuity for ever, and making it payable out of the Cuſtoms in the Port of London, but to be received by the Chancellor of the Order for the time being, as Treaſurer of this Money, of which he was to give up an Account to the Sovereign and Knights-Companions yearly at St. George's Feaſt. And in purſuance of this Ratification, the Attorney-General had Inſtructions to draw up a Book for his Royal Signature to Warrant its paſſing under the Great Seal of England, which was diſpatch'd, the Letters-Patent bearing teſte at Weſtminſter, the 23d of January, 13 Car. I. Immediately after, Sir Thomas Rowe, the Chancellor of the Order, preſented a Liſt of the ordinary Fees and Charges of the Order, upon which it was agreed to, That there ſhould iſſue out a ſtanding Commiſſion to the Chancellor under the Great Seal of the Order to warrant the Yearly Payments, and he to be diſcharged according as the ſaid Patent had provided. This Commiſſion paſſing the Great Seal the 3d of May, 14 Car. I. the Sovereign thereby impower'd the Chancellor to make payable out of the yearly Revenue of 1200 l. all and every the yearly Fees, Penſions, Salaries, and other Payments due and payable to the Officers of the Order, Alms-Knights, or others, appertaining to the Order, either by Charter, Grant, or Aſſignation under the Seal and Signet of the Order, or by any other Lawful way whatſoever, and in particular,

    l. s.  
To Himſelf as Chancellor 100 0 per Ann.
Regiſter of the Order 50 0
Garter Principal King of Arms 50 0
Uſher of the Black-Rod 30 0
Thirteen Alms-Knights 237 5
  Total 467 5  

AND Sir Thomas Rowe, and in his Abſence beyond Sea, Sir James Palmer, Deputy-Chancellor receiv'd out of the Sovereigns Receipts of Subſidies, Cuſtoms and Impoſts, [Page 218] the 1200 l. per Ann. out of which they paid the Annual Penſions above-named, under the Title of certain and ordinary Charges, as alſo ſuch as come within the Denomination of Accidental and Extraordinary Expences; of which kind in their time, were,

  • Mantles, when the Sovereigns pleas'd to beſtow them on the Knights-Com [...]a [...]ions.
  • Plate for the Altar in St. George's Chappel at Windſor.
  • Embroidery of the Purſe for holding the Seals.
  • Removal of Atchievements and Plates againſt Inſtallations.
  • Eſcutcheons ſet up at St. George's Feaſt.
  • Privy Seals and Fees disburſt for receiving the 1200 l. per Annum.
  • Fees for Inſtallation of Foreign Princes and Stranger-Knights.
  • Parchment uſed in Diſpenſations and Prorogations.
  • Blue Wax for the Sea [...]s of the Order.

BY which we are eaſily inform'd, what ought to be accounted extraordinary Expences, towards the Diſcharge whereof this Sum was to be employ'd as far as it would reach, to mitigate the Coſt the great Wardrobe formerly ſtood taxed with, Proviſions of the Order, both for foreign Embaſſies and Expences at Home.

THE Manner of the Chancellor's paſſing his Account, as directed by the ſaid Commiſſion, was thus done by Sir James Palmer, He humbly moved the Sovereign in Chapter held the 10th of October, 15 Car. I. That it would pleaſe him to view the Disburſements made for the Expences of the Order, which thereupon being Examined by the Knights in the Sovereign's Preſence, the ſame were found agreeable to the Directions of the Commiſſion, and the Payments juſtify'd by the Acquittance of every Officer to whom any Fee was due, no Payment having been made without the Sovereign's Hand firſt to Authorize it: Allwhich being ſeen and allow'd, the Account (wherein his Disburſements exceeded his Receipts 37 l. 13 s. 10 s.) was eſteemed Equitable and Juſt, and paſſed by the Subſcription of Charles then Prince of Wales, the Earls of Pembroke and Montgomery, Salisbury, Holland [...]rk-ſhire, Duke Hamilton, and the Earl of Northumberland.

8.7. 7

[Page 219]

§. 7. THE Executions of theſe Offices is the laſt thing here to be deſcribed: For tho' all the Officers are ſtrictly obliged to give perſonal Attendance to their Offices; yet, in caſe of Sickneſs, Abſence out of the Kingdom, or other emergent Reaſons, the Sovereign is pleaſed to diſpence with them, and conſtitute others to Officiate in their ſtead, who on ſuch Occaſions wear the Robe of that Officer whom they repreſent, ſo in caſe of Vacancy, the Abſence of the Prelate at the Grand Feaſt celebrated at Windſor, 31 Hen. VI. is noted in the Black Book to have been upon juſt Cauſe, and the Biſhop of Bangor officiated Divine Service, and next Morning celebrated the Maſs pro defunctis. The following Year, his Place in theſe religious Duties was ſupply'd by the Biſhop of Salisbury, as Ann. 36 and 37 Hen. VI. and at all times of the Prelates abſence, the Sovereign hath made known his Will what Biſhop ſhould ſupply for him. The Office of Chancellor hath been executed by Proxies, and to this may firſt be referred a Paſſage in the Black Book, where Dr. Taylor hath the Title of Vice-Chancellor. Of later times, when Sir Thomas Rowe was employ'd in an Embaſſy into Germany, Sir James Palmer, Kt. (one of the Gentlemen-Uſhers of the Privy-Chamber) was deputed by the Sovereign to the Chancellor-ſhip during his Abſence, having the Purſe with the Seals deliver'd to him the 4th of May, 14 Car. I. being ſworn by the Regiſter of the Order durante deputatione & beneplacito Regis, which Clauſe was likewiſe annex'd in the Deputy Chancellor's Oath, 12 Car. II. Upon Sir Thomas Rowe's return, and indiſpoſition, 16 Car. I. Sir James was again deputed Chancellor, and a third time, 18 Car. I. continu'd Deputy Chancellor unto the Death of Sir Thomas Rowe, of which the Sovereign being inform'd at Oxford, 1644. reſerved the diſpoſal of this Office 'till Sir James's return to Court, and then commanded him to wear the Badge and Ribband about his Neck, 'till a Chapter of the Order compleated his admittance.

IN the Vacancy of the Regiſter-ſhip, Ann. 2 H. VIII. Thomas Ruthall Biſhop of Durham, ſupply'd it: And Ann. 18 and 19 Eliz. Dr. Day, Dean of Windſor, executed the Office, and attended at the Feaſts of St. George, [Page 220] as Deputy-Regiſter; Dr. George Carew then Regiſter, having Licence by his Patent to execute it by himſelf or Deputy, being diſpenc'd with by the Queen in caſe of Sickneſs, or other Impediment. After his Deceaſe, Dean Day was commanded to execute the Office during its Vacancy (being 14 Years) which he effected 'till he was advanced to the Biſhoprick of Wincheſter, An. 38 Eliz. upon which, Dr. Robert Bennet (who ſucceeded him in his Deanry) was the ſame Year admitted Regiſter. Afterwards, Dr. Beaumont, being much broken with Age, and other Diſeaſes, Dr. John King, the junior Canon, ſupplied his Place.

THE Office of Garter hath been ſupplied by Deputation: For in thoſe Embaſſies with the Enſigns of the Order to Foreign Princes, where ſpecial Occaſions detained Garter at home, ſome of the Kings or Heralds of Arms, have been order'd upon thoſe Employments, upon the Recommendation of Garter to the Sovereign; where of there are ſeveral Inſtances; the laſt of Gregory King, Eſq. Lancaſter-Herald, who lately carried over the Habit to the Elector of Hanover. So alſo in caſe of Vacancy; for we find that Clarencieux, King of Arms, executed this Office after Sir Gilbert Dethick's Death, in January, 27 Eliz. being then ſent with the Earl of Darby to the French King Henry III. As alſo in Reference to the Preparations the 15th of April following, and Service performed thereat, and at the Feaſt of St. George enſuing.

THE Conſtitution of the Office of Black-Rod admit of a Deputy to bear the Rod before the Sovereign, where a lawful Occaſion impedes his perſonal Service. And Sir Peter Young, (Chief Gentleman Uſher,) performed this Office at the Feaſt of St. George held at Windſor Ann. 6 Car. I. James Maxwell, Eſq. Black-Rod, was in France upon the Sovereign's Service; and after, being Miſſion'd by the King into Scotland, Peter Newton, Eſq [...] ſupplied his Place at the Feaſt at Windſor, 8th, 9th, an [...] 10th of October, Anno 15 Car. I.

9. CHAP. IX.

[Page 225]

9.1. 1

§. 1. WE come now to treat of the Election of a Knight into the Order, according to the Statutes of Inſtitution, which Ordains, That whenſoever any Knight-Companion happens to depart this Life, The Sovereign (or his Deputy) after certain Notice had thereof, ſhould forthwith by his Letters, Summon all the Knights-Companions then within the Realm (who were able to come) to meet him within ſix Weeks after ſuch Notice, in what convenient Place ſoever he pleaſed to aſſign for the Electing a new Companion into the Society. Thus did the Law of this Moſt Noble Order, in caſe of Death, and to prevent Vacancies, at firſt provide; wherewith we evidently find the Practice of elder Times did punctually concur: For as ſoon as Garter, in Diſcharge of his Duty, had made Certificate to the Sovereign of a Knight-Companion's Deceaſe, or otherwiſe to the Regiſter of the Order, all fitting Diligence was uſed to fill up the vacant Stall, within the Space limited by this Statute, or immediately after, and for the quicker Diſpatch, Letters of Summons were iſſued to the Knights-Companions, to give perſonal Attendance at the Election. In an ancient one upon the Death of Sir Henry Fitz Hugh, Knight-Companion, Temp. Henry V. theſe particulars were no leſs purſuant to the Statutes, than worthy Obſervation.

I. The Day whereon the defunct Knight-Companion died is therein ſet down.

II. Direction is given for celebrating Maſſes, according to the Tenor of the Statutes.

III. Intimation that a Stall is become void by the Knight's Deceaſe.

IV. The Law of the Order vouched, which appoints an Election of another Knight within ſix Weeks after Certificate made of the Death of the former, to avoid as much as may be an interval in Succeſſion.

[Page 226] V. The Sovereign's Power aſſerted where he ſees Cauſe to Prorogue the Election.

VI. An Injunction to attend perſonally at the Election, under a Penalty expreſs'd in the S [...]atutes.

VII. The Day, Place, and Hour for Appearance is with certainty appointed, to the End all might Accommodate themſelves to be preſent.

VIII. The End of coming is mention'd with full Diſpoſition and Preparation to perform what the Statutes in this Caſe requir'd.

IX. Laſtly, Direction is there given to the Knight ſummoned, that in caſe his coming to the Chapter was impeded, he ſhould certifie the Reaſon of his Default againſt the time of his Appearance, of the Validity whereof the Sovereign was to be ſole Umpire.

AND generally of theſe Topicks, and to this Purport were the Letters of Summons in ſucceeding times compoſed.

THE before-mention'd Branch of the Statutes of Inſtitution hath been ſufficiently enforced by Incorporating it into the Statutes, temp. H. V. and H. VIII. no [...] hath it ſince undergone any Alteration; howbeit ſome further Addition and Explanation were annexed to them, 21 Jac. I. at a Chapter held at Windſor the 24th of April that year, where it was decreed, That the Sovereign being advertiſed of the Death of a Knight-Companion, the Knights-Companions remaining at Court ſhould move him to declare his Pleaſure whether h [...] would that Letters ſhould be ſent to all the Knights-Companions within the Realm to attend his Perſon for the Choice of a new Knight, at a Day by the ſaid Sovereign appointed, according to the ancient Statutes of the Order, or be pleas'd to def [...]r the Election until the Feaſt of St. George, at what time Elections have been moſt uſually made; and according as he reſolv'd in what Place it ſhould be, ſo it ought (by Letters directed to the Knights-Companions within the Realm) to [...] made known unto them.

This Deferring, or Prorogation of the Election, was no new thing, tho' not indulged by the Statutes, or declared Law, before this 21 Jac. 1. as is evident by the Letter of Summons ſent after the Death of Sir Robert D'U [...]frevil, Knight Companion, temp. H. 4. wherein Notice [Page 227] is taken of the Limitation given by the Statutes, after Certificate of Death, viz. Six Weeks, within the Space whereof a new Election was to commence; yet where a Chapter for Election could not conveniently be ſummoned within that limited Time, it was ſufficient if the Soveraign declared as he did in the ſaid Placart and entered in the Black Book, That being then involved in other Buſineſs, he could not well attend this Affair, and therefore deferr'd the time for Election, unto the Eve of St. George next following.

But of later Date, this formal Way of Summons by Letter, hath been diſcontinued, and only remained to ſuch as are remote, and warned only by a verbal Meſſage. For the Chancellor of the Order having conſulted the Soveraign's Pleaſure, as to the Day and Place, uſually acquaints Garter therewith, who thereupon goes immediately to the Knights Companions then at Court, and deſires their Attendance at the Chapter, according to the Soveraign's Deſignation.

And here it is to be remarked, that no Knight Elect ought to be ſummoned to a Chapter of Election, or are rendered ſufficient of giving their Votes therein, until they be compleatly inſtalled, either in Perſon, or by Proxy. Nor indeed did any Neceſſity intervene, or require it till the late rebellious times, when the Caſtle of Windſor being Garriſon'd by the Parliament's Forces, it was not poſſible for the Duke of York and Prince Rupert, to take Poſſeſſion of their Stalls, as the Law of the Order enjoined. Therefore the then Soveraign, whoſe Right it is, did, 17 Jan. 1644, diſpenſe with their Inſtallations in St. George's Chapel, for the preſent, and inveſted them with the Privileges of the Order, among which the Power of voting in Chapter, was one: Provided thoſe Princes ſhould firſt take the Oath given at Inſtallations, and afterwards perform the accuſtomed Ceremonies, ſo ſoon as it ſhould be thought convenient, and the Caſtle was reſtored to the Poſſeſſion of his Majeſty. In compliance to which Proviſo they both then took the Oath, and on the Eve of the firſt F [...]aſt of St. George after the Reſtoration, the Duke was inſtalled; and on the Eve of the ſecond Feaſt, 15 Car. 2. by the [Page 228] Earls of Northumberland and Berk-ſhire; and the Prince by the Duke of Albemarle and Earl of Lindſ [...]y.

9.2. 2

§. 2. The Place of Election.] BUT at what time ſoever the Ceremony of Election is purpoſed, the ſame ought to be Celebrated in Chapter, (for ſo is the Aſſembly of the Sovereign and Knights-Companions call'd, where or whenſoever conven'd) whether at the Solemnity of St. George's Feaſt, the ordinary or moſt accuſtom'd Time, or on other Days ſpecially ſet apart by the Sovereign; and when the Sovereign thinks fitting in the Interval of Feaſts, to elect any Foreign Prince or other Perſon, Stranger or Subject, h [...] often tranſacts it in peculiar Chapters called to that purpoſe, and then appoints both Day and Place, having that Prerogative. Some few Examples both of priſtine, and of late Time, make it manifeſt and apparent.

Place. Day and Year. Knights elected.
1. Sign of the Lion in Brentford July 11. 24 [...] H. 6. Alb. de Vaſques Da [...]. dea, E. of Averentia.
Lord Beauchamp.
Lord Hoo.
2. Sov. Bed-Chamber atWeſtminſter Nov. 27. 25 H. 6. Sir Francis Surr [...]yn [...].
3. London, within the Biſhops Palace. Feb. 8th. 39 H. 6. Richard E. of [...]
Lord Bonvile.
Sir Thomas [...]ri [...].
Sir John Wenlock.
4. Tower of London. Auguſt 8. 14 Ed. 4. G. U [...]aldus, D. of [...]
H. Percy, E. of Nor [...]
5. Star-Chamber. May 15th. 15 Ed. 4. Edward Pr. of Wales.
Richard Duke of Yo [...]k.
T. Grey, Mar. of Dorſet.
6. Sovereign's Bed-Chamber in the Wardrobe, London. F [...]br. 10. 19 E. 4. Ferdinand, K. of Spai [...]
Hercules, D. of [...]
7. Greenw [...]h, July 14. 15 H. 8. Lord F [...]rrers.
[Page 229] 8. Calai [...]. Oct. 27th. 24 H. 8. A. Montmor [...] E. Beamon [...]
P. Chabot, E. of Newbl [...]
9. Hampton-Court. Jan. 9th. 32 H. 8. Edward Seymour, Earl of Hertford.
10. Windſor. Aug. 6. 1 & 2 Ph. & Mar. Emanuel Duke of Savoy.
11. Whitehall. Feb. 8th. 20 Eliz. John Caſimire, Count Palatine of the Rhine.
12. York. Sept. 12. 16 Car. I. Thomas Earl of Strafford.

BUT for the moſt Part ſince the Beginning of Queen Elizabeth's Reign, Whitehall, the Sovereign's almoſt conſtant Court and Abode, hath been the uſual Place whereunto all the Knights Companions have been ſpecially Summon'd, and peculiar Chapters aſſembl'd for Ele [...]tion in the Intervals between the Vacancy and St. George's Feaſt. However, while King Charles II. was in Exile, and wanted the compleat Number of Knights to conſtitute a full Chapter, he was neceſſitated not only to diſpence with the Ceremony of Election in Chapter, but alſo in ſupplying the Defect of a Scrutiny, by making his own Election; yet after his Reſtoration, Whitehall recover'd her wonted Honour, and April the 1ſt. 13 Car. II. at a Chapter call'd and held in the Bed-Chamber there, the Duke of Richmond, the Earls of Lindſey, Mancheſter, and Strafford were elected.

9.3. 3

§. 3. IN the next Place we are to conſider what Number of Knights-Companions ought to be aſſembl'd to make up a compleat Chapter of Election.

BY the Statutes, there ſhould be Six in Number at the leaſt, beſides the Sovereign or his Deputy; the due obſervance of which hath been ſo ſtrict formerly that Elections have been deferr'd where Chapters have been deficient in that Number; for Proof of which, the Duke of Glouceſter, Ann. 9 Hen. VI. then Deputy to the Sovereign (at that Time in France) for Celebrating the Feaſt of St. George at Windſor, forbore to proceed to Election, [Page 230] b [...]cauſe the Number of Knights-Companions the [...] aſſembled was leſs than the Statutes requir'd. And Ann. 10 Hen. V. no Election was Solemniz'd, tho' one Stall was void by the Death of the Lord Clifford, and probably for that reaſon; for the Ear [...] of Bedford, then the Sovereign's Deputy, had but three Knights preſent with him. Ann. 22, or rather 23. Humphry Duke of Bucks being deputed to celebrate the Feaſt of St. George at Windſor [...] altho' there was at that Time four Stalls vacant, yet did no Nomination paſs; one reaſon, becauſe there was not preſ [...]nt a ſufficient Number to compleat the Election. So when the ſame King celebrated the Grand Feaſt perſonally at Windſor, Anno 31. Regni ſui, having but three Knights attending him thereat, the Election was Prorogu'd for the very ſame Reaſon; in like manner 32, 33 and 34 Hen. VI. the Elections were retarded, for at the firſt of them there were preſent but two Knights-Companions, beſides the Sovereign's Deputy; and a [...] the Two laſt but four, beſides the Sovereign, tho' the [...]egiſtrum Cartaceum, Ann. 33. names five by adding the Duke of Somerſet. At the Feaſt of St. Geo [...]ge celebrated at Windſor, A. D. 1471. Temp. Edw. IV. the Sovereign fully reſolving to Conſtitute an Election, and having but five Knights-Companions preſent, Calys, Purſuivant at Arms, was diſpatch'd to London for Sir John Aſtl [...]y to repair thither and compleat the Chapter, rather than violate the Laws of the Order. January the 31ſt. 21 Car. II. being deſign'd for the Election of Chriſtopher Duke of Albemarle, and there being Conven'd but five Knights at the Chapter, the Election was put off 'till the Third of February following, at which Time a proportionable Number of Knights being preſent, his Election receiv'd their Approbation.

9.4. 4

§. 4. YET in caſes of Neceſſity only, and to illuſtrat [...] the Power and Prerogative of the Sovereigns, where the Exigency requires it, tho' not to be made uſe of where there is a poſſibility to perform the Rules and Injunctions of the Statutes, the Sovereigns for divers Reaſons, have been induced to diſpence with this Branch of the Statute for want of a plenary Number to compleat a Chapter. And the firſt Liberty obſerv'd [Page 231] herein, was made uſe of by King Henry VIII. Ann. 26. Regniſui, who upon the Death of the Lord Montjoy, very ſpeedily aſſembl'd a Chapter at Whitehall, where no more than five Knights-Companions being preſent, the Abſence of the reſt were excus'd by ſpecial Grace and Favour, and the Injunction of the Statute (as the Annals ſubjoin) concerning the Number of Nominators, were by the ſame Clemency diſpenc'd with, becauſe of the Exigency of the Time and Place, and immediately upon taking a Scrutiny, James V. King of Scotland was elected into the Fellowſhip of this illuſtrious Order, but from that Time to the Rebellion, there occurs not any thing of this Nature; but the Wickedneſs of thoſe Days created new Exigencies and Projections, which occaſion'd, or rather inforc'd the Sovereign, King Charles I. moſt unwillingly to awaken and rouſe up this dormant Prerogative, which he put in Execution at a Chapter purpoſely aſſembl'd for the Election of Thom [...]s Earl of Strafford, held at the City of York the 12th of September, 16 Car. I. where at that Time and Place he diſpenc'd with the Defect of Number of Six Knights-Companions, having then with him Four only, ſome of the reſt being engag'd in his Service againſt the Scots.

AFTERWARDS when ſeveral of the Knights-Companions ſo much adhered to the Long Parliament, that all Summons were ineffectual to draw them to their Attendance upon their Sovereign, tho' but to celebrate the Grand Feſtival of their Patron (much leſs to the compleating Chapters of Election) to which they wer [...] obliged by the Oath taken at their Inſtallment, the Sovereign was conſtrain'd to extend further his Suprem [...] Authority; and thereupon at the Feaſt of St. George, celebrated at York, the 18th, 19th and 20th of April, Ann [...] 18. Regniſui, in a Chapter held on the Eve of the ſai [...] Feaſt by himſelf and but four other Knights Companions, It was Order'd, That Letters of Diſpenſation ſhould be drawn up for the inſufficient Number (as wanting Six Knights) to hold a Chapter of Election, and for Authorizing the Knights then preſent to deliver in their Votes according to Cuſtom in other Scrutinies, that ſo the Sovereign might proceed to the Election deſign'd. By vertue of which Diſpenſation, the Duk [...] [Page 232] of York and Prince Rupert were elected Fellows of this noble Society.

THE like Diſpenſation was made at Oxford upon the 2d of March, Anno 20. Car. I. there being but five Knights-Companions preſent with the Sovereign; at which Chapter, William Prince of Orange, and Bernard de Foix, Duke of Eſpernon, were elected.

LAST of all, in reference to the holding three ſeveral Chapters preparatory to the Feaſt of St. George, and grand Inſtallation celebrated at Windſor the 15th, 16th, and 17th of April, 13. Car. II (one of which Chapters was held for the Election of Four Knights, and to deliberate with the ſurviving Knights-Companions) the Sovereign was pleas'd the 29th of March preceeding, to paſs the like Diſpenſation under the Signet of the Orde [...], and his own Sign Manual, for this defect; and thereby made thoſe three Chapters as legal as if the Number of Knights-Companions had been compleat.

9.5. 5

§. 5. WE are now arriv'd at opening the Chapter, whereinto neither the Sovereign, nor any of the Knights-Companions are to be admitted without the Ornament, both their Mantles and Garters, as the Statutes ordain, and the Law is ſtill in force, tho' the Chapter hath been aſſembl'd elſewhere than at Windſor. As for inſtance, one call'd at Whitehall for the Election of John Count Palatine of the Rhine, Anno 20. Eliz. the Earl of Huntingdon, and the Lord Grey of Wilton, not having their Mantles then at Court, were not permitted to enter into the Chapter to give their Votes.

KING Charles I. determining to call a Chapter for electing the foreſaid Thom [...]s Earl of Strafford at York, where neither he nor any of the Knights-Companions then attending his Perſon, had the Robes of the Order with them; and taking into his Royal Conſideration, the Statutes now mention'd, did by his Authority, as Sovereign of the Order [...] diſpence with thoſe Knights then preſent for coming into the Chapter without their Mantles.

AFTERWARD [...] upon other Emergencies that ow'd their Origin to the late Rebellion, the Sovereign did the like in ſome ſubſequent Chapters held at Oxford.

[Page 233] AFTER the Reſtoration, a Diſpenſation paſſed the Signet of the Order, dated the 10th of January, 12 Car. II. (the Great Seal being under the Hand of the Graver but not finiſh'd) He was neceſſitated to mak [...] uſe of his Supreme Authority for holding a Chapter the 14th of January following, in regard the Knights-Companions then in being were not as yet provided of new Robes.

PRESUMING then, that a full Number of Knights, (in Obedience to their Summons) are attending their Sovereign habited in their Mantles and Garters, and entred into the Chapter-Houſe at Windſor, or other Place appointed for this Aſſembly, the Sovereign having taken his Seat at the upper End of the Table, and given leave to the Knights-Companions to [...]it, the Occaſion of their being call'd together is firſt declar'd either by the Sovereign himſelf, or the Chancellor of the Order by his Command.

THE next thing in Courſe, is to exhibit to the Sovereign Information of all the vacant Stalls; and if the Sovereign chance to be in Foreign Parts, an Information ought to be tranſmitted to him by his Deputy or Lieutenant; but if in England, and preſent in the Chapter, then to be preſented him by the Chancellor, or in his Abſence by the Regiſter, or other Officer of the Order.

AFTER this they ſingly debate how the Place of the defunct Knight ſhall be ſupp [...]y'd, and ſometimes (where two or more Stalls are found void) whether they ſhall be all fill'd up at that time, or if not, how many Knights ſhall be elected pro hac vice.

BUT when the Scrutiny is intended to be taken in the Choir of St. George's Chapel at Windſor, theſe or the like particulars (referring to Election) are commonly conſider'd of on the Feaſt-Day in the Chapter held immediately before Veſpers, wherein it is moſt uſually order'd, That the Scrutiny ſhall be taken in the Chapel that following Afternoon. And ſo it was decreed on St. George's Day, Anno 5. Edw. VI. viz. That the Elections of Knights ſhould be taken that Even-ſong in the Chapel.

THIS being effected, the Chancellor begins to collect the Knights-Companions Votes, and this is frequently term'd the taking the Scrutiny: For the ampler [Page 234] View of the Nature of which Action and Ceremony, we ſhall proceed to certain Conſiderationspreparatory thereunto, beginning with what concerns the Nomination of the Perſons to be propoſed to the Election.

9.6. 6

§. 6. AND firſt, That Knights-Companions only preſent in Chapter, have the ſole Right inherent in themſelves, to nominate and propoſe Perſons to the Sovereign's Election, conſentaneous to the Bodies of the Statutes, that even from the Inſtitution of this Moſt Noble Order, it hath not ever ſuffer'd any deviations.

IT is worthy of Remark, that Anno 26. Eliz. the Feaſt of St. George being Cel [...]brated at Greenwich, the Earl of Warwick, and Lord Burleigh were ſeized with a Fit of the Gout, upon the Feaſt Day, which retarded them from Evening Prayer, whilſt the Scrutiny was taken; whereupon we find their Indiſpoſition of Body, and Abſence, noted in that Scrutiny, where their Nominations ſhould elſe have been ſet down, had they been preſent. And upon the ſame Occaſion was what Robert Cook, Eſq Clarenceux, King at Arms, informs us, That as for thoſe Knights Companions who happen to be abſent when the Scrutiny is taken, altho' this Abſence is occaſioned by Accident of Sickneſs, or with the Soveraign's Licence, nevertheleſs, in regard of this their Abſence at that very time, their Votes may not be received.

Thoſe Knights Companions that come late to the Chapter, forfeit likewiſe the Privilege of giving their Votes for that time, which ſo happened to Prince Ru [...]ert, and the Earl of Strafford, at the Chapter held for the Election of James Duke of Monmouth, in the Privy Chamber at Whitehall, 29 Mar. 1663.

Altho' none of the abſent Knights-Companions can give a Proxy to vote, or otherwiſe ſend their Suffrages into the Chapter or Chapel, there to paſs in Nomination [...] yet formerly, circa temp. H. 5. & H. 6. when divers of the Knights Companions were frequently employed in the Wars of France, and conſequently ſo fixed to their Commands, that they could not perſonally attend the Feaſt of St. George at Windſor, it was uſual for the Commander there in Chief, with Conſent of thoſe Knights Companions, to make a formal Certificate, or Preſentment [Page 235] (but not to paſs it by way of Nomination or Vote, for that the Law of the Order did not permit) to the Soveraign, or his Lieutenant and Knights Companions aſſembled at the Feaſt, of ſuch Perſons famous for martial Valour and Virtue, with an Account of their gallant Acts and Atchievements, (atteſted by other Perſons of Honour) as were at that time, and in that Kingdom, in the Sovereign's Service, and ſeemed worthy Candidates for the Honour of the Election, to the intent victorious and brave Perſons might be preferr'd to ſo noble and ſublime a Poſt; an Example whereof we find preſerved by the Induſtrious and Learned Dugdale.

MY Lord the Duc of Bedford remembreth, as by the Statutes of the Order of the Gartre, the Election of the Stalls voyde. He ſaith in the Voy [...] of the Brethren, and of the Fellowſhip, beyng at the tyme of the Feſt, in the Preſence of the Soverain or hys Deputy; that thinkyth to my ſaid Lord, that for hys Acquital to Knighthood, that fytteth hym to give in Knowledge to the Kyng Soverain of the Ordre, and to his Fellowſhip of the ſame Ordre, the great Honours of the notable Knights, that from tyme to tyme exercyſeth, and have exercyſed in Knighthood; and eſpecially in the Service of their Soverain Lord. And of ſuch notable Knyghts as my Lord of Bedford, for the tyme remembreth him of, he hath by the Advyce of them of the Fellowſhip of the Ordre, being now in France, in the Kyngs Service, and givyng in charge to the ſaid Garter Kyng of Arms, of the Ordre, to ſhew theyr Names to the Kyng, and to expound Part of theyr Deeds, Acts, and of theyr Worthyneſs. Firſt to expoſe the Honour of Sir John Radeclyff that hath contynowed all the tyme of the victorious Kyng that laſt dyed, whom Chriſte abſolve, at the firſt landing of hym, at Quies de Caux, where the ſayd Radeclyff receyved the Order of a Knyght, and after contynowed the Siege of Hareflew. And after with my Lord of Exceſter at the Battaile of Vallemont, and of Quies de Caux. And alſo ſithen the deth of the ſayd victorious Kyng, Radeclyff being Seneſchall of Guyen, hath brought by hys Labour in Knyghthood to hys Soveraign Lord's [Page 236] obeyſance within the Duchie of Guyen many dyverſe Cities, Towns and Fortreſſes. And in eſpecial deſerved great and notable meritsat the Siege of the City of Bazates, whych Siege was accorded, appointed, and ſet day of Battaile and of Reſcous, the whych day was kept and houlden with great power on both Sydes, and under Banners diſplayed, the Enemyes doubtyng to fyght wyth Radeclyff required hym of apoyntment they to depart under ſaufe conduct from the ſaid Field, the whych ſaufe conduct he graunted them for the term of eight days, like as they required the honour and empruſe reſted in the ſaid Rad [...]clyff, and to hys hygh meryte, for incontynent followyng was delyvered to hym, the reddyſſion and poſſeſſion of the ſayd Cytty of Bazates. And alſo the ſayd Radeclyff was at the Battaile of Aſſincouert, and hath contynowed and exercyſed the Armys the Space of xxviij Wynters unreproched. And in the tyme of his Eſquierhood was at the Battaile of S [...]rewsbury and at the Journey of Husks wyth the Lord Grey at the diſcomfiture and taking of Owenſon.

  • Syr Thomas Ramſton,
  • Syr Rauff Butler,
  • Syr William Oldegall,
  • Syr Robert Harlyng,
  • Syr Gilbert Halſall.

Item, My Lord the Duc of Bedford b [...]ſeecheth the Kyng Soveraign of the Order to have alſo for recommendyd to his good grace and highneſſe other of his Subjects and Servants now being in hys Service in the Realme of France, whych hath done and yet doth take great payne by their knyghtly labour dayly to ſerve the merite of worthyneſs and proweſs, as Syr Robert Hungerford, Syr Thom [...]s Beamont, Syr John Popeham, Syr Nicholas B [...]rdet, Syr Rauff Nev [...]ll, Syr Edward Wyver, Syr John Robeſart, Syr Tyre Robeſart, Syr William Bretton, Syr Thom [...]s Kyng [...]ton, Syr Richard Hankford, and dyverſe other.

BUT leſt it may be ſuppos'd by ſome, that the Knights-Companions preſent in Chapter, can at their [Page 237] pleaſures nominate or propoſe to elect ſuch Perſons as they deem meet, ſo they be qualify'd according to the Statutes, this Privilege is to be underſtood of Knights Subjects only: For in all Caſes concerning Strangers, the Sovereign doth but barely grant them Sufferance, and may direct and confine the Knights-Companions to the Nomination of ſuch as he at any time intends to Honour with Election, which Prerogative was particularly Aſſerted, 31 Eliz. and 3 Car. I.

IN the Firſt of theſe Inſtances, the Blue Book of the Order recordeth, That at a Chapter held immediately before Veſpers on St. George's Day, the Earl of Huntingdon, then Lieutenant for the Sovereign, made known to the Knights-Companions, That the Sovereign did permit them, or leave it to their Pleaſure to chuſe into the Order whatſoever Foreign Prince they ſhould by their Votes approve of.

HERE we have two Points that offer themſelves to our Conſideration. Firſt, That the Knights-Companions have not the Liberty to nominate what Foreign Prince they pleaſe, but the ſame is derivative from the Sovereign, and only by his Permiſſion. Secondly, To weigh the Paragraph well, that Nominare ought to be render'd or underſtood here by the Word Eligere, and that the Power delegated to the Knights-Companions from the Sovereign, was only to nominate, not elect; For it immediately follows, That the Knights-Companions went from the Chapter to the Second Veſpers; and while the Divine Offices were celebrating, the Prelate receiv'd their Nominations, and that very Evening the Lieutenant preſented them to the Sovereign for her to conſider of; which had been inſignificant and uſeleſs, if the Knights-Companions had been impower'd by her Licence to have made the Choice themſelves. But the contrary is evident; for the next Morning, all the Knights-Companions attending the Sovereign in Chapter, ſhe herſelf confirm'd there the Election not of any Foreign Prince, but of the Earl of Suſſex, and the Lord Buckhurſt.

IN the other Inſtance, Anno 3 Car. I. the Sovereign in a Chapter held before Veſpers on St. George's Day, ſignify'd it to be his Pleaſure (Three Stalls being then vacant) that out of Foreign Princes, the Nomination of whom, (ſaith the Annals in that very Place) belongs only to the [Page 238] Sovereign, i. e. The Sovereign has the Prerogative to dir [...]ct the Knights-Companions to name, or impoſe upon them the Nomination of ſuch Foreign Prince he plea [...]eth they, the Knights-Companions, ſhould pitch upon; which muſt undoubtedly be underſtood to Nominate, or enter down into the Scrutiny, (not elect) Guſtavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, and Henry Prince of Orange. For a little after, it is evident, when the Scrutiny was preſented to the Sovereign, that himſelf, not the Knights-Companions, made Election of them.

AND it is further manifeſt, by the Scrutiny there inſerted, that both thoſe Princes were named by every of the Knights-Companions then preſent, according to the Sovereign's ſignification (which has been uſually done at all other Times upon the like Occaſions.) But concerning the third Perſon then to be Elected, the Sovereign, (intending him to be a Knight-Subject) left it entirely to their Pleaſure to Nominate whomſoever they thought worthy of their Votes. Since this Time, the Nominations in like Caſes, have been ſufficiently acknowledg'd by the Knights-Companions themſelves, to be a Prerogative belonging ſolely to the Sovereign. For to the End they might more expeditiouſly and clearly ſhew their Compliance, it was moved in a Chapter held at Oxford, March the 2d. 19 Car. I. That it might become a Cuſtom for the Sovereign to declare before-hand, whether he would [...]elect any Foreign Prince, and whom, that ſo the Knights-Companions might be there to name him in the Scrutiny.

9.7. 7

§. 7. ANOTHER Conſideration in our Progreſs towards the Act of Election, is appertaining to the Number [...] Qualifications and Dignities of the Perſons nominated, which may be more conſpicuouſly reſolved from another Branch of the before-mention'd Article, viz. That every one of the Knights-Companions preſent at the Election ſhould nominate for himſelf nine very ſufficient Perſons [...] whom he ſhould judge free from all Reproach and Scandal, whether Subjects to the Sovereign, or Foreigners, Provided they are known not to Favour or Abet any Party at enmity with him; that is to ſay, three Earls, or others of higher Degree, three Barons [...] [Page 239] and three Knights. Wherein the Things chiefly obſervable, we rank under five Heads.

For the Firſt of theſe, their Number. Every Knight-Companion aſſembl'd in Chapter, is injoin'd to name Nine, neither more nor leſs. So alſo faith King Henry V's Statutes. Nor are King Henry VIIIth's. any ways diſſonant. And in this particular, the Statutes have been hitherto inviolably obſerved, except in one Caſe. As to Numbers, and the Myſteries wrapt up in them, we ſhall not further inſiſt upon. But why our Royal Founder ſelected this particular Number above all other, unleſs he had ſome Eye, and tacit Reflection on the Nine Worthies, or a treble threefold Cord and Symbol of perfect Stability and ſolid Amity, the Number Nine is accounted to ſignifie, can with no great Facility or Certainty be decypher'd.

As to the Second Point, they ought to be of unſpotted Character. The Injunction in the Statutes of Inſtitution takes Order, that the Perſons deſigned for Election, ſhould be free from all Reproach, and of untaintted Reputation; and according to thoſe of King Henry V. are to be the beſt and moſt ſufficient Knights, and freeſt from Reproach. To the ſame purpoſe the Exemplar in the Black-Book, Such as are fitteſt, and whom they who Nominate believe to be free from Ignominy and Diſhonour. And to this Act of Nomination belongs part of the Second Article in Henry VIIIth's Statutes, That no Knight-Companion ſhould name any Perſon whom he thinks or eſteems in his Conſcience to have upon him any Spot of Reproach. But on the Contrary in another Place of the ſame Statutes it is Provided, That they be nominated and propoſed out of the Number of the moſt worthy and ſelect Knights.

How tender the Knights-Companions were in priſtine Times of infringing this particular, is proved from a notable Paſſage which happen'd Ann. 39 Hen. VI. at a Scrutiny taken the 8th of February, in the Biſhop of London's Palace, where John de Foix Earl of Kendal, a Gaſ [...]oigner by birth, (which makes the Example more eminent, that a Stranger ſhould have ſo great Regard to the Honour of the Order) not being acquainted with the Quality and Merit of Knights and Honourable Perſons [Page 240] amongſt us ſo well and demonſtrably as to nominate ſuch whom he was confident were irreprehenſible, forbore to mention any Perſons at all. And certainly, ſeeing the Statutes put very conſiderable Qualifications upon the Deputies and Proxies, made choice for the Inſtallation of Strangers (as elſewhere ſhown) much more C [...]ution and Regard ought to be uſed both in the Nomination and Election of Knights into this radiant and illuſtrious Society.

THE third Head the Statutes render indifferently capable of being nominated or elected, either Knights Subjects, or Strangers, [Free Princes or their Subjects.] And it was ſo even at the Election upon the firſt Choice, where among the Twenty five E [...]ected Knights, Twenty three of them were Subjects. And this was the conſtant Cuſtom not only in the remaining Part of the Founders Reign, and during thoſe of his three Succeſſors, but has continued ever ſince, as appears from the Scrutinies taken and entred throughout the Annals of the Order.

OF thoſe who have gain'd admiſſion into this Noble Order by Election, we ſhall in the laſt Chapter give an Account in a compleat Catalogue of them, and likewiſe inſert the Names of ſuch as have miſſed their Election, yet are not to be buried in Oblivion, out of this very reſpect, that by their ſtanding Candidates, have the Fame of being enrolled in the Principal Regiſter of Honour now in the Chriſtian World. It cannot be ſuppoſed we ſhould give a Liſt of all, (for that were a Task too laborious, and wou'd prove too numerous) but only of thoſe of eminent Quality in foreign Parts, with the Aera when the Scrutinies were taken.

  • Rambrith de Walſey
  • Johannes de Voynada
25 Hen. 6.
Franciſcus Sforza, Dux Mediolani 28 Hen. 6.
Franciſcus ſecundus, Dux Britanniae 13, 14, 15, 22 E. 4.
Henricus quartus, Rex Legionis & Caſtil. 14 Ed. 4.
Matthi [...]s Corvinus, Rex Hungariae 19, 22 Ed. 4.
Fredericus ſecundus, Dux Auſtriae 22 E. 4. 1 R. 3.
Philippus quartus, Dux Burgundiae [Page 241] 14 Hen. 7.
Franciſcus Maria, Dux Urbini 1, 2 Hen. 8.
Uladiſlaus ſecundus, Rex Hungar [...]ae 1, 2, 6 Hen. 8.
Chriſtianus ſecundus, Rex Daniae 6, 8 Hen. 8.
  • Dux Barryae
  • Comes Galaciae
8 Hen. 8.
Alphonſus Dux Ferrariae 13, 15 Hen. 8.
Ludovicus ſecundus, Rex Hungariae 13, 14, 15 H. 8.
Maximilianus Sforza, Dux Mediolani 14, 15, 16 H. 8.
Marchio Peſcar [...]e 17 Hen. 8.
Johannes tertius, Rex Portugalliae 17, 18, 26, 28 H. 8.
—Marchio Mantuae 18 Hen. 8.
Carolus Burbonus, Dux Vandoſme 24 Hen. 8.
  • Culielmus Dux Clivenſis
  • Dux Bavariae
32 Hen. 8.
  • Dux Alvae
  • Dux Medinae Caeli
  • Comes Fereae
1 & 2 Ph. and M.
Franciſcus ſecundus, Rex Galliae
Franciſcus tertius, Comes Palatinus
Auguſtus Dux Saxoniae
Alphonſus ſecundus, Dux Ferrariae
Dux Andegavenſis
  • Dominus Grabazenby
  • Dominus Humers
  • Dominus Johannes Mounte
  • Dominus Harmibolt
  • Dominus Boyſy
24 Hen. 8.

THOSE Perſons were render'd incapable of Nomination who were known to Act in contrary Intereſt to the Sovereign; as the Exemplar in the Black-Book expreſſeth more copiouſly, Such as are not his Adverſaries, or Abettors, or willing Defenders of his Adverſaries. Sometimes the Knights-Companions being more wary and diſcreet in Nominating them, to put either diſreſpect upon the Sovereign, or offer Violation to the Statutes.

IN the laſt Place, concerning the Degree, Rank and Dignity of the Nine Knights propoſed to be Elected, the Statutes of the Inſtitution ſet forth, That they be, Firſt, Three [...] Earls, or Perſons of great Dignity. Secondly, Three Barons. And, Third [...]y, Three Knights: Or, as it [Page 238] is in Henry V's Statutes, Trois Contes ou de greegnear eſtat, trois Baner ets, & trois Batchelers. Theſe Degrees are to be ranked in Three Claſſes, and they diſtinguiſh'd by Three Diviſions, all including the Three Degrees aforeſaid.

WHEREAS all other Bodies and Exemplars of the Statutes make poſitive mention of Earls only, yet the Statutes of Hen. VIII. in this Point are more ample, by expreſſing the firſt Claſs, Dukes, Marqueſſes, and Earls, or Perſons ſuperior to theſe in Degree, wherein the higheſt Dignity is comprehended.

WE may obſerve the different Title, viz. Baner [...]t that Henry V's Statutes hath given us inſtead of Baron; and not only in this Article, but in all other where there is Occaſion to treat of Barons; and yet the Record intends by it no other than the Perſon it mentions: For tho' a Banneret had its Denomination a v [...]xillo, it uſually ſignify'd a Degree of Honour next below a Baron, both in a later and a modern Date; yet formerly among our Records, it is expreſſedly Synonymous to Baron, as is ſufficiently clear'd up by our moſt Learned Selden; and in this Senſe is to be taken here, and not as a diſtinct Title of lower Degree, becauſe we obſerve the Bannerets rank'd in all Scrutinies before King Henry VIII. eſtabliſh'd his Statutes (except one) with the Knights-Batchelors, not with Barons.

THE Title of the third and loweſt Rank in this Claſſis in the Statutes of their Inſtitution, are called Milites Bachalauri, and in thoſe of King Henry V. Batchelors, and elſewhere Bachalauri & Bachelauri Equites, which in common Acceptation are the ſame with Milites, tho' thus render'd to evince their difference from Knights-Bannerets, who are of a ſuperior Degree of Honour. And here we may obſerve, that there is no Place in a Scrutiny for any under the Degree of a Knight-Batchelor. And tho' Three of the Nine mentioned are ſet down to be Barons, and Three other Earls, or of higher Degree, yet muſt theſe Six be ſuch as have had conferred on them the Order of Knighthood, elſe their Names are rejected, and neither given or taken in Nomination [...] for the Words of the Statute expreſly are, That each of the Knights aſſembl'd at the Election ſhall name nine Kni [...]ts.

[Page 239] THUS King C [...]arles I. Anno 6 R [...]gni ſui, deſigning t [...] inveſt James Marque [...]s of Hamilton with this Order, conferr [...]d the Honour of Knighthood upon him immediately before his Nomination: And the Annals in that Place put this commentary Remark thereupon, Becauſe by the Statutes it is provided, that none ſhould be elected into the Order that have not been dignify'd with the Title of Knight.

YET the Cer [...]mony of Knighting the Perſon deſigned to be elected, w [...]s not ſo ſtrictly regarded, but ſometimes this Branch of the Statute was either wholly paſſed, or elſe confounded with the ſ [...]cond Article throughout the ſeveral Bodies of the Statutes, which prohibits the Choice or Election of any Perſon into the Society, as this doth the Propoſal or Nomination. And thereupon perhaps it was conceiv'd, that altho' the Nomination, Election, and ſometimes Delivery of the Enſigns of the Order was firſt diſpatch'd and paſt, yet it was ſufficient if the Honour of Knighthood was conferr'd afterwards; as in the Caſes of William Earl of Derby and Thomas Lord Burleig [...], Anno 43. Eliz. where the Regiſter obſ [...]rves, That as ſoon as their Election was over, and they Uſher'd into the Chapter, the Earl of Derby, (who it ſeems had not been Knighted before) was dubbed Knight with a drawn Sword, according to Cuſtom, after which they had the Garter and George put on by the Sovereign her ſelf.

IN like manner, Ulrick Duke of Holſtein, and Henry Earl of Northampton, immediately after their Election, (the laſt Day of St. George's Feaſt, Ann. 3. Jac. I.) and before they receiv'd the Enſigns of the Order, had the Dignity of Knighthood conferr'd on them by the Sovereign; and in like manner the Earl of Suſſex, Ann. 3 C. I. which the Red-Book of [...]he Order recites, That as ſoon as it was und [...]rſtood that the Earl had not receiv'd the Order of Knighthood befor [...], the Sovereign immediately drawing his Sword, Knighted him; which was not done till after his Election and Inveſtiture with b [...]th the George and Garter.

THUS did the Ceremony of Knighthood ſucceed the Election of Charles Prince of Wales, the 21ſt of May, Ann [...] 14 Car. I. for after h [...] had been elected, and inveſted with the Enſigns of the Order by the two Senior [Page 240] Knights (the Earls of Pembroke and Montgomery, and of Arundel and Surry) were intreated by the reſt of the Knights-Companions, to preſent his Highneſs to the Sovereign in the Name of all the reſt, to be initiated a Knight-Batchelor. He was conducted by the ſaid Earls (his Supporters) into the Preſence-Chamber in Windſor-Caſtle, where before the Chair of State, he moſt Solemnly receiv'd the Order of Knighthood from his Father King Charles I.

TO Honour which Knighthood, and the Memory thereof, Four of the chief Nobility then preſent were Knighted, viz. the Earls of Eſſex, St. Alban's and Elgin, and Viſcount Grandiſon, being conducted from the Great Chamber to the Sovereign's State, each between two Batchelor-Knights.

AFTERWARDS the Law in this Point began again to be more rightly underſtood; and by that Time James Duke of York came to be elected (which was the 20th of April, 18 Car. I. at the Feaſt of St. George celebrated at York) the Sovereign appointed, and accordingly conferr'd Knighthood upon him the Day before, which he receiv'd upon his Knees, being conducted into the Preſence-Chamber between two of the Nobility, who were alſo Knights, the Marqueſs of Hertford and Viſcount Grandiſon. In Honour and Commemoration whereof, Four other Noblemen receiv'd the Honour of Knighthood at that time, the Earl of Carnarvan, the Lords George D' Aubignie, John Stewart, and Bernard Stewart, each ſupported by two Knights.

AND thus Prince Edward Count Palatine of the Rhine, and George Duke of Buckingham, being deſigned by King Charles II. to be admitted into this Noble Order, were both firſt Knighted at St. Germains in France, 1649. and afterwards had the Enſigns of th [...] Order ſent unto them, by the Hands of Sir Edward Walker, Kt. Garter, who, in right of his Office, inveſted them therewith.

YET in the Caſe of Prince Rupert, who was elected with James Duke of York, Ann. 18. Car. I. His want of Knighthood became no impediment, becauſe he was a Prince in another Country, viz. Count Palatine of the Rhine, and Duke of [...]avaria, and might therefore juſtly challen [...]e a Privilege to come within the Rule of foreign Princes.

[Page 241] BUT the Sovereign, to arrive as near to the Intention and Obſervance of the Statute as he could, (where there was a poſſibility to do it, and the Honour would be well accepted by the Prince) thought it requiſite by Commiſſion under the Great Seal of England, to impower Thomas Earl of Arundel and Surry, and George Lord Goring, both being then in Holland, or either of them, to Knight the ſaid Prince before putting on the Garter (ſeeing it could not poſſibly be done before his Election) which was intended to be ſent by him by the Hands of Sir John Burrough, Garter. But Death intervening, the Sovereign's Intention was fruſtrated; altho' the Prince, upon his coming afterwards into England, receiv'd both the Garter and the George from the Sovereign himſelf at Nottingham nevertheleſs without Knighthood, which [...]o excuſe, it may well be alledg'd, that the Sovereign might not recollect this Part of the Ceremony, it being a Time of ſo great Turmoil and Fatigue, occaſion'd by the then ſetting up of his Standard.

HOWEVER, upon the 17th of January, 1644. when a Decree paſt in Chapter then aſſembl'd at Oxford, That both the Duke of York and the Prince, ſhould enjoy all Emoluments and Privileges of the Order, tho' they were not as yet Inſtall'd (which Ceremony was to be compleated aſſoon as Windſor was out of the Power of the Rebels.) The Prince, before he receiv'd his Oath, was conducted by the Earl of Berk-ſhire and Duke of Richmond and Lenox, unto the Sovereign, and had conferr'd on him the Honour of Knighthood, there being at the ſame Time two of the Nobility Knighted in Memorial of that Solemnity, the Lord Henry Seymour, Second Son to the Marqueſs of Hertford, and the Lord Capell, conducted each between two Knights.

9.8. 8

§. 8. WE are now come to ſpeak of the Scrutiny it ſelf, in reference to which, we ſhall conſider by whom it ought, or hath been uſually taken, and the Manner and Form thereof.

BY the Statutes of the Inſtitution, the Collecting the Knights-Companions Votes, and entring them in the Scrutiny, ſolely appertains to the Prelate of the Order; and upon him is this Office devolved, not only by the [Page 242] other Bodies of the Statutes, but by the Conſtitutions of his Poſt, and the Obligation of his Oath, whoſe right we find duly aſſerted upon this Perſons taking a Scrutiny, Anno 29 Eliz.

THE Statutes likewiſe provided, That if the Prelate was at any Time abſent, then the Dean of Windſor, or the Regiſter, or the Senior Reſidentiary of the College, or the Secretary, or Scribe of the Order, ſhould undertake the Employment; and elſewhere it is mention'd expresſly, In the abſence of the Prelate, whoſe particular Duty otherwiſe it was. And among the various Examples enroll'd in the Annals of the Order, theſe Examples abundantly confirm it. The Prelate of the Order collected the Suffrages from the Knights-Companions, Anno 9 Hen. V. when John Earl-Marſhal, and Four othe [...] Knights were elected. The like did Henry Beaufort, Lord-Cardinal, Prelate of the Order, upon the Election of John King of Portugal, Anno 13 Hen. VI. And when the Duke of Suffolk was choſe, Anno 26 Hen. VI. the Prelate then alſo gather'd the Suffrages; which he likewiſe did upon the Feaſts of St. George, Celebrated in the 12th, 13th, 14th, 27th, 28th, 30th, 31th, 34th and 35th Years of Queen El [...]zabeth's Reign. Sometimes the Scrutinies have been gathered both by the Dean of Windſor, and the Regiſter of the Order jointly; as we find by the Election of John Lord Talbot, Ann. 2 Hen. VI. of Sir John Falſtaff, Ann. 6 Hen. VI. and the Duke of Quinbery, Ann. 5 Hen. VI. all receiv'd at the Feaſts of St. Georg [...], celebrated at Windſor.

IT is more than a bare Conjecture, tha [...] the Dean at thoſe Times receiv'd the Votes from the Knights-Companions on the Sovereign's ſide, while the Regiſter collected thoſe on the Prince's; for 'tis obſerv'd, that in King Henry Vth's Reign, in Poſts of different Nature [...], one whereof was to ſignifie the Sovereign's Pleaſure to the Knights-Companions about their paying due Reverence, firſt to GOD, and afterwards to himſelf; and the other in a Ceremonia [...], which directs the Manner and Order of Mulcting the Knights-Companions; in both which, the Dean perform'd the Service on the right Hand the Choir (the Sovereign's ſide) and the Regiſter on the left [...]

[Page 243] SOMETIMES the Regiſter of the Order took them alone, as at the Election of John Earl of Arundel, Anno 10 Hen. VI. and thoſe of the Earl of Morteyn and Sir John Grey, Ann. 14 Hen. VI. Moreover it's plain, that when the Office of Regiſter was not fill'd, and Thomas Ruthall, Biſhop of Dureſme, executed it during its Vacancy, the Biſhop himſelf, Ann. 2 Hen. VIII. collected the Suffrages. The like did William Day, Dean of Windſor, in the Abſence of George Carew, Dean of the Chapel and Regiſter of the Order, at the Feaſts of St. George held at Whitehall, Anno 18 and 19 Eliz.

THIS Duty was executed by the Regiſter from the 15th Year of King Henry VIII. to the Period of his and his Son's Reign, as the Black-Book of the Order fully evinces; as alſo on St. George's Day, Ann. 1. Eliz. by John Boxhall; and at the Feaſt of St. George held Ann. 1 Jac. I. by Giles Thompſon, who in the ſeveral Times were Regiſters, yet we muſt not miſtake that what they officiated was on their own behalf, but ſupply'd the Place of the Prelate.

IN the Beginning of Queen Mary's Reign, we find the Chancellor of the Order began to perform this Service, being by King Henry VIIIth's Statutes adjoined to thoſe other Offices before deſcrib'd, to collect the Scrutinies in abſence of the Prelate, and thereby made cap [...]ble of the Employment, which afterwards is tacitly remark'd to be perform'd as if in hi [...] own right, when the Regiſter has only effected it in the Chancellor's abſence, tho' in reality it was no other, than as in the Inſtance of the Biſhop of Dureſme and Dr. Day aforeſaid, who took the Scrutiny in the Vacancy of the Office, and abſence of the Regiſter.

Anno 4 Eliz. the Regiſter in the Abſence of the Chancellor (who was ſick,) upon the Feaſt Day of St. G [...]orge, collected the Suffrages. And Ann. 8. Eliz. G [...]orge Carew, then Regiſter of the Order, took the Votes of the Knights-Companions in abſence of Sir William Petre, Chancellor of the Order. So alſo Ann. 4. Jac. I. where the Cauſe of the Ch [...]ncellor's Abſence is noted to be Sickneſs, and Ann. 6. Jac. I. to be Death.

IN the firſt of theſe Inſtances, we find the Prelate expresſly ſet down to be there; in the two following, his [Page 244] preſence is implyed, for it is ſaid, that the FourOfficers o [...] the Order did attend both Feaſts, whereof, (the Chancellor being wanting) the Prelate muſt needs be one.

NOW all theſe Paſſages ſeem to relate to the Right of the Chancellors rather than the Prelates by this Remark, That every of the Scrutinies were taken in the Abſence of the Chancellor, which looks ſomething like a cautionary Remark that denoted the Right of Execuing this Office to the Chancellor, rather than the Prelate.

WHEN a Deputy-Chancellor hath been admitted to Officiate in the Chancellor's abſence, he, and not the Prelate, hath taken the Scrutiny, (tho' preſent) as at the Election of Charles Prince of Wales, the 20th of May, 14 Car. I. and at another taken the 22d of May following, and the ſame when the Suffrages were collected for the Election of the Duke of York and Prince Rupert at York, Anno 17 Car. I.

BUT there is one Paſſage more (upon taking a Scrutiny Anno 22 Jac. I.) which ſeems Advantageous to the Chancellor in this Point, where it is ſaid, That when the Knights-Companions had given their Votes (as ſay the Annals) THE CHANCELLOR WHO, ACCORDING TO HIS OFFICE, was to receive them, preſented them to the Sovereign. Howbeit, in truth there is no ſufficient Foundation for the Regiſter to inſert this as done by the Chancellor, by Virtue of his Office, or any one Act or Chapter that hath ſuſpended or made void, the Right of the Prelate, which is reſerved by him, even by the Patent, for erecting the Office of Chancellor; eſpecially in thoſe Affairs, which, reſpecting the Order, ought by the Statute of the Inſtitution to appertain to him. But ſince the ſtated Time of performing this Ceremony in the Chapel, the Prelate (if preſent) is preſumed to be Offici [...] ing at the Altar, in diſcharge of another part of his Duty, upon this conſideration hath the Service been then impoſed upon the Chancellor, and others.

Laſtly, WE find the Scrutiny to be o [...]ce taken by Garter, Ann. 16. Car. I [...] at the Election of Thomas Ea [...]l of Strafford. But this was at a Time, when not only the Prelate, but all the other Officers of the Order, excepting Sir John Burrough, Garter, were abſent, and co [...]ſequently [Page 245] this Service ſo executed, ought rather to be judged to have been done in the Prelate's than Chancellor's Right.

9.9. 9

§. 9. BUT whoſoever gather'd the Suffrages, the Time when they enter'd upon this Duty (in the Intervals of Feaſts, where the Occaſion requir'd a peculiar Chapter for an Election) was uſually after the Chapter had been open'd, and the Matter of Election propoſed by the Sovereign; after which he proceeded with all poſſible Reverence and Reſpect.

HOWBEIT upon an extraordinary Occaſion (in the Interval of the Grand Feaſts) the Sovereign hath ſometimes called an Aſſembly of the Knights, Companions, to be convened at the Caſtle of Windſor, who in the Choire of St. George's Chapel (not Chapter-Houſe) after the more ſolemn Manner, have deliver'd in their Nominations, and returning thence into the Chapter-Houſe, he there continu'd the Election. Thus did King Henry VIII. upon the 7th of June in the 17th Year of his Reign, in reference to the Election of the Lord Henry Fitz Roy, (ſo ſtil'd in the Scrutiny, and rank'd among the Barons; for as yet he was not created Duke of Somerſet and Richmond) and Ralph Nevil, Earl of Weſtmorland.

ON the 20th of May, Anno 14 Car. I. being Trinity-Sunday, the Sovereign caus'd a Chapter to be held that Afternoon in the Chapter-Houſe at Windſor, for the Nomination and Election of Charles Prince of Wales; at the Breaking up whereof, the Sovereign and Knights-Companions proceeded immediately to St. Georges's Chapel, where at Evening-Prayer, (which was not within the Compaſs of the Feaſt, for that began not 'till next Day) the Scrutiny was taken.

AND beſides thoſe Examples which ſhew the Nominations have been collected (upon peculiar Occaſions) in the Choire at Windſor, there are one or two Inſtances they have been alſo taken in the Chapel at Whitehall, as on the 15th of May, Ann. 1 Car. I. at the Choice of Edmund Earl of Dorſ [...]t, Henry Earl of Holland, and Thomas Viſcount Andover, as on the 4th of July the ſame Year, whereat the Duke of Chevereux was pitch'd upon.

[Page 246] THE Suffrages have commonly been collected at the Second Veſpers, or in the Time of Evening-Prayer on St. George's Day, or on that Day whereon the Feaſt of St. George hath been celebrated by Prorogation; and with this Diſtinction of Time, the taking of divers Scrutinies are mark'd.

HOWEVER there occurs one Scrutiny gather'd in the Chapter-Houſe at Windſor on the Eve of the Grand-Feaſt, at which the perſon immediately elected, was ſent for in, and had the Enſigns of the Order conferr'd upon him, when immediately the Sovereign made his Progreſſion to the Chapel, and after ſome ſmall Interval, the Elect proceeded to his Inſtallation. And this was the Caſe of James Marqueſs Hamilton, Ann. 6 Car. I. who lying under an Obligation to commence his Voyage next Morning towards Germany (whither he had the Commiſſion of General of 6000 Foot in Aſſiſtance of the King of Sweden) occaſion'd this his Sovereign's Indulgence, and quick diſpatch.

WHEN the Scrutiny firſt began to be collected in the Chapel, is treated of ſomewhat general and indefinite. Ann. 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9 Eliz. it was during the time of Evening-Prayer. And in like manner, Ann. 4 Jac. I. and 13 Car. I. And when the Feaſt of St. George was ſolemniz'd at Whitehall, the 18th of April, 13 Car. I. the Annals ſay, That the Sovereign recreated himſelf with the Melody of Evenſong, during which the Chancellor collected the Votes of the Knights-Companions.

BUT in ſome other Places, the Time when this Matter was tranſacted is reſtricted to a preciſe Time, or ſome particular Part of Evening Prayer, as Anno 26 and 27 Eliz. whilſt the Choire ſung the Service, and the like Anno 14 Jac. I. but 4 Car. I. while the Anthem was ſung after the ſecond Leſſon, but more frequently after the firſt Leſſon, as in the 2 and 9 Car. I. while the Anthem was ſinging, or whilſt they were hymning the Anthem of the bleſſed Virgin called the Magnificat, and which is all one with that, Anno 14 Car. I. viz. aſſoon as the firſt Leſſon was read, or at the firſt Leſſon, which is remembred to be the uſual Part of the Service, in which the nomination ought to begin.

9.10. 10

[Page 247]

§. 10. THE manner of the Order the Knight-Companions Votes ought to be collected when the Scrutiny is tak [...]n in the Choir [...], when the Regiſter informs us, upon the Celebration of St. Georges's Feaſt at Greenwich, 28 H [...]n. VIII. as entred into the Black Book; ‘That he uſed his Diligence in going to and fro from one Side to the other, to demand and redemand the Suffrages from the Knights-Companions, according to the Variety and Diſpoſition of their Stalls,’ which ſame Methods in eiſdem terminis the Chancellor obſerved, Anno 24 Eliz. and without queſtion was generally performed at other Seaſons, for the annals deſcribe it to be perform'd de more 5 Eliz. or juxta Ordines Conſtitutionis Anno 26 Eliz.

THAT the Officer who collects the Scrutiny, is obliged to begin at the youngeſt Knight-Companion, and ſo proceed upward towards the Eldeſt, is evident from the Order mentioned to be in Vogue, An. 2 and 20 Eliz. as alſo 15 Car. I. But to give a more particular Account of this Ceremony, as it ſtood temp. Car. I. and doubtleſ [...] long before, tho' not Recorded in Script [...], is as follows.

Firſt, THE Officer aroſe and went into the Middle of the Choire; directly over againſt his own Seat, he made two Reverences, firſt towards the high Altar, and next to the Sovereign, then he proceeded up to the Choire near the hault pace againſt the Stall of the junior Knight-Companion, and there made like Reverence; this done he went up to the Stall of the ſaid junior Knight, and with a ſingular Reverence to him, only demanded whom he pleaſed to nominate, which having taken, (making to him a ſecond Reverence,) he deſcended into the Choire, and thence paſſed to the next ſenior Knight on the other Side, (unleſs by reaſon of the vacancy of the Stall he Sits on the ſame Side with the junior) and having received his nomination from the ſecond Knight-Companion, he again croſſed the Choire to the Third, and in like mannner he aſcended according to [...]he Seniority of the Knights-Companions preſent, (always croſſing the Choire where there was occaſion) [...]ntil he arrived at the ſenior Kni [...]ht-Companion; and [Page 248] having thus received all their Nominations, he returned into the Middle of the Choire, and after accuſtomed Reverences, took his Seat.

THIS Method in collecting the Votes as to the general, and in the Choire, ought likewiſe to be obſerved when they are taken from the Knights-Companions in Chapter, they being ranked in due order on either Side of the Table, according to the Seniority of their Elections and ſituations of Stalls in the Choire; the Officer beginning with the junior and thence gradually aſcending to the ſenior Knight.

AND that we may rightly apprehend after what form every Knight-Companion Ranketh the Names of thoſe Perſons he propoſeth, and how each Claſſis is diſtinguiſhed and divided, the following Scrutiny will manifeſt which was taken off, May, Anno 13 Hen. VI. upon the Vacancy of one Stall hapning by the death of Sir Henry Tanke Clux a German, and the firſt Scrutiny found Marſhalled among the Annals of this moſt noble Order.

  Principes. Barones. Equites.
Dux Exoniae. Duc. Norfolciae Dom. Lovell Dom. S. Stanl [...]y
Duc. Warwici Dom. Audley Dom. J. Holland
Com. Oxoniae Dom. Dudley Dom. J. Steward
Marc. Suffolc. Duc. Norfolciae Dom. Lovell Dom. J. Fengo
Com. Devoniae Dom. Audley D. R. Woodvy [...]
Com. Oxoniae Dom. Foix. Dom. A. Ogard
Com. Salopiae. Duc. Warwici Dom. Audley Dom. R. [...]ngs
Duc. Norfolciae Dom. Dudley Dom. T. Stanl [...]y
Com. Oxoniae Dom. Foix Dom. T. Kiri [...]ll
Dom. Sudeley. Duc. Norfolciae Dom. Foix Dom. R. Fengs
Duc. Warwici Dom. Lovell Dom. J. Fengs
Com. Devoniae Dom. Audley Dom. G. Bonevile
Dom. Willoughby. Duc. Warwici Dom. Wells Dom. T. Kirie [...]l
Duc. Norfolciae Dom. Lovell D. J. Montgom [...]ry
Com. Oxoniae Dom. Laware D. R. Shotesbrok [...]
[Page 249] Dom. Scales. Duc. Warwici Dom. Foix D. E. Hungerford
Com. Oxoniae Dom. Clyfford D. G. Beauchamp
Com. Devoniae Dom. Laware Dom. A. Ogard
Dom. Johannes Falſtaff. Duc. Warwici Dom. Boucer D. R. Hungerford
Duc. Norfolciae Dom. Audley Dom. R. Roos.
Com. Oxoniae D. GrayRuffyn Dom. A. Ogard
Dom. J. Beauchamp. Duc. Warwici Dom. Foix Dom. R. Feng [...]
Com. Devoniae Dom. Lovell Dom. J. Fengs
Com. Oxoniae Dom. Audley Dom. R. Roos.

IN the firſt Column each Knight-Companion hath his own Name per [...]ixt to thoſe Perſons for whom he condeſcends his Vote, to the intent it may appear by whom the Knights candidates are nominated, and theſe are Ranked in three ſeveral Diviſions.

THE firſt contains, The Degrees of Earls, Marqueſſes, Dukes, Princes, Kings and Emperors; yet at a Scrutiny taken Anno 24 Hen. VI. in a Chapter held at Brainford, Albro Vaſquez d'almadea, (who immediately following, is Stiled Comes Averentiae) is by a miſtake Ranked; but in the ſecond Diviſion among the Barons, and twice among the Knights Votes of the Marqueſs of Suffolk, and Earl of Shrewsbury, but this Error perhaps owes its original for want of due knowledge, either of the Law in the Statutes or his Degree, the latter of which is the moſt feaſible to conjecture; for being a Stranger, his Title might not be ſo generally divulged, nor is it taken notice of in the Scrutiny it ſelf, tho' in the annals immediately after it was rectified.

AND to ſhew the probability of this Point, the Earls of Oxford, Devonſhire, and Arundel, (whoſe degrees were ſufficiently known) at a Scrutiny taken Anno 24 Hen. VI. are ranked in the ſecond Diviſion among the Barons, and Anno 1 Hen. VIII. the Earl of Darby is three Times ſo placed, and again 13 Hen. VI. the Earl of Devonſhire twice; but this happened not thro overſight or neglect of the Statutes, but becauſe at theſe Nominations wherein they are ſo Ranked, the firſt Diviſion to which they appertained, happened to be fill'd up with thoſe other higher Dignities belonging to the ſame Claſs, viz. [Page 250] Kings or Dukes, as when the beforementioned Earls of Oxford, Devonſhire, and Arundel, were ſet down in the Place of Barons; the King of Portugal, the Dukes of Warwick and Norfolk, were put in the Claſs of Princes, and ſo it happened in many other inſtances.

ON the contrary, Anno 15 and 16 Eliz. IV. the Lord Rich. Grey one of the Queen's Sons, by her former Husband, Sir John Grey of Groby Knight; in reſpect of his Alliance to the Royal Family, is Ranked in the firſt Diviſion among the Princes, under the Title Dominus Richardus filius Reg [...]nae, and afterwards Anno 19 Edw. IV. ſet only among the Barons, as well with the former Title as this Richardus Dominus Grey, but Anno 22 Edw. IV. he is thrice regiſter'd among the Princes, and as often with the Barons, whence it is obſervable that to be Enrolled in the Rank of Princes, may be afforded of courteſie to Perſons of high Eminency and Blood; but then as they can lay no claim to it by their Merit, ſo ſuch of the Knights-Companions as Rank them lower, ſuffer no diminution in their Honour.

WHEREIN the ſecond Diviſion are Ranked the Barons and Viſcounts, for Viſcounts in all Scrutinies, after the firſt Erection of that Dignity, were on the ſame level with the Barons, until the 3 of Jac. I. (excepting only John Dudley Viſcount Liſle, Anno 35 Hen. VIII. who by every Knight, the Duke of Norfolk excepted, is Ranked in the firſt Diviſion of Princes) and in a Scrutiny then taken, Robt. Cecil Viſcount Craneborne is the ſecond Viſcount in the Liſt that has been Ranked with Princes, whence it became the frequent Practice in ſucceeding Scrutinies, until Anno 14 Car. I. And then (upon a Queſtion put in Chapter convened at Weſtminſter 23 May 14 Car. I.) whether Earls Sons and Viſcounts were eligible with Barons, it paſſed in the affirmative, and that by general uſage except in the two caſes juſt mentioned; and about the ſame time we find it reiterated near that Time, for in two Scrutinies taken the 19th and 21ſt of that Inſtant May, the Viſcounts are therein reduced to the ſecond Diviſion, and Ranked with the Barons.

THE Knights-Batchelors and Bannerets held the ſame [Page 251] Rank in King Hen. VIII's Statutes, in all Scrutinies with Barons.

BUT tho' the word in King Hen. VIIIth's late Statutes is Baronettus inſtead of Banerettus, yet is this frequently obvious in ſome ancient Books and Records, as well as in thoſe ancient Writers, long before the Title of Baronet was conceived or brought into uſe.

IN the laſt place he who demands thoſe Suffrages) the Knights-Companions preſent) is by the Statutes of Inſtitution to receive them in writing; for in a Scrutiny taken Anno 2 Hen. VI. at the Election of John Lord Talbote and Turnival, the Dean of Windſor, and the Regiſter of the Order, wrote down the Votes and Nominations of every ſingular Knight preſent at the Day of Election.

AND at another Scrutiny Anno 4 Hen. VI. to fill up that which by an Error in the Black Book is ſet down Sir Henry Fitzhugh, 'tis inſerted, That the Dean and Regiſter wrote down in Order, (according to their Seniority) the Votes of the Knights-Companions. And after the Scrutinies began to be entred in the Annals, it is evident the general Practice kept pace with the Injunction of the Statutes; only there are two inſtances of an Election confirmed without taking a Scrutiny in writing, one in the caſe of the Princes Henry and Chriſtiern IV. King of Denmark, where the Knights-Companions in a Chapter convened at Whitehall, 14 of July 1 Jac. I. gavein their Votes viva voce, and immediately the Sovereign admitted them both into the Illuſtrious Society; the other was the Caſe of James Marquis Hami [...]ton, Elected the 2d of Feb. 20 Jac. I. with the vocal conſent of all the Knights-Companions.

IT is worthy obſervation, that this Method, and the omiſſion of taking the Scrutiny in writing, is not only contrary to the Law of the Order expresſly ſet down for a more ſtable conſignation of the Action, and more faithful tranſmiſſion of it to Po [...]terity, but exceeding prejudicial to Perſons of Honour, and Diſtinction, whoſe Names would otherwiſe ſurvive with great veneration among the candidates of this Illuſtrious Order, and of which Honour many deſerving Perſons will be hereafter deprived, if the Injunctions of the Statutes be not obſerved in this particular reſpect.

9.11. SECT. XI. The Preſentation of it to the Sovereign.

[Page 252]

THE Knights-Companions, having delivered their Suffrages, the Officer by whom they are Collected, humbly preſents to the Sovereign the Nominations, for ſo it is recorded the Prelate of the Order acted in the 9th of Hen. the Vth. If theſe Votes were taken in Chapter, the Paper uſually was immediately preſented to the Sovereign who made his Election, before the Chapter broke up; but if gathered in the Chapel, tho' it was given to the Sovereign, yet the choice was not made then, but the Morning after, and this was the manner in the 2d and 5th Years of Queen Eliz. Another time it hath not been preſented till the Veſpers were finiſhed, but in the Practice of latter Days the Scrutiny hath not been given up to the Sovereign till the next Day at the opening of the Chapel before Morning-Prayer, as in the 13, 15, 20, 30 Years of Queen Eliz. demonſtrates, and was the accuſtomed Practice of the 17th Year of King Charles the firſt of ever ſacred Memory; the laſt preſentation was tranſcribed in a little Book, and with all due Reverence offered upon the Knee, before any other Affair was tranſacted in the Chapter.

THIS has been the general Uſe as we are aſcertain'd, Anno 2 Hen. VI. the Dean of Windſor, and the Regiſter of the Order, having Collected the Vote of every Knight, they were immediately given into the Hands of the Sovereign's Deputy; and in the ſame nature were they preſented on the 4th Hen. VI. when John Duke of Bedford was Lieutenant, in the 20th of Queen Eliz.; when the Suffrages were Collected by Sir Franc [...] Walſingham the Chancellor, he gave them up to the Earl of Suſſex, then Lieutenant to the Sovereign.

BUT it's evident from ſeveral Paſſages in the Blue Book of the Order, that the Lieutenant afterward delivered them to the Sovereign, as is apparent from the Records of the 30th, 34th, 38th, and the 40th Year of Queen Eliz.

[Page 257] In the 12th Year of K. James I. ſome Exceptions aroſe upon the Chancellor's not preſenting the Scrutiny to the Prince, (who at that time was the Sovereign's Lieutenant) but to the Sovereign himſelf, which was an Error he fell into, as well as ſome of his Predeceſſor's; as the 2d, 3d, and 25th of Eliz. demonſtrate.

The Sovereign's Conſiderations upon the Qualifications of thoſe to be elected.

9.12. 12

§ 12. As the Knights-Companions are under an Obligation, by the Statutes, to nominate no Perſon, but who can bear the Teſt of the afore-mention'd Qualifications, there's a Standard of Honour provided for the Sovereign, to meaſure the Extraction, Quality, and Merit of the Perſon propoſed to be elected, leaſt it might chance, thro' the Indulgence of the Sovereign, this Fountain of Honour might be mudded by the Choice of inferior and undeſerving Perſons, for the Statutes run—becauſe this Order conſiſts of Goodneſs, and honourable Virtue, doth not admit Unworthineſs and Villany, and ſo by Conſequence ſecludes all Perſons of mean Ex [...]raction and Merit.

The Qualifications for Election are exhibited in the 2d Article, as in the 18th are included thoſe of Nomination: The Words of the Inſtitution are, That none ſhall be elected into the Order; and refer only to the Act of Election: For if we conſult the reſt of the Statutes, and compare them with this Paſſage, they run according to this Tenor. That none ſhall be elected and choſen a Companion of this Order. Theſe refer more principally to the Time of the Election [...] and not to the Inveſtiture with Garter, and George, and Inſtallation, from the Expreſſions of admitting and receiving Knights into this Order, as the Examplars of the Statutes of Inſtitution ſet forth. And this is farther illuſtrated, from another Paſſage in the 2d Article of Henry the VIII's Statutes, where the Word Reproach is mentioned, [...]aith. The Guilt thereof ſo incapacitates a Man's Election, that for the future it's a Bar, and utterly diſqualifies [...]im for that Honour.

There are Two Points requiſite for Qualifications and Endowments; firſt, to be a Gentleman of Blood; and, 2dly, a Knight without Reproach. By the Statutes of Henry the [...] Inſtitutions, no Man ought to be elected, unleſs [...]e [Page 258] be a Gentleman born. The Examplar in the Black Bo [...]k ſaith, Unleſs he be worthy upon the Account of Birth and Arms: And in another Paſſage, That he be one eminent for his Demeanour and good Report; which intimates the Conjunction of Blood and Virtue, which make up the nobleſt Compoſition. The Statutes of King Henry VIII. are more extenſive than thoſe, and ſay, He muſt be a Gentleman by Name, Arms, and Blood; and leaſt this Character might ſeem intricate and perplex'd, A Gentleman of Blood is defin'd to be, One deſcended of three Deſcents of Nobles, viz. of Name and Arms, both by his Father and Mother's ſide.

It's certain Gentility does not receive its Perfection in the Perſon it was firſt devolv'd on, but is rather compleated by Succeſſion: For, among the Romans, tho' the Father was Free-born, and of the Equeſtrian Cenſe; yet it was farther requiſite, that the Grand-father ſhould be the ſame, or elſe they could not obtain the Ring, one of the Symbols of the Equeſtrian Order, as Pliny informs us. Gentility hath its beginning in the Grand-father, its increaſe in the Father, and full ripeneſs in the Son; and conſequently in the Conſtitution of Gentility, the Father and Grand-father conveying a Luſtre to the Son, make it entire and compleat; for its incongruous to ſuppoſe a ripeneſs in the Son, unleſs there had been a former encreaſe in the Father, and a longer Series from the Grandfather.

The memorable Inſtance of the Lord William Paget, who was diveſted of the Garter five Years after his Election, upon Pretence of his not being a Gentleman of Blood by either Father or Mother, proceeded not wholly from the defect in Point of Extraction, as Haward relates, but rather from the Prevalence and Practice of John Dudley, Duke of N [...]rthumberland, by whoſe means he was moſt unjuſtly deprived of the Garter; repenting, perhaps, at the great Honours he had done this Lord, by his [...]a [...] Character of him to King Edward VI. when he procured him a new Grant of thoſe Arms, under the Great Seal of England, when he was Earl Marſhal, which he had ſome time before received from the Garter Principal King of Arms.

But, admit the defect of Blood and Arms, for three D [...]ſcents, were the true Cauſe of the recal [...]ing his Ga [...]te [...], [Page 259] that it might be conferred upon the Earl of Warwick [...] eldeſt Son of the ſaid Duke, who, out of courteſie, is called ſo, in which Relation both Haward and Stow have miſtaken, for they were beſtowed upon Sir Andrew Dudley, Brother to the Duke; for tho' he was put in the Scrutiny enter'd among the Annals of Edward VI. in the Sixth Year of his Reign, upon S [...]. George's Day, yet was the Earl neither then, nor at any other time, elected.

The Enſigns of this moſt Noble Order, as ſoon as Queen Ma [...]y aſcended the Throne, were with as much Honour reſtored to the Lord Paget, and with as great and abſolute an Authority, as they were diſgracefully taken from him. And in Confirmation of this Lord's Reſtauration, he had the Garter buckled on his Leg, and the Collar and the O [...]der put about his Shoulders, with the George depending, by two of the Knights-Companions preſent; and the Gar [...]er King at Arms was order'd, That he ſhould take Care his Atchievements ſhould be replaced over his Stall at Windſor, which is the 9th on the Sovereign's ſide. It is obſervable, that the very Records of the Order brand his Degradation as Injuſtice; as if it were inferab [...]e, That when Honour is conferred, upon the Account of Virtue and exquiſite Endowments, the Conſideration of theſe ſupplies the defect and obſcurity of Extraction. The Sovereign, whoſe Prerogative it was to declare and interpret the Statutes, being preſent in Chapter, thought [...]t to qualifie the Law, and gave him this honourable Commendation, That he had highly deſerved of the Nation, by his Prudence and Counſel.

And though there's only inſerted in the Examplar of the Black Book, Virtue and good Report for a Qualification, yet the ſame was obſerved by the Sovereigns and Lieutenants in foregoing Time [...], with great Circumſpection; and that the Magnanimity, Fortitude, Prudence, Generoſity, Fam [...], Reputation, and other Virtues and Excellencies, whet [...]er innate or acquired, of the Perſon propoſed to Election, have by prudent Inquiſition been inſpected, and brought to the To [...]chſtone, before they have been admitted into ſo [...]oble and illuſtrious a Body.

Thoſe Qualities were chiefly conſider'd and eſteemed [...]y Henry V. for which Reaſon, at an Election in the [...]th Year of his Reign, he gave the Preference, before [...]ther [...] tha [...] wer [...] nominated and preſented unto him, to [Page 260] John, Earl Marſhal, William, Earl of Suffolk, John, Lord Clifford, Sir Lewis R [...]bertſack, and Sir Heer Tank Clux.

Humphry, Duke of Glouceſter, Deputy to K. Hen. VI. t [...]od in the ſame Steps, and did weigh, by the ſtrict Rules of Fortitude and Prudence, the gallant and noble Actions and Deſerts of John [...] Lord Talb [...]t, before the Electio [...], and gave in an Appro [...]ation worthy of his own Judgment [...] and that Candidate's Merit. And for this Reaſon it's expreſſed in the Annals of the Order, that ſuch noble and h [...] roick Qualifications ſhould have the favour of Election preferrable to o [...]hers, as is evident in the Matter of Choic [...] of Sir Nicholas Carew, in the 28th of Hen. VIII. That he was a very fit Perſon, upon the Eminency of his Extraction and Fame, and the many noble and worthy Actions he [...]ad perfo [...]med; ſo as that all preſent did, without any delay, unanimouſly approve of his Election. And after this Tenure run the Commendation of Henry, Earl of Cumberland, a [...] his Election, vi [...]. The many famous and loyal Atchievements perform [...]d by [...]im, both at ſeveral other times, and then m [...]re eſpecially, when the Tumult of Rebellion began to b [...]eak forth in thoſe Borders where he had his Habitation.

The 2d Point to treat on is, That no one is qualified for Election, unleſs he be a Knight; or as it is expreſſed in one of the Examplars in the Hatton Library, Unleſs girded with the unſtained Girdle of Knighthood; ſo ſingular a [...]egard the Law of the Order ha [...]h to this particular Qualification above the reſt: And leaſt Chance or Inadvertency might let ſlip a Perſon not Knighted into the Scrutiny, were the Words inſerted ut minimum, that he be at leaſt a Knight before he be elected, when the Sovereign come [...] to make his Choice. It is evident from the 2d Article in the Statutes, that it hath long ſince received this Conſtru [...]tion, as ap [...]ears by an eminent Inſtan [...]e. In the 17th of Hen. VIII. The Feaſt of St. George b [...]ing c [...]l [...] brated at Greenwich, and the Sovereign being preſent, having elected the Lord Roos, afterwards Earl of Rutland, into the Society of this moſt n [...]ble Order; and being advertiſed on the Morrow after S [...]. G [...]o [...]ge's Day, while the Maſs of Requiem was celebrating, Th [...]t he had not befo [...]e received t [...]e Dignity of Knighthood, acc [...]rding to the Statutes, which p [...]ſitively enj [...]in, That whoſoever is elec [...]ed into this S ciet [...] ſhould be in Degree at leaſt [...] Knight; that is, actually Knighted before-hand. And tho' the Lord Ro [...]s wa [...] [Page 261] at the Time of his Election a Baron of this Realm, which is a higher degree of Honour than a Knight; The Sovereign after Maſs re-aſſembled the Knights-Companio [...]s, and annulled the Election, and commanded the Garter and Ge [...]rge, ſo lately conferred, to be taken off, and in the ſame Place dubbed him a Knight; and then he was Elected again, with an unanimous Conſent, and ſo decla [...]ed by the Sovere [...]gn's own Mouth; and was reſtored to his Enſigns and Ornaments, by the Dukes of No [...]folk and Suffolk. Agreeable to this, it's recorded in the Red Book of the Order; that none of the Engliſh, Scotch, or Welſh Nation, how conſiderable ſoever otherwiſe, in the Prerogative of Blood [...]r Virtue, can be Elected into this moſt honourable Society; but that he ought to be firſt ennob [...]ed and rendered capable, by this fi [...]ſt d [...]gree of Knightly Honour.

But this Law does not bind Foreign Princes; for by a Decree at W [...]ite-Hall, in 13 Charles I. theſe Words, ut minimum, are explained to relate to all Subjects, of what Degree [...]oever, within the Sovereign's Dominions; but Foreign Princes ought not t [...] [...]e Knighted, as the Baſis and firſt Degree of Chivalry. The Statutes of Inſtitution, as to thoſe before-mentioned, not only enjoyn them to be Knights, but to be fr [...]e of all [...] Infamy and Reproach [...] In H [...]y V's. Statutes, it ſtands, Chivalier ſans reproche, which Anſwers in the Latin, Eques i [...]reprehenſus; and the Argument uſed by the Duke of Bedford, for pr [...]moting the Election of Sir John Rad [...]liff, was, that he had contin [...]ed and exerciſed the Armies, the ſpace of twenty eight Years, without Reproach. King Henry VIII. determined this Word Reproach in [...]o three Species; firſt, w [...]en a K [...]ig [...]t [...]th been convicted of Hereſy, againſt the Catholick Faith; or ſuffered any publick Puniſhment for ſuch Offence: He [...]e Hereſy is reckoned among thoſe d [...]fects, that deprive Men of Honour; becauſe it bends its Force againſt the Catholick Church, which not only renders a Man, in the ballance of Honour, of no Weight and Eſteem, but more than all other Sin [...], makes him Infam [...]us. And therefore when by T [...]ngue, Pen, or Actions, a Man endeavours to [...]rample under Foot the ſacred Law, he ſcandalizeth Government, and [...]educeth others.

The ſecond Point is, when any Knight hath been arraigned, c [...]nvic [...]ed, and attainted of Treaſon; howe [...]er Q Eliz [...]beth qualified this Poin [...] by a Decree, made [...]n [Page 262] the fi [...]ſt Year of her Reign; that in caſe any Perſons ſo convicted, were pardoned by the Sovereign, and reſtored in Blood; every ſuch Gentleman in Name, Arms, and Blood, and deſcended as aforeſaid, being otherwiſe qualified, according to the ancient Statutes of the Order, ſhould [...]e thenceforth accounted Eligible, and might be Choſen a Companion. This Decree, it's preſumed, owes its Original, upon the occaſion of reſtoring in Blood William Marquiſs of Northampton, and the Lord Robert Dudley, after Earl of L [...]iceſter, who had been attainted of High Treaſon in the firſt of Q. Ma [...]y: And we find that in the next Feaſt of St. George, they recovered their Privileges of Honour, and were preferred in Nomination, and on the laſt Day of the Feaſt, were Elected into this moſt illuſtrious Society.

Though the Marqueſs of Northampton had been form [...]rly Elected in the 35 H. 8. and was reſtored in Blood, as I ſaid before; it's very remarkable, that it was thought [...]it to deſcend to a new Nomination and Election, as appears from the Decree it ſelf, as it was performed upon the third of June Anno primo Eliz.

The laſt Point of Reproach, is, where a Knight Companion hath fled from Battle; in which the Sovereign, or his Lieutenant, or other Captain, (having the King's Authority) were preſent; when Banners were diſplayed, and both Sides proceed to Fight. Now for a Perſon to behave himſelf cowardly in the Fight, abandon his Col [...]urs, leave his Prince, Friends, and Companions, in hazard of Life, are undoubtedly Concerns of a very high and reproachful Nature, and draw down Diſhonour up [...]n the Order, the Sovereign, and Knights Companions, and a ſufficient indication of a puſilanimous Mind; that prefers to drag an infamous Life, and makes his Honour a Sacrifice to a reproachful Safety; for the Reſolution of a right Martial Spirit, ought either to return decked with Victory, or die upon the Bed of Honour.

By the Laws of King Edward the Confeſſor, the Soldier that runs from his Colours, either in Land or Sea Service, his Life and Eſtate were made liable to anſwer the O [...] [...]ence; and our Acts of Parliaments have made it Felony, without Benefit of Clergy; for as much as ſuch deſertion endangers the Eſtate of the King, Nobility, and C [...]mmonwealth.

[Page 263] But the danger is of a far more diſmal hue, when Officers, or he that Commands in Chief, or who has any Poſt of Truſt aſſigned him, either quit it, or is found defective in his Duty, as was Thomas Earl of Lanc [...]ſter, who quitted the Army at the Siege of Berwick, the conſequence of which proved an abortion to the whole Deſign; and for which he was [...]roclaimed Traytor, Anno 12 E. 2. And therefore whoever is culpable of any of theſe three Poin [...]s of Reproach, is diſqualified from being Elected into th [...]s moſt noble Order. Before we proceed any farther, it may not be improper to take notice of an Error which Polydore Virgil hath interwove with one, and which Erhardus Celius, in his Hiſtory of England, hath copyed from that Author, but refuted by the learned Pen of Dr. Heylein, viz. that the Knights-Companions have certain Laws belonging to their Order, whereby they are obliged to help [...]ne anot [...]er, and in Time of Battle never to betake themſelves to ſhameful Flight: The Statute Law of the Order is ſilent upon the firſt Clauſe, nor is the latter otherwiſe to be [...]aken, than one of thoſe Points of Reproach ſpoke of in the ſecond Statute of K. Henry VIII. which n [...]lls the Election of the Perſon nominated, if he be p [...]ccant in that Point: Now that which gives ſome Umbrage to the Knights mutual Aſſiſtance and De [...]ence, is founded upon an Article in their Statutes, which prohibits the arming themſelves one againſt another, to create a mutual Affection, and to extinguiſh Feuds, which is the Life and Soul of Society, and which the Founder, to prevent Inconveniencies, had a great Regard to; and therefore he Ordained, which has been confirmed ſince by other Statutes; That none of the Knights-Companions ſhould Arm themſelves againſt any of their Fellows, unleſs either in the Cauſe of his Sovereign, or his own juſt Quarrel: And this Clauſe it was, that gave the Handle to both Pa [...]ties, that ſided with the Houſes of York and Lancaſter; ſome firmly adhering to Henry VI. whom they accounted S [...] vereign of the Order; and others taking Part wi [...]h Edwa [...]d IV. as eſteeming him Sovereign de Jure, though not de Facto.

But more firmly to tye this Knot of Amity among this noble F [...]aternity, leaſt they ſhould unhappily e [...]gage in Factions one againſt another, and proceed ſo violently as m [...]g t commen [...]e into Actions of Blood and Slaughter; [Page 264] it was ordained, That if a Knight-Companion ſhould happen to be reta [...]ned in the Service of a Foreign Prince, to take up Arms in his Quarrel; and after his Adverſary deſired to entertain another Knight-Companion on his Side alſo; he that was laſt invited, was bound to wave th [...]s Offer, and in no wi [...]e to give his Conſent. And upon th [...]s, the Knight-Companions were obliged to make ſpecial Precautions in that their Engagements; that if any of his Fellows were retained on the other Side, and that if he knew not that another of his Fellows had been engaged with the Adverſary, ſo ſoon as it came to his Knowlege, he was obliged to relinquiſh the Service he before had undertaken.

T [...] theſe three Points of Reproach we have ſet down, we find in a Manuſcript, that belonged to Heny G [...]ey, third Muqui [...]s of Suffolk, a four [...]h added to theſe other three Points of Reproach; in theſe Words:

That if any Knight of the Order, from henceforth, by Prodigality or Riot, wilfully or negligently, Diſpend, Sell, Al [...]ens, or do away his Patrimony or Livelihood, by reaſon whereof, he ſhall not be able Honourably to maintain himſelf, and his Eſtate, in ſuch H [...]nourable Manner, as may Conſerve the Honour of the ſaid Order, and of himſ [...]lf; in this Caſe he ſhall be Summoned by the Uſher of Arms of the Order, called the black Rod, by Commandment of the Soveraign, his Lieutenant, or Deputy; to appear before his Majeſty, or his Commiſſioners, and the Knights of the Order, at the next Chapter enſuing; there to be examin [...]d before the Soveraign, or his ſaid Commi [...] ſioners, and the Knights and Companions of the ſaid Order; and if he be found in ſ [...]ch great default of Prodigality, inſolent Riot, or wilf [...]l Negligence; that then the Sov [...] raign, with the advice of the Company of [Page 265] the ſaid Order, may deprive and degrade him of the ſaid Order, at the ſaid Chapter, if it be their Pleaſure.

Though this fourth Point is not inſerted into King Henry VIII's Statutes, yet the Subſtance thereof ſeems to be approved of before; for we find among ſome Orders, prepared by the Marquiſs of Exeter, and other Knights-Companions, at a Chapter at Windſor, the twenty fif [...]h and twenty ſixth Days of May, Anno 8 Henry VIII. one of them was ſomething to this Purpoſe.

9.13. 13

§. 13. Amongſt the Number of theſe Candidates, the Sovereign is chiefly to regard thoſe who have moſt Voices, or whom he conceives moſt requiſite to contribute to the Honour of the Garter, and moſt Beneficial to himſelf, and of moſt Advantage to his Crown and Kingdom. We find the Law hath not always reſerved the greateſt Number of Voices, as will appear from the Annals; yet it has ſometimes confirmed the Election, as in the Caſe of the Duke of Queenberry An. 5 Henry VI. where, after a due and ſufficient Examination taken of the Scrutiny, the Duke, by the conſent of moſt Voices, was E [...]ected into the Stall of Thomas Duke of Exeter; and ſo was the Election of Sir Nicholas Carew, the twenty fourth of April, in the 28 Henry VIII.

It is remarkable in a ſingular Inſtance, that when two Knights had on either Side equal Voices; which was the Caſe of Sir John Faſtolf, and Sir John Radcliff; the firſt being eſteemed more Worthy, by the Sovereign's Lieutenant, obtained the Election.

The ſecond Inducement relates to ſuch as, in all Appearance, may bring moſt Renown to the Order, and advance it to a higher pitch of Greatneſs; and theſe have in a great Meaſure been effected, by enrolling Foreign Princes into this illuſtrious Society, whoſe Valour and great Merit have proclaimed them deſerving both of N [...]mination and Election. And upon this Conſideration, K. Clarles I. of bleſſed Memory, upon Conſideration had of the glo [...]ious Atchievements, and high Renown, of Guſtavus Adolphus King of Sweden; judged it a Pa [...]t of his Reſpect, not only to render him all Offices of Kindneſs and [Page 266] Friendſhip, as to a Prince nearly allied, and his moſt ſpecial Friend; but alſo to impart to him, as far as in him lay, the greateſt and higheſt Honour that might be, and eſpecially ſuch, wherewith the military Virtue of ſo great a Captain was wont to be adorned.

But the principal Motive thought requiſite to Elect Foreign Princes into this Society of Honour, hath been expreſſed in the Commiſſions of Legations, to be in Reſpect of their glorious Merits, ennobled by the luſtre and grace of their Heroick Virtues, their eminent Nobleneſs, Grandeur, Proweſs, and Magnificence; the renown of which, Fame [...]ad divulged and ſpread Abroad throughout the World.

Where the Advantage of the Sovereign's Service was thrown into the Ballance, no Conſideration could outvie its Pretenſions, as in 2 H. 6. juſtifies; whoſe eminent Service for his King and Country, was the ſole Motive that crowned his Election: And the great Zeal and Affection, which John Jaſpar Ferdinand de Marchin ſhewed for the Cau7s;e and Service, and the recovery of the juſt Rights of King Charles II. was the ſtrongeſt Inducement that ſwayed that Sovereign to chuſe him, in the tenth Year of his Reign, a Knight-Companion of this moſt noble Order. But the laſt inducement is of the greateſt Latitude, for the Sovereign has a Power to reject whoſoever he pleaſes, though they do exceed in multiplicity of Voices, and in other Qualifications; and even to Elect a Perſon that's but once mentioned, as was ſhewn in the Perſon of Caſimire, the fourth King of Poland, An. 28 Henr [...] VI. who having only the ſingle Vote of the Lord Scales; yet upon reſpect to the Sovereign, how advantageous he might be for his, and his Kingdom's Intereſt, obtained the Election.

And of later Date, (as the Preambles for the carrying the Enſigns to Foreign Princes ſet forth) the Advantages the Sovereign has conceived to poſſeſs himſelf of, in the improving, confirming, and eſtabliſhing, of a moſt ſtrict and inviolable Bond of Friendſhip, and fair Correſpondence, between him and Foreign Princes, their Realms and Subjects, hath been a grand Inducement to Elect ſuch Princes into this moſt noble Order.

9.14. 14

§ 14. Upon the vacancy of any of the Knights-Companions Stalls, the Election of others to ſupply thoſe, is a [Page 267] Prerogative of the Sovereign, and in ſome Caſes to his Lieutenant; for it's recorded in the Black Book of the Order, in Henry VIII's Statutes: That if any Stalls fall Vacant, it ſhould belong to the Sovereign, to Elect new Knights, whereſoever he was Reſident; upon Condition, the Chapter conſiſted of ſix compleat Knights-Companions; but if he chanced to be out of his Realms, and the Number was deficient, and that his Lieutenant held the Feaſt of St. George at Windſor; in ſuch a Caſe the Election belongs to the Lieutenant, who is firſt to be certified of his Sovereign's Pleaſure, and what Eſteem he has for the Candidates, to the intent ſuch Information may guide, or direct his Election.

This Power of Election is fully acknowledged, by the Knights-Companions themſelves, to be in the Sovereign; as the fragment of a Letter demonſtrates, ſent from the Chapter, convened at Windſor, upon the Feaſt of St. George, to Henry V. then in France; viz. That the Sovereign, in what Place ſoever reſiding, may, as is moſt fitting, Elect into a vacant Stall, (there being a ſufficient Number of Knights called to this Election) ſuch as he ſhall judge ſerviceable to his Crown, or do exceed others in deſerts, and nobleneſs of deſcent: And at publiſhing the Election of Duke Emanuel of Savoy, in the Reign of Philip and Mary, who were joint Sovereigns of the Order; it's ſtyled, The Election of the King and the Queen.

This grand Prerogative of the Sovereign being not duly weighed by Polydore Virgil, occaſioned his tripping in this Affa [...], and drew in Claudius Coteraeus into the ſame palpable miſtake; for writing of this Order, and the Succeſſion of new Knights, reports in his Hiſtory of England, That one Knight is received in the room of another deceaſed, by the Choice and Election of all the reſt; and Erhard Celly in his Anglo-Wirtemb does as falſely affirm, That no Perſon may be received into this Order, not ſo much as by the Sovereign, unleſs with the common Conſent and Suffrage of all the Knights-Companions.

But theſe Paſſages are altogether erroneous, the Knights-Companions only nominate the Perſons, but the right of Election remains ſolely in the Sovereign of the Order; for whoſoever is honoured with his Choice, is immediately admi [...]ted; and pronouncing barely the Name of the Perſon in Chapter, conſtitutes the Election. After the Scrutiny [Page 268] hath been taken, and preſented to the Sovereign, he peruſeth it himſelf, or the Chancellor, or ſome other Officer of the Order that gathered it, reads it over to him; afterwards the Sovereign reſolves forthwith, upon ſome one or more of the Knights, contained in the Scrutiny; and then publickly declareth the Name of him, or them, he does Elect; and by the bare Act of his Pronunciation, they Commence Elected Knights; except now and then the Sovereign is pleaſed to give his Reaſons, why the Knight is Elected by him.

But though this Act of Election be ſolely in the Sovereign, yet the Conſent of the Knights-Companions is frequently recorded in the Annals, and ſometimes mentioned in the Commiſſions of Legations to Foreign Princes; not that the ſingle Act of Election is, in truth, the Act of the whole Chapter, or is made invalid, witho [...]t the joynt Conſent of the Knights-Companions, preſent at the Election; but their Conſent ſo expreſſed, is to be taken as an honorary Reſpect given them by the Regiſter, intimating rather an Applauſe, or Commendation of their Sovereign's Choice, as being in their Opinions Juſt and Right, according to the Merit of the Elected, than a material Circumſtance, tending to the Ratification of the Election made by the Sovereign, as if defective without it.

9.15. 15

§. 15. Among other Duties incumbent on the Regiſter, and expreſſed in the Statutes of the Order, this is one: That the Regiſter's Office is to ſet down, and record for a Memorial, the Elections (or Scrutinies,) and Names of the Knights Elected: But in ſucceeding Times a Scruple aroſe, if this was not needleſs, when the Scrutiny ſhould be taken, yet no Election made; to clear up which doubt, in a Chapter held in 5 Elizabeth, on St. George's-Day, it's recorded as the Sovereign's Will and Pleaſure, that thenceforward it ſhould be Enacted, and received as the Sanction of a Law, within this Order; That if any Nominations were taken from the Knights-Companions, the ſame ſhould be entered into the Annals, though there were no Election made of any Perſon into the Order at that Time: Which we preſume was ſo Decreed, out of great deference to thoſe Princes and noble Perſonages, who, in deſcending Times, ſhould, by the glory of their Exploits, appear but worthy of a bare Nomination into ſo reſplendent [Page 269] and illuſtrious an Order. And in purſuance of this Decree, there is frequent mention made of the delivery of the Scrutiny into the Hands of the Regiſter, in order to be Recorded.

The Blue Book ſays, Anno 22 Elizabeth; That the Chancellor himſelf delivered the Knights-Companions Votes to the Regiſter, to be committed to Writing, for a perpetual Memorial; and accordingly the Regiſter, as his Duty obliged him, tranſcribed them, and put them in their proper Place, with all Care and Fidelity. Anno 34 of the ſame Queen, 'tis ſaid, the Votes were delivered to the Regiſter, who took care to Record them, according to uſual Order. Yet maugre this Law, the Entry of Scrutinies hath been ſometimes omitted, either by the Regiſter's forgetfulneſs of the Decr [...]e, or ſome accidental Miſcarriages. In ſome Places of the Annals, in the room of Scrutinies, we find Excuſes entered, as it's ſaid, Anno 28 Elizabeth; that the Prelate, immediately after Veſpers, preſented the Scrutiny to the Sovereign; but becauſe there was no Election made of any new Knights, in regard of hurry, or weighty and preſſing Affairs, it was laid aſide, and through Neglect loſt, or at leaſt came not into the Regiſter's Hands, to be inſerted in its proper Place. And when the Dean of Windſor collected the Scrutiny at Veſpers, Anno 18 Elizabeth, it's ſaid, No Election was made, nor any thing elſe done: The like Excuſe is made, Anno 5 Charles I. but the Fault is thrown upon the Chancellor; for though the Scrutiny had been taken by him, during the Veſper [...] of the Feaſt-Day, yet would he not ſuffer it to be entered. In ſome Places we find, Anno 31 Elizabeth, the Votes being preſented, they were left with her. And Anno 11 Charles I. the Scru [...]ny of A [...]gernoon Earl of Northumberland never came to the Regiſter's Hands.

But the Law yet remains in force, that all Nominations and Votes of the Knights-Companions ought to be enter'd among the Annals, whether Election be made or not, unleſs it ſhall pleaſe the Sovereign, upon ſome Emergency, to forbid it: As appears but by one Example of ſuch a Prohibition, viz. Anno 40 Eliz. where, by the Queen's ſpecial Command, the Scrutiny then taken was not recorded among the Acts of this moſt Noble Order. But then it is d [...] clared, That the Regiſter took care to ſet down all the Paſſages as they happ [...]ned, the Nam [...]s only excepted. And [Page 270] why the Scrutiny is not inſerted in the Regiſtry, An. 44 of Eliz. gives this Account: That upon aſſembling the Knights-Companions, it ſeemed good to the Sovereign, for ſeveral urgent Reaſons, beſt known to her ſelf, to give Commandment, That for that time, they would wholly forbear all Scrutiny of Votes, and Nominations of Perſons; except which, there was nothing wanting to heighten the Solemnity of that Aſſembly: But this in the Annals is ſaid to be praeter morem, contrary to the uſual Cuſtom.

9.16. 16

§ 16. Anno 27 of Eliz. there is a remarkable Occurrence, not to be paſſed over; for the Earls of Rutland and Derby, the morrow after St. George's Day, were deſirous to have ſeen the Scrutiny, which was committed into the Cuſtody of the Dean of Windſor, to be regiſtred, in purſuance of the before-mentioned Decree, Anno 5 Eliz. but he returned a modeſt denial, and ſaid, It ought not to be ſeen before it was regiſter'd. The Earls, not ſatisfied with this Anſwer, requeſted the Opinions of the Knights-Companions, preſent at the Feaſt, on this Affair; who, upon mature Deliberation, adjudged the Point againſt them; and ſince it has been a ſtanding Rule, that no Knight-Companion ought to ſee whom the other hath named.

9.17. 17

§ 17. It hath chanced, that tho' the Nominations for Election have been received, preſented and peruſed, yet the Sovereign hath thought expedient to defer it, upon ſeveral Conſiderations, and principally where an intent was to keep an open Stall; but we muſt underſtand this of ſuch Scrutinies as are taken of Courſe, at the Veſpers on the Feaſt-day.

And the moſt memorable Example of this Kind, is that of the Emperor Sigiſmond, who expired in the 16th Year of K. Henry VI. whoſe Stall was reſerved Twenty One Years, and then determined, that Prince Edward, the Sovereign's only Son, ſhould fill it up, being at that time about Six Years of Age. This is the firſt Emperor, whoſe Election we find regiſter'd in the Annals, being abcu [...] the 7th of May, in the 4th Year of Henry V. ſtyled Sigiſmundus Imperator Almanicus.

And keeping a vacant Stall was ſometimes given as a Reaſon by the Sovereign for his deferring an Election, as is plain from An. 13. Car. I. when the Scrutiny taken [Page 271] the Day before was read over in the Chapter-Houſe, the Sovereign declared, That he would receive no Man into the Order before his Son Charles. Whereupon all the Knights-Companions gave their Opinions, That this Reſolution was rather the effect of Juſtice, than Fatherly Indulgence; ſince they all acknowledged him, to be more a Prince by Merit, and towardlineſs of his Youth, than by the Fortune of his Birth. At which the Sovereign expreſſed his Satisfaction no otherwiſe than by Silence.

And in like manner, Anno 15 Charles I. when the Chancellor of the Order gave up the Scrutiny to the Sovereign, he declared—That he had a purpoſe to have Choſen Prince Rupert, his Nephew, a Knight of the Order; but being then a Priſoner with the Emperor, he would not Elect any at that Time; whereupon, a vacancy of a Stall was reſerved. It has ſometimes been the Sovereign's Pleaſure to defer Elections, without expreſſing the Cauſe, as in the 13 of Elizabeth; though ſhe peruſed the Scrutiny in Chapter, yet the Blue Book informs us; That the ſaid Sovereign made no Election, though two Stalls were vacant. Thus was it in the 2, 3, 11, and 12, of K. James I. where no other mention is made than this; none were admitted into the Order this Year.

Sometimes we find theſe Prorogations [...]f Elections recorded, as ſolely done by the Will of the Sovereign; and at other Times by the Sovereign, and the approbation of the Knights-Companions; to the firſt of theſe we find a Memorial, in the 22 of Elizabeth, on the 24 of April; that the Knights-Companions had a Meſſage ſent to their Chapter, held before Morning-Prayer; That it was the Pleaſure of the Sovereign to pror [...]gue the Election to the following Year. And ſo it was, in the 10th of Charles I. though the Nomination was taken by the Chancellor, and preſented to the Sovereign in Chapter, the Sovereign did not think fit to make any Election at all. And for a Teſt [...] mony of the ſecond, we meet with this Inſtance, in the 27th of Elizabeth; that with the concurrent Approbation and Aſſent of all the Knights-Companions then aſſiſting, the Sovereign tho [...]ght fit to put off the Election to another Time. As to the ſeeming difference of the Sovereign's abſolute Authority, and yet the Knights-Companions Approbation, we have cleared up that Point in the Act of Election; for though it is his unqueſtionable Authority and [Page 272] Prerogative, to Prorogue Elections ad libitum, yet out of Reſpect, and Honour to the Knights-Companions, their Approbation hath been ſometimes expreſt.

9.18. 18

§ 18. When any Knight-Companion hath received a Summons, to appear at a Chapter of Election, and doth wilfully refuſe, or withdraw himſelf, he was to be mulct a Mark for his Diſobedience, which King Henry VIII's Statutes inlarged to twenty Shillings, payable to the Dean and College of Windſor, to pray for defunct Souls. And at his next appearance in Chapter, he was to remain kneeling in the midſt of them, before the Sovereign, or Deputy, till he was reſtor'd to their Favour: Yet upon a juſt Cauſe ſignified to the Sovereign ſome time before, under the Seal of his Arms, he was excuſed, if it was found juſt and feaſible; if not, it was rejected, and he remained Puniſhable.

And for greater Caution, this Clauſe was formerly inſerted, in the Letters of Summons; where, after the Time and Place for Election was certified, and command given to obſerve both, the Letter concludes thus, et ſe eſtre ny poues nous Signifies ſoubz, &c. and if it cannot be accompliſhed, that is, if the Knight-Companion could not meet at the time aſſigned, to perform what the Statutes oblige, he ſhould then ſignify to the Sovereign, under his Seal, the cauſe of his Impediment; ſo that he might perceive by his Excuſe, whether it was worthy of Acceptance, or he in Fault or not.

10. CAP. X. The Inveſtiture of a Knight-Subject with the Garter and George.


IF the Knight chance to be at Windſor, that is newly Elected, or whereſoever the Chapter is held, after the Sovereign hath ſignified his Pleaſure in the Election of the Per [...]on, the Garter is immediately diſpatched out of the Chapter, to give him the Intelligence; as is app [...]rent [Page 273] upon the Choice of the Lord Howard, and Sir Henry Marney, Anno 2 Henry VIII. who was diſpatched from the Chapter, to conduct them to the Sovereign's Preſence, to be inveſted with the principal Enſigns of the Order, the Garter and George.

And as Garter hath been accuſtomed to ſignify in Perſon the Election of a Knight, in like manner an Election is ſignified, by the Letters of the Sovereign, when he is pleaſed (for the greater Honour of the Perſon) to weave by verbal Notice: In ſuch Caſes, it's the Chancellor's Office to draw up the Letters, and they are to paſs, both under the Sovereign's Sign Manual, and Signet of the Order. Such a particular mark of Diſtinction and Honour was conferr'd on our Sovereign of Bleſſed Memory, King Charles II. Sir John Burrough Garter, carrying the Letter.

Charles Rex,

Our moſt dear and entirely beloved Son, having, to our great Comfort, ſeen and conſidered the ripeneſs of your Youth, and conceived joyful and pregnant Hopes of your manly Virtue, in which we are aſſured you will increaſe, to your own Honour, both in Proweſs, Wiſdom, Juſtice, and all Princely Endowments; and that the Emulation of Chevalry will, in your tender Years, provoke and encourage you, to purſue the Glory of Heroick Actions, befitting your Royal Birth, and our Care and Education. We with the Companions of our moſt Noble Order of the Garter, aſſembled in Chapter, holden this preſent Day, at our Caſtle of Windſor; have Elected and Choſen you one of the Companions of our Order. In Signification whereof, we have ſent unto you, by our Truſty and Well-Beloved Servant, Sir John Burrough Knight-Garter, and our principal King of Arms, theſe our Royal Letters, requiring you to make your ſpeedy repair unto us, to receive the Enſigns of our moſt Noble Order, and to be ready for your Inſtallation, upon the 21ſt Day of this preſent Month.

To our dearly beloved Son Prince Charles.

[Page 274] This is the only Inſtance we have met with, where a Letter was ſent to an Elect Knight, and he at the ſame time preſent at Court; but when an Election is confirmed, and the Perſon remote from the Court, then the general Tenure of the Letter is, both to ſignify his Election, and Summon him to his Inveſture, with the Garter and George, as was performed by the Earl of Derby, and Sir Edward Strafford, to King Henry of France.

But where the Sovereign is pleaſed to mention particular Services, to recommend the Election of a Knight, the Preamble of the Letter is worded accordingly; and as this is a Caſe not very frequent, it will not be amiſs to exemplify it in the Choice of Sir John Falſtoff, where the Letter runs thus—We conſidering the virtuous Fidelity you have ſhown, and the honourable Exploits you have done, in the Service of our thrice renowned Father, and that in our Service alſo, you (as many others) have given Proof of that Honour, and thoſe Deſerts, wherewith God hath endowed you, always ſuffering, as is the part of a good Subject, the Pains and Toils of War, for the vindicating and maintaining of our juſt Right, Claim, and Title, have Choſen you one of our Companions of our Order.

When the Letter barely ſignifies Election, that is, when the Sovereign does not deſign a preſent inveſture with the Garter and George, but defers it till he takes Poſſeſſion of his Stall, the Day of his Inſtallation is inſerted towards the end of the Letter; and upon his appearance at Windſor, ſo ſoon as he appears in the Chapter-Houſe, the Garter is firſt buckled about his left Leg, then follows his Inveſture with the reſt of the Ornaments of the Order, and laſtly his Inſtallation. And this was the Caſe of Henry Earl of Northumberland, Anno 29 Henry VIII. whoſe Inveſture of the Garter was deferr'd till his appearance at Windſor, and then the whole Cer [...]mony was performed at once.

10.2. 2

§ 2. If the elect Knight be at hand, where the Chapter is convened, and the Garter hath been ſent to make known to him the Honour, and Conduct him into the Chapter-Houſe, to receive the Garter and George, before they break up, Intimation being given of his approach, the Sovereign ſends out two of the Knights-Companions to meet him, who, after a mutual Salute, Conduct him between them, to the Preſence of the Sovereign, Garter [Page 275] going before them. Thus was Ubrick Duke of Holſtein, Anno 3 Jac. I. introduced into the Chapter, between Prince Henry, and the Earl of Dorſet, and Chriſtian Duke of Brunſwick, Anno 22 Jac. I. between William Earl of Pembrook, and Philip Earl of Montgomery, to receive the Garter and George. The 6th of November, Anno 14 Charles II. Chriſtian Prince of Denmark, being elected at a Chapter held at White-Hall, and then abſent, the Garter King was diſpatched next Day by the Sovereign, to inform him, and to deſire his Preſence the next Day, that he might receive his Inveſture; which accordingly was done, being conducted between the Earls of Lindſey and Mancheſter into the Chapter, Garter preceding them, and after three Obeyſances, they brought him up to the Sovereign. Among Knights-Subjects, we find the Lord Burley, and the Lord Grey, were conducted to the Sovereign by the Lord Clynton, and the Earl of Bedford, Anno 14 Elizabeth, cum multis aliis. Anno 4 Jac. I. Robert Earl of Salisbury proceeded up to the Sovereign's Throne, between the Earls of Nottingham and Dorſet. In the Reign of King Charles I. the Earl of Northampton was conducted to receive the Garter in the Chapter-Houſe at Windſor, between the Earls of Pembrook and Montgomery. And when King Charles II. appeared, upon his Letter of Summons, at the Chapter held in the withdrawing Chamber in Windſor Caſtle, to receive his Inveſture, two of the Senior Knights, viz. Philip Earl of Pembrook and Montgomery, and Thomas Earl of Arundel and Surry, were ſent out to Conduct him in, who brought him between them unto the Sovereign, the Gentleman Uſher of the Black Rod going before.

The Duke of Monmouth being elected at a Chapter held in the withdrawing Room at White-Hall, the 28th of March, Anno 15 Charles II. Garter was immediately ſent to him in the Sovereign's Bed-Chamber, who being met at the Door by the Earls of Lindſey and Mancheſter, both the Garter and the Black Rod paſſed to the lower End of the Room before the Duke and the two Knights-Companions, whence they proceeded up to the Sovereign with three Reverences. At the Election of James Duke of Cambridge, in the ſame Room at White-Hall, (December 3. Anno 18 Charles II.) Garter was alſo ſent forth into the Bed-Chamber, to acquaint him that the Earl of [Page 276] Mancheſter, and the Duke of Monmouth, were ap [...]ointed by the Sovereign and Chapter to bring him in thither; that done, the aforeſaid Knights-Companions ar [...]ſe and went to the Duke, whom meeting at the Bed-Cham [...] Door, they took their compaſs about the reſt of the Knights-Companions, (then ſtanding) and brought him between them, from the lower End of the Room, cloſe before the Sovereign, the Garter and Black Rod pr [...]cee [...]ing.

10.3. 3

§ 3. The Knight elect being thus introduced to the Sovereign, bows with all Reverence, and formerly a ſhort gratulatory Speech was the vogue, that ſet forth his acknowledgment of his Sovereign's Royal Favour, and the grateful Reſpect he bore to the Knights-Companions for his Election.

Anno 28. Hen. VIII. we find Sir Nicholas C [...]ew, after he had been conducted into the Chapter-Houſe at Windſor, to receive his Inveſtiture, thus to addreſs himſelf [...] giving infinite Thanks both to the Sovereign and whole Society, for that they had vouchſafed to receive him into the Honour of this moſt illuſtrious Order, being a Perſon in h [...]s own Eſteem moſt unworthy thereof: In the next Place profeſſed, That whereas he was preferred in this Choice before many others, much more deſerving than himſelf, it was not to be attributed to his Merits, or any Thing by him performed, but meerly to the Sovereign's Bounty, and the Favour of the Knights-Companions towards him.

The conferring of ſo ſingular an Honour, being thus thankfully own'd, the Ceremony of Inveſtiture [...]egins; the Garter firſt takes place, as the moſt ancient and chiefeſt Enſign, and then the George; but the compleat Inveſtiture is not performed until the Elect Knights are inſtalled at Windſor. Formerly the manner of robing of them was performed on this wiſe: firſt, the Elect Knight ſet his Foot upon a Stool, and then one of the Knights-Companions, by the Sovereign's appointment, as his Subſtitute, backled the enobled Garter about his lef [...] Leg, as may be ſeen in the Antiquities of Wa [...]wickſhire, in an old Draught of the Combats of Sir Jo [...]n Aſtler, who was [...]nrolled in this il [...]uſtrious B [...]dy, and is [...]o repreſented. But o [...] late [...] Date, the Elect Knight k [...]eeled on his right Knee, whilſt this Ceremony was performed, in which ſpace the Words of A [...]moniti [...]n and Signification, at this part of the In [...]eſtiture, [Page 277] were read. The Admonition, upon the buckling of the Garter, in the Engliſh Statutes of K. Hen. VIII. is ſet down on this manner:


The loving Brethren of the Order of the Garter, have received you their Brother and Fellow; and in Token of this, they give and preſent you this preſent Garter, which God grant that you receive and wear from henceforth to his Praiſe and Glory, and to the Exaltation and Honour of the ſaid Noble Order, and your ſelf.

Afterwards it was decreed, at a Chapter held at Windſor, the 5th of Auguſt, Anno 1 & 2 P [...]il. and Mary, to this effect: ‘That not only the ſame Advertiſements, which were wont to be given to Strangers at their Inveſtitures, ſhould be likewiſe given to Knights-Subjects, that for the future ſhould be elected and inſtall'd;’ and with a farther Proviſo, ‘That among the Knights-Companions there ſhould not be any difference either in Ceremony or Habit.’

Hereupon the aforeſaid Tenure ceaſed to be uſed upon the fixing of the Garter, and one Form remained at the Inveſtiture of Strangers and Knights-Subjects, which is pronounced by the Chancellor, if the Sovereign or his Lieutenant be preſent, otherwiſe by the Regiſter.

‘To the Laud and Honour of Almighty God, his immaculate Mother, and St. George the holy Martyr, tye or gird your Leg with this noble Garter, wearing it to the increaſe of your Honour, and in Token and Remembrance of this moſt noble Order; remembring that thereby you being admoniſhed and encouraged, in all juſt Battels and Wars, which only you ſhall take in Hand, both ſtrongly to fight, valiantly to ſtand, and honourably to have Victory.’

But againſt the Inveſtiture of K. Charles II. the Words of the Signification being better weighed and conſidered, were thus methodized:

‘To the Honour of God Omnipotent, and in Memorial of the bleſſed Martyr St. George, tye about thy Leg. [Page 278] for thy Renown, this noble Garter; wear it as the Symbol of the moſt illuſtrious Order, never to be forgotten or laid aſide; that thereby thou may'ſt be admoniſhed to be couragious; and having undertaken a juſt War, into which only thou ſhalt be engaged, thou may'ſt ſtand Firm, valiantly Fight, and ſucceſsfully Conquer.’

The Princely Garter being thus buckled on, and the Words of the Signification pronounced, the Elect Knight is brought before the Sovereign, who puts about his Neck the George, pendant at a Sky-colour'd Ribband, at which part of the Ceremony, the Admonition uſed at the adorning of an inſtalled Knight with the Collar of the Order, (only changing the Word Collar for Ribband) is prono [...]ced; but were alter'd upon the Occaſion aſſign'd before.

‘Wear this Ribband about thy Neck, adorn'd with the Image of the bleſſed Martyr, and Soldier of Chriſt, St. George; by whoſe Imitation provok'd, thou may'ſt ſo overpaſs both proſperous and adverſe Adventures, that having ſtoutly vanquiſhed thy Enemies, both of Body and Soul, thou may'ſt not only receive the Praiſe of this tranſient Combat, but be crown'd with the Palm of e [...]ernal Victory.’

Greater Reſpect is conferr'd upon foreign Princes, who receive their Election here, than abroad; becauſe the Sovereign moſt uſually performs the Inveſtiture himſelf; a [...] was ſolemniz'd upon Philip, King of Caſtile, when the Sovereign took the Garter from the King at Arms, and ſixed it on his Leg, and Prince Henry faſten'd the Buckle.

Queen Elizabeth her ſelf buckled the Garter about the Leg of John C [...]ſimier, Count Palatine of the Rhine, and hung about his Neck a Gold Chain with the George at i [...]. And the like Honour did King James I. confer upon the Duke of Holſtein, in the 3d Year of his Reign.

Sometimes it ha [...]pens, tho' very rarely, for the Sovereign, out of his ſ [...]ecial Grace and Favour, to condeſc [...]nd to Hon [...]ur a Knight-Subject this way; tho', when Queen Eliz [...]beth was pleaſed to adorn the Lord Bu [...]leigh with the Garter, the Annals record it to be done as it were by the by. The ſame Favours ſhe b [...]ſtow'd, tho' at different [Page 279] times, upon Henry, Earl of Suſſex, and the Earl of Shrewſbury. King James I. inveſted Henry, Earl of Northampton, with the principal Enſigns of the Order, as a Perſon worthy of ſo great an Honour: And the Bleſſed Martyr placed both the Garter and the George, with his own Hands, upon King Charles II.

Sometimes the Sovereign hath but performed part of the Inveſtiture, and laid his Commands on the ſenior Knight to do the reſt. Thus, Anno 13 Henry VIII. the Sovereign reached out the Garter to the Marquis of Dorſet, a [...]d commanded him to buckle it about the Leg of the Earl of Devonſhire; which, whilſt he was about, the Duke of Norfo [...]k gave him his Aſſiſtance, and the Sovereign put on the Gold Chain. At the Inveſtiture of Chriſtian, Duke of Brunſwick, Anno 22 Jac. I. the Sovereign put about his Neck the Blue Ribband, whereat hung the Effigies of St. George; and the Earls, who introduc'd him to the Sovereign's Preſence, buckled on the Garter. Thus did the Sovereign to William, Earl of Northampton, Anno 4 Car. I. and the Earl of Pembroke faſten'd the Garter about his left Leg.

This Order of Inveſtiture began to be inverted Anno 22 Jac. I. the George and the Ribband being firſt put on, and the Garter laſt. And ſo was it performed when the Prince of Denmark, Dukes of Monmouth, Cambridge, and Albemarle, received their Inveſtiture in the Reign of King Charles II. The Garter, as it was the firſt, ſo is the principal and moſt worthy Enſign of the Order; and, in the Practice of all former Times, had always the Preference given to it. The Inveſtiture with theſe two Enſigns, hath generally been performed by the two ſenior Knights, at the Command of the Sovereign; but always in his Preſence, the Chapter ſitting; but if abſent, then by his Lieutenant. For, in 31 Eliz. the Lord Buckhurſt being elected at Whitehall, and coming to Court wholly ignorant of the Affair, and after the Sovereign was riſen, (yet leaving the Chapter ſitting) her Lieutenant inveſted him both with the Garter and George. After the Solemnity is compleated, the elect Knight renders moſt humble Thanks to the Sovereign, and with due Reſpects ſalutes the Knights-Companions, who re-ſalute the elect Knight, and joyfully receive him into their Society. If two or more elect Knights receive this Inveſtiture at one time, [Page 280] as ſoon as the Senior is inveſted, and his humble Thanks preſented, he moves downwards towards the Chapter-Houſe Door, and there ſtands till the next Junior Knight is inveſted; and if there be more, ſo on until the Chapter break up.

10.4. 4

§ 4. Where a Knight-Subject, at the time of his Election, is far diſtant from Court, or beyond Sea, and the Sovereign determines to ſend him the Two principal Enſigns of the Order, the Charge of this Employ does of right belong to the Garter. For the Proof of which there are divers Precedents.

The Letters heretofore ſent from the Sovereign, along with the Enſigns of the Order, to the elect Knights, have, for the moſt part, been drawn after the Form of thoſe that certify the Election, and differs only in the laſt Clauſe, which requires the elect Knight to repair to the Sovereign: The difference lay not in the Body, but in the Direction of the Letter, which was always worded according to the Quality of the Perſon to whom it was ſent. As to a Knight-Ba [...]chelor, the Direction was, To our truſ [...]y and well-beloved; and to an Earl, Right truſty, and rig [...]t well-beloved Couſin; to a Duke, Right truſty, and right entirely beloved Couſin, &c.

The Forms of thoſe Letters, ſent upon like Occaſions to Knights-Subjects, when King Charles II. was beyond Sea, were penn'd after another Model, and contained other additional particular Clauſes; as, 1. Power to wear the Star of Silver about St. George's Croſs; 2. The Great Collar of the Order; and, 3. To ſtyle themſelves Knights, and Companions of the Order of the Garter, in as ample a Manner, as if they had been inſtalled at Windſor; with an Aſſurance of receiving the whole Habit there, when the Sovereign was reſtored to the Poſſeſſion thereof.

And it appears from ſome of theſe Letters, that by reaſon Sir Edward Walker, Garter, was otherwiſe employ'd in the Service of the Sovereign, when they were tranſmit [...]ed, the Sovereign pitch'd upon other Perſons, to ca [...] ry both the Letters and Enſigns of the Order, and yet continued the Garter in the Rights of his Office. However, Sir Edward eſteeming this devolving his Employment on others, as an Invaſion on the Rights of his Office; and having a juſt regard for the Intereſt of his Succeſſors, [Page 281] no leſs than his own, humbly petitioned King Charles II. for Redreſs, and obtained his gracious Reference thereupon, to ſeveral Knights of the Order, to examine the Matter, and to give in their Report, what they found, and what they thought proper to be effected therein; and upon whoſe Report the Sovereign did him full Right by his gracious Declaration. For the Dukes of Buckingham and Hamilton, and the Marquis of Newcaſtle, to whom this Affair was referr'd, gave in their Report to the King at Breda, May 27. 1650.

We, George, Duke of Buckingham, William, Duke of Hamilton, and William, Marquis of Newcaſtle, Knights of the moſt noble Order of the Garter, having read and conſider'd the within written Petition, do find the Allegations therein mentioned to agree with the Statutes and ancient Practices of the ſaid Order; and that Garter King of Arms, and his Deputies, ought to bear all Letters-Patents appertaining to the Brethren of the ſaid Order, and all Elections to the Knights elect. And we do therefore make this Report to your Majeſty, to the end you may be pleaſed to mantain the Petitioner in his juſt Rights; and that no Example lately made may be brought in Precedent againſt him, or his Succeſſors in the ſaid Office.

G. Buckingham.


W. Newcaſtle.

It was formerly the Practice, to ſend the Book of Statutes, under the common Seal of the Order, together with the Letters ſignifying an Election, and the Enſigns of the Order, no leſs to a Knight Subject than to a Stranger, that he might peruſe and adviſe thereupon, whether he would accept of the Election, or not; for ſo it appears, Anno 4 Hen. VI. by the Letters ſent to Sir John Falſtoff.

Within a few Days after Prince Rupert was elected into this Order, (being then in Holland) a Commiſſion of Legation was prepared to be ſent thither, with the Garter and George, by Sir John Burrough, Kt. to perform the Inveſtiture with them; but Sir John dying, prevented the Ceremony. Some time after the Prince had been in England, the then Sovereign thought [...]it to lay his Commands on Sir James Palmer, Chancellor of the Order, to attend [Page 282] his Highneſs, to declare the Reaſon why the ſaid Commiſſion was not ſent and executed, as was deſigned, as well as to deliver him the Commiſſion it ſelf; to the intent (being prevented of receiving his Inſtallation at Windſor, becauſe that Caſtle continued in the Poſſeſſion of the Rebels) it might remain with him as a Memorial of his Sovereign's Princely Favour, and Reſpect to his Quality and Merits, and for a farther Evidence of his being admitted into this moſt Noble Order, ſince there was no other Memorial thereof, but the Minutes of his Election, and this Commiſſion. And accordingly on Monday, the 14th of January, 1644. the Chancellor, accompanied with Dr. Chriſtopher Wren, Regiſter, and Sir Edward Walker, newly made Garter, attended the Prince at his Lodgings in Oxford; who, having notice of their Deſign, receiv'd them with all obliging Civi [...]ity; and the Chancellor, in an eloquent Speech, made known to his Highneſs his Sovereign's Commands, and the Intent of his coming; which was no ſooner finiſhed, but Sir James Palmer preſented his Petition to the Prince, who gave his Majeſty many humble Thanks for this gracious Meſſage; and acknowledged his Majeſty's Favours beyond his Deſert; but promiſed he would ſtudy to be more worthy by his Actions, than in return of Words; with many Thanks to the Chancellor, and other Officers of the Order, for their Trouble: Whereupon they took their Leave, and the Chancellor went immediately to his Majeſty, and gave him a Narrative of what they had done.

10.5. 5

§ V. It was an ancient Cuſtom, and part of the Ceremony belonging to the Inveſtiture with the Garter, to give him an Oath, whether he was a Stranger or a Subject-Knight, which we find ſtyled, The Oath in ſuch Caſes accuſtomed to be taken; and which was to this effect; That the Knight ſhould well and faithfully keep and obſerve, ſo far as God ſhould enable him, all that was contained in the Statutes of the Order: But this of late hath been diſuſed, and not impoſed, unleſs upon foreign Princes.

It is obſervable, that Anno 4 Hen. VI. a particular Commiſſion was iſſued, to the Earls of Warwick, Salisbury, and Suffolk, with Power, to any Two, or One of them, to receive this Oath from Sir John Falſtoff, upon his Inveſtiture; which was beſides the Oath his Proctor [Page 283] was afterwards to take at the Inſtallation, which Sir John empowered him to do on his behalf; which was, Such Oath as ſhould be required at the time of Inſtallation.

Altho' we have fully treated of the Ceremony and Manner of inveſting a Knight elect, with the Garter and George, we ſhall ſubjoin Two or Three conſiderable Inſtances, as moſt proper to this Place.

When Philip, Prince of Spain, Anno 1 Mariae, had theſe Enſigns of the Order ſent him, the Sovereign joyn'd Garter King of Arms, with the Earl of Arundel, to perform the Inveſtiture; who, upon notice of his arrival on the Coaſt of England, ſet forward on their Journey to Southampton; where, on Friday the 20th of July, they took Water, and meeting the Prince before he landed, entered his Barge, and gave him notice of his Election in a ſhort Speech; which being ended, Garter having the Garter in his Hand, kiſſed it, and ſo preſented it to the Earl, who forthwith faſten'd it about the Prince's Leg; and after Garter had preſented the Earl with the George, hanging at a Chain of Gold, he put it likewiſe about the Prince's Neck. The Ceremony of Inveſtiture being thus performed, the Prince came on ſ [...]ore at Southampton; and on the uppermoſt Stair were ready attending his landing, the Marquis of Wincheſter, Lord High Treaſurer of England, with divers other Lords: The Prince gave the Lord Williams his White Staff, and made him Lord Chamberlain of his Houſhould; and Sir Anthony Brown, Maſter of his Horſe, preſented him, from the Queen, a Horſe with a Foot-cloth of Crimſon Velvet, richly embroider'd with Gold and Pearls, having the Bridle and all other Furniture ſuitable, whereon he rode to the Cathedral, and after Prayers to the Lodging prepared for him.

Concerning the Garter's Inveſtitu [...]e of the Earl of Warwick, at Newhaven in France, the firſt of May, Anno 5 Eliz. is as follows: The Garter repairing firſt to the Earl's Lodgings, put on his Mantle in the next Chamber to the Earl's, and proceeded into the Earl's Chamber; where, having made Three Reverences, he buckled the Garter about his left Leg, and after put on the George and the Ribband about his Neck; reading to the Earl the Words of the Signification, appointed to be pronounced at the Inveſtiture; which being concluded, Ga [...]ter retir'd into the Room [Page 284] where he had put on his Mantle, and there diſrobed himſelf, and ſo the Ceremony ended.

It was the Cuſtom about theſe Times, for the Nobility, Allies, or Friends, to the elect Knight, to ſend hin by the Garter, ſeveral Garters and Georges, as Marks of Congratulation for the Honour he was to receive, which the Garter delivered to him when the Inveſtiture was finiſhed, and he had put off his Robe, with the particular Services and Reſpects of thoſe Friends who had beſtow'd them. For thus was it with the Earl of Warwick at Newhaven, and the Lord Scroop at Carliſ [...]e, Anno 26 Eliz. At the Garter's return to Court, he is obliged to deliver an Account to the Sovereign, how he hath diſcharged h [...]s Employment; and by ſpecial Directions from the e [...]ect Knight, who preſents the higheſt Reſpects he can expreſs, as well to the Sovereign as to the reſt of the Knights-Companions, for honouring him with a Reception into ſo illuſtrious a Body.

We ſhall cloſe this Section with a brief Account of the Inveſtiture of the Duke of Glouceſter, on Eaſter-day in the Morning, being the 14th of April, 1653. In reference to which Ceremony there was provided:

1. A Garter with the Motto, to be tyed about his le [...] Leg.

2. A George in a Ribband, to be put about his Neck.

3. An embroider'd Croſs of St. George, with a Garter and Star, to be ſew'd on the left Shoulder of the Duke's Cloak.

4. A Velvet Cuſhion, whereon the Enſigns and Ornaments of the Order were to be laid.

For the Honour of the Order, and his ſaid Highneſs, Sir Edward Walker, Garter, humbl [...] propoſed, That he might be aſſiſted by Two or Four Knights in performing his Duty.

That his Highneſs the Duke might receive the Enſigns of the Order, in the Preſence-Chamber of the Princeſs Royal, or in his own, accompanied with the Queen of Bohemia, her Royal Highneſs, and ſome other Perſons of Honour and Quality.

That his Highneſs having placed himſelf under the State, Garter ſhould take the Cuſhion upon his Arms, on which [Page 285] were to be laid all the particular Ornaments juſt now mentioned; being aſſiſted with the Knights, and a Paſſage left for him to m [...]ke his Three Obeyſances, he ſhould proceed up towards the Duke, and lay the Cuſhion with the Ornaments upon a Stool ſet near his Highneſs for that purpoſe.

That he ſhould ſignifie to his Higneſs, in few Words, the Cauſe of his coming, and then deliver into his Hands the Sovereign's Letter.

That his Highneſs having receiv'd it, ſhould break it open, and deliver it back to the Garter to be read; which he having done, ſhould return it to his Highneſs.

That, after this, he ſhould proceed to the Inveſtiture of his Highneſs with the Enſig [...]s of the Order.

Which being done, he briefly repreſented unto his Highneſs, in a Speech, ſomewhat of the Quality and Splendor of the Order.

And, laſtly, to kiſs his Highneſs Hand, and ſo depart. And according to thoſe Propoſals, and in the ſame Order, were all Things performed.

10.6. 6

§ 6. The Sovereign of this moſt Noble Order defrays the Charges of the Garter, whenſ [...]ever, and as often as he is diſpatch'd to any elect Knight-Subject, either with Letters to ſignifie his Election, or to inveſt him with the Garter and George; and this is commonly proportioned according to the length or the ſhortneſs of the Journey. The Allowance for the Journey which Sir Gilbert Dithick, Garter, made into the Counties of Lincoln and Cumberland, firſt to the Earl of Rutland, and then to the Lord Scroop, when Queen Elizabeth was Sovereign, appears to have been 20 l.

Beſides the Sovereign's Allowance to the Garter, he receives honourable Gratuities and Rewards from the elect Knight himſe [...]f, after he has performed the Inveſtiture; and theſe have uſually been proportioned, according to the eſtimate of the Honour he receives, and the particular affection he has for the Garter, and the ſervice done by him. Among whom, Anno 17 Henry VIII. we find the Earl of Arundel beſtow'd on Thomas W [...]ioth [...]ſley, Garter, ten Pounds in Angel [...]ts, being then at his Mannor of D [...]wnley; and Ral [...]h Earl of W [...]ſtmo [...]eland, elected at the ſame Time with the aforeſaid Earl, being at Mile-end, [Page 286] gave to him ſix Pounds thirteen Shillings and four Pence. The Earl of Northumberland, in the 23 of Henry VIII. beſtow'd on the Garter, for the verbal certifying him of his Election, four Pounds, though he went no farther than the Chapter-Houſe Door.

Laſtly, Anno 26 Elizabeth, the Earl of Rutland honourably received the Garter at Newark, and the Lord Scroop gave him thirty Pounds in Gold, a Velvet Cloak, and a Gallaway Nag, and to William Dethick, York Herald, who accompanied Garter to Carliſle, ten Pounds.

But ſince theſe Times, the Knights elect have enlarged their gratuities to Garter, for his Service upon this Occaſion.

11. CAP. XI. Of Preparations for the Perſonal Inſtallation of a Knight.

11.1. 1

§ 1. THE Inauguration of a Knight of this moſt Noble Order, conſiſts in a Conjunction of many Ceremonies, and contains the moſt ſolemn part of thoſe, which compleateth all the reſt; and till this great Solemnity be regularly and duly performed, the Perſon elected hath not the Honour to be enrolled among the Number of Founders, but barely paſſes for an elect Knight, and no other: For the Statute expreſly ſays, That in Caſe a Knight elect die before his Inſtallation, He ſhall not be named one of the Founders; and the reaſon aſſigned for it is, becauſe he hath not had the full Poſſeſſion of his Eſtate, and in this Point do the other Bodies of the Statutes agree. But when the Ceremonies of Inſtallation are compleatly finiſhed, without all doubt the Knight is amply veſted, in Poſſeſſion of all Honours and Privileges appertaining to the Founder of this moſt Noble Order. But to ſpur up each elect Knight, who is either a Subject to his Sovereign, or reſides within the Realm, (and conſequently i [...] better able to provide for Inſtallment, than one remaining [Page 287] in Foreign Parts,) for the completion of his Honour, or elſe to wave the Act of Election, he has the ſpace of one Year allowed him by the Statutes for Inſtallation, otherwiſe his Election is ordained to be abſolutely null and void: Nor can there be any Motive ſufficient to retard the Sovereign from proceeding to a new Election, unleſs the elect Knight ſend or produce an Extenuation or Excuſe for ſuch his delay, [...]t to be excepted by the Sovereign or his Deputy, and the whole of that reſplendent Body, or that the Sovereign himſelf think [...]t to defer the Ceremony of Inſtallation for ſome time longer. For which reaſon, when certain Articles, tending to the Honour of the Order, had been prepared by the Sovereign's Lieutenant and ten Knights-Companions, in a Chapter held the 24th of April, Anno 21 Jacobus I. ratified by the Sovereign, and ordered to be obſerved; one of them was for accelerating the Inſtallation, after the Knight had been elected, yet qualified with this Exception: Unleſs for ſome ſpecial Cauſe the Sovereign ſhou'd think fit to defer the ſame until the Eve or Day of St. George next following, the Time of Election.

11.2. 2

§ 2. The Feaſt of Inſtallation hath not been hitherto aſſigned to any certain Period of Time, but has always depended upon the Will and Pleaſure of the Sovereign, to affix a convenient Day, which hath been granted upon the requeſt of the Knights elect, or ſome other of the Knights-Companions, whoſe Favour and Eſteem with the Sovereign was beſt able to prevail; ſuch a one do we find Anno 35 Elizabeth; who, on the behalf of the Earls of Shrewsbury and Cumberland, obtained the 19th of June the ſaid Year, to be appointed for the Inſtallation. It ſometimes happens, that though the Day of Inſtallation be prefixed, yet ſomething extraordinary intervening, it hath been prorogued to a farther and more convenient Seaſon for the Sovereign's Affairs. And the moſt remarkable Inſtance is ſet down, Anno 3 and 4 Philip and Mary, when the Earl of Suſſex, the Lord Grey, and Sir Robert Rocheſter, Knights elect, had their Inſtallation, together with the Feaſt of St. Georg [...], prorogued to the 10th of May in the Year aforeſaid. But many urgent Affairs, relating both to the King and the Queen, fell out about that time; not only the Grand Feaſt, but the Solemnity of their Inſtallation [Page 288] were prorogued to the 5th of December, and ſtood ſo by ſeveral Prorogations, to the 20th of February next enſuing; yet it was ordered that the Earl of Suſſex ſhou'd be immediately inſtalled, which was performed on the 8th of January, and the Lord Grey the 20th of April following; but Sir Robert Rocheſter never obtained that Honour.

Though the time of Inſtallation be arbitrary and uncertain, yet hath the Place, from the firſt Inſtitution of the Order, been appointed only to the Sovereign's Free Chapel of St. George, within whoſe Choice are erected the Sovereigns and Knights-Companions Stalls, and under its ſacred Roof their Banners and Atchievements are affixed, as Monuments of their high Merit, and ſo great Honour. For though the Celebration of the Grand Feaſt of St. George, happened to be removed from Windſor, by a Decree of the 1 Elizabeth; yet the Feaſt of the Inſtallation was excepted, and ordered to be Solemniz'd in that Place: For Anno 21 Jac. I. it was provided among the Orders, T [...]at after an Election made of a Knight of the Order, his Inſtallation ſhou'd be performed at Windſor, according to the ancient Cuſtoms and Statutes of the Order. When the Sovereign hath been pleaſed to prefix a certain Day for this Solemnity of Inſtallation, there are ſeveral things to be obtained, previous to it. (1.) A Commiſſion to admit and inſtal the elect Knight. (2.) Letters to each of the Commiſſioners, and the elect Knight, to repair to Windſor. (3.) Warrants for the Sovereign's Livery. (4.) A Bill or Warrant for the removal of Stalls and Atchievements, all ſigned by the Chancellor of the Order, with the Sign Manual of the Sovereign: And laſtly, the Knights own Preparations; among which his Atchievements are to be ready to be hung up, as ſoon as he is inſtalled.

11.3. 3

§ 3. No elect Knight can be inſtalled, unleſs by the Sovereign of the Order himſelf, or by his Commiſſion drawn up in Writing, and paſſed under the Great-Seal of the Order, directed e [...]ther to his Lieutenant or Knights-Commiſſioners. There is but one Inſtance to be found, where the Sovereign hath been pleaſed to Honour a Knight by inſtalling of him himſelf; and that was Philip of Caſtile and Leon, Anno 22 Henry VII. yet it is feaſible enough that Sigiſmond the Emperor, and ſome other Foreign [Page 289] Princes of Rank and Eminence, might be inſtalled by other Sovereigns, though there's no Memorial le [...] upon Record. In reference to Inſtallation by Commiſſion, it was ordained by the Statutes of Inſtitution; That in Caſe the Sovereign ſhou'd be abſent out of the Kingdom, at the Time of Inſtallation of any of the Knights, ſo as he could not perſonally perform thoſe things his Office obliged him to, it ſhou'd be Lawful for him to Conſtitute, as his Deputy in this Affair, whomſoever of the Society he ſhou'd think fit; and he to have Power and Authority, in the Sovereign's Name, to Perform and Execute theſe Things, which it wou'd have been in his own part to have done, had he been Preſent. By Virtue of this Article, the Sovereign's Deputy, or Lieutenant, performed the Ceremony before the Reign of King Henry VIII. which was uſually done at the Feaſt of St. George; but in the Commiſſion given out for Inſtallation, formerly the Lieutenant was firſt mentioned, and the Knights-Companions appointed for his Aſſiſtance at the ſaid Feaſt, were joined with him in the Commiſſion for Inſtallation; but of late, the Commiſſion hath paſſed to the Lieutenant alone. King Henry VIII. by his Statutes, enlarged the Power of his Deputy, a [...]d they run to two or more of the Knights-Companions, that ſhou'd Exerciſe the ſame by the Sovereign's Letters of Commiſſion. And by the Privilege of this Article, whenſoever after, the Sovereign's did Conſtitute an Inſtallation, otherwiſe than at the Feaſt of St. George, they then delegated their Authority to ſuch of the Knights-Companions as were judged moſt proper to perform this Ceremony. The Year after the enacting this Statute, there's a Commiſſion recorded to be iſſued out to the Marquiſs of Dorſet, and the Earls of Devonſhire and Kent, to Inſtal the Lords Ferrers of Chartley, the ſubſtance of which is in our Annals. The particular Powers theſe Commiſſions have granted to them, are to accept and admit the Knight into the Order, to receive the Oath, and to Inſtal him; And their general Power is, to effect and accompliſh every Point which belongs to his due Admittance, and plenary Inſtalment.

11.4. 4

§ 4. Beſides, the Commiſſion impowering the Sover [...]ign's Lieutenant, or Knights-Commiſſioners, therein nominated to the Inſtallation of an elect Knight, it hath been a matter frequent with the Sovereign, to Iſſue out [Page 290] Letters of Summons under his privy Signet, both to the Commiſſioners for Inſtallation, and elect Knights, under the Signet of the Order; thoſe to the Commiſſioners are directed ſeverally to each, nominated in the Commiſſion; who are to give them notice of the Inſtalment, and to require their repair to Windſor, againſt the Day aſſigned, that they may proceed to their Inſtallation. Thoſe directed to the elect Knights, [...]aſs likewiſe under the Sovereign's Sign Manual, and Signet of the Order; and if there be two or more Knights appointed to be Inſtalled on the ſame Day, the like Letter is ſent to each of them, the d [...]fference being only in the Direction.

Beſides theſe Letters ſent from the Sovereign, the Chancellor (if the Sovereign be abſent,) in his circular Letter to the Knights-Companions, gives them an intimation of the deſigned Inſtallation, upon the Feaſt of St. G [...]g [...]. And if the Feaſt be held either by the Sov [...]eign or his Lieutenant, he d [...]ſpatcheth a Letter to the Prelate of the Order, intimating the Sovereign's Commands for his attend [...]nce at the D [...]y appointed; and if it be performed by Commiſſioners, he iſſues h [...]s Letters to the three inferior Officers of the Order, purporting the ſame Command; the conveyance of which appertains to the Garter, and are left to his Care, and Truſt, by the Conſtituti [...]ns relating to the Order, whoſe allowances and rewa [...]ds u [...]on theſe and ſuch like Services, in their due P [...]ace, ſh [...]ll be conſidered.

11.5. 5

§ 5. The third matter to be obtained by the Chancellor of the Order, is the Sovereign's Warrant, directed for the Maſter o the Great Wardrobe, for the Time being, to del [...]er ſo much Velvet for the Livery of the Order, as will m [...]ke the Knight elect a Surcoat and Ho [...]d, and as much Sa [...]net or Taffety as will ſerve to line them: O [...] ſuch a Warrant there is an ancient Precedent in Latin, e [...]tered in the Bla [...]k Book [...]f the Order; where it runs, Nos ideo volumus & pr [...]ipimus, ut hinc Tabellioni virgas Octodecem ſubrub [...]i oſtri d [...] more tradas, cum tanto albe ſeri [...]o, quanto v [...]ſtimentum inde conſiciendum infulciri poterit, pro l [...]vera [...]a (q [...]m [...] cant) ſua, &c. There is likewiſe inſerted another Pre [...]dent in Engliſh of the like Nature, for the delivery of theſe Materials to Sir John Wallop Kt. elected [Page 291] Anno 38 Henry VIII. and in the ſame Form run all the Warrants of Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth.

Over and above theſe, there is a Warrant and Scheme prepared for the Sovereign to Sign, wherein is deſcribed the Order of the Stalls of Windſor, as he wou'd have them ſtand at the enſuing Election; by the Virtue of which, the Garter is impowered to ſhift or remove the Plates and Atchievements of the preſent Knights-Com [...]anions, ſo that room may be made for the elect Knight, or Knights, and to fix the new Plates and Atchieveme [...]ts with [...]n, and over the Stalls, in ſuch order as they are rank'd in the Scheme. As ſoon as the Sovereign's Pleaſure is known concerning an Inſta [...]lation, Garter brings to the Chancellor of the Order, the Names of the preſent Knights-Companions, placed in the order they then ſit in their Stalls, to the intent he may pre [...]ent them to the Sovereign; who, upon obſerving the ſeries wherein they ſtand already, he may eaſier determine how to alter and place both them, and the new elect Knights. Anno 27 Elizabeth, the O [...] fice of the Garter being vacant, this employ was put upon the Clarenceux, and the Sovereign's Warrant for removal and placing of Plates and Atchievement [...], was delivered to him, fi [...]e Days before the Inſtallation of the Earl of Rutland, the Lords Cobham and Scroop, who thereupon fixed them according to the direction given; upon what Ground this alteration and removal came to be made, and continues ſtill in Vogue, though it was otherwiſe at the Inſtitution of the Order, wherein we muſt have recourſe to the Statutes, and the antique Practice grounded upon them: A [...]ong the Statutes, thoſe of the Inſtitution did ordain, That if any Earl, Baron, or Knight-Ba [...]chellor, ſhou'd depart this Life, he that ſucceeded in his Place, of what Condition or State ſoever, ſhou'd poſſeſs the ſame Stall which his Predeceſſor held before, without changing: So that it might happen for an Earl, or a Duke, to ſucceed a Knight, and [...] vice verſa, it was thus at firſt conſtituted by Edward III. that it might be known who were the fi [...]ſt Founders of this m [...]ſt Noble Order.

Now how pu [...]ctually this Article of the Statutes hath been obſerved, that none Choſen along time after the Inſtitution of the Order, ſhou'd interrupt or change this courſe, we ſhall demonſtrate, conceiving it very material to eye thoſe Tables, yet preſerved in the Chapter-H [...] [Page 292] in Windſor, wherein are collected the Names of all thoſe Knights-Companions who ſucceeded one another in each Stall, until the beginning of Henry VII's Reign.

From which Series of Succeſſion, we ſhall remark how exactly the Law in this Point hath been obſerved, even to King Henry VIII's Reign, when it received ſome alteration in this Point. For we find in the Annals ſeveral Knights deſigned for the Stall of their immediate Predec [...]ſſors, by the Honour only of Election, although prevented of Inſtallation by Death, or other accidents; and the Statutes do not only bind him who ſhall chance to attain the Honour of Inſtallation, but him who ſhall ſucceed or come after the Defunct Knight. Firſt therefore we ſhall Inſtance in Foreign Kings, among whom we find Ericus King of Denmark, to have received Inſtallation in Henry V's Reign, not according to the State and Dignity of a King, but into the Stall of that Knight-Companion whom he ſucceeded, viz. the Duke of Bavaria. John the firſt King of Portugal, a Knight and Companion, likewiſe in Henry V's Time, was inſtalled in the ſecond Stall on the Sovereign's Side, which belong'd to Henry Duke of Lancaſter, his firſt Predeceſſor: And to this King did ſucceed, in the ſame Stall, his Son Edward King of Portugal, Anno 13 Henry VI. to whoſe Succeſſor Humphry, Anno 34, and Caſimir King of Poland were elected, Anno 28 Henry VI. into the ſixth Stall on the Prince's ſide, at that Time vacant by the Death of the Duke Conimbero, whoſe firſt Founder was Sir John Mohun. Alphonſus King of Arragon and Naples, Anno 38 Henry VI. was elected into the Sta [...]l of Don Altro Vaſques Dalmed [...]a C [...]unt d' Averence, being the ſeventh on the Sovereign's ſide, Sir Hugh Courtney firſt poſſeſſing it. Ferdinand King of Niples and Sicily, elected Anno 3 Edward IV. was inſtalled on the third on the Prince's ſide, Ralph Earl of Stafford having been firſt i [...] ſtalled therein. And laſtly, we find Alphonſus King of Sicily and Jeruſalem, being elected by Henry VII. received his Inſtallation on the Prince's ſide, whoſe Predeceſſor was Thomas Beauchamp Earl of Warwick.

In the ſecond Place, if we deſcend to Foreign Princes, it is remarkable, that William Duke of Gu [...]ld [...]es, elected by Richard II. was inſtalled in that which Sir John Beauchamp poſſ [...]ſſed, and William Earl of Holland, Haynal [...], [Page 293] and Zealand, in that which appertained to Sir John Chandos. Philip Duke of Burgundy, in the Time of Henry V. into the Stall of Sir John Clifford. And Anno 28 Henry VI. Henry Duke of Brunſwick was elected into the Duke of Suffolk's Stall.

And as the Statute was carefully obſerved, with reference to the Election and Inſtallation of Foreign Princes, ſo no leſs in relation to the Princes of the Blood at Home; among whom let us obſerve, in the third Place, the ranking the Sons of the Founder of this moſt Noble Order; where we ſee Lyonel Duke of Clarence his third Son, to have been inſtalled in the ſixth Stall on the Sovereign's ſide, whoſe immediate Predeceſſor was Sir John Beauchamp: In like manner John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaſter, his fourth Son was inſtal [...]ed in the ſeventh Stall on the Prince's ſide, having S [...]r Thomas Holland for his Predeceſſor and a Founder: His fifth Son Edmund Langley, Duke of York, poſſeſs'd the Stall Sir Hugh Courtney did before: And the ſixth Son, Thomas Woodſtock, Duke of Glouceſter, enjoy'd the Stall Sir John Grey did before: This Rule was likewiſe obſerved ſtrictly in relation to the Sons of King Henry VII.

If we review the aforeſaid Tables, we ſhall find, that as the Knights-Companions of higher Dignity aſſumed the Stalls, (when they became vacant) though often of the lower ſort, ſo ſome of the inferior rank among them have had the Honour to be inſtalled in Seats of a [...]uperior Claſs, and this by the virtue and due of the Law.

Amongſt theſe Knights-Companions we ſhall enumerate Sir Philip la Vache, a Gaſcon, who, in the Reign of King Richard II. was firſt inſtalled in the Prince's Stall, (being vacant by the Death of John of Gaunt,) though af [...]erwards removed to the third Stall on the Sovereign's ſide. Sir Nicholas Sarnesfield, Standard-bearer to the Founder, who ſucceeded Hugh Earl of Stafford, and after him Sir [...]illiam Arundel, immediate Succeſſor to Sir Nich [...]las, were both inſtalled in the ſecond Stall on [...]he Sovere [...]gn's ſide: As likewiſe Sir John Robſart, Sir Gilbe [...]t Talbot, and S [...]r John Grey, &c. were inſtalled in the ſecond or third Stalls on the Sovereign's ſide.

[Page 294] Theſe Inſtances already aſſerted, are ſufficient to manifeſt the Uſage and Practice, how the Knights-Companions have ſucceeded in the Stalls of their immediate Predeceſſors, down to the Reign of Henry VIII. and was conſonant and agreeable to the ancient Law of the Order.

But we are to obſerve, that tho' each Knight was, by the before-mentioned Article, conſtituted to ſucceed his immediate Predeceſſor, in the Stall void by his Death, yet there's an excep [...]ion as to that of the Prince of Wales. This Stall is the firſt on the left Hand, at the entrance into the Choir of St. George's Chappel at Windſor, and where n Edward the Black Prince was inſtalled; from this Stall does the whole range of Stalls on the ſame ſide take their De [...]omination, and to which the Prince of Wales, as ſoon as he is elected into the Order, hath a due Title. Though this Stall de Jure appertains to that Prince, yet heretofore, when the Sovereign had no Heir, then was it for the preſent diſp [...]ſed to ſome other Knight, otherwiſe a defect in the full Number of Knights-Companions would have enſued.

The firſt that obtained that Honour, (beſides the Prince of Wales,) was John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaſter, decreed him by K. Richard II. who never had Iſſue, and removed from the ſeventh Stall thither. But the firſt Companion that happened to be inſtal [...]ed in it, was Sir Philip la Vache juſt mentioned, which was a great Honour done to one of his Rank: But it fell to him by the then Law of the Order, being elected into the R [...]om of the ſaid Duke, who di [...]d poſſeſſed [...]f it. But King Henry IV. coming to the Crown, and his eldeſt Son being created Prince of Wales, laid claim to the Stall by Virtue of that Statute, and had it aſſigned to him. Nevertheleſs, that the former Poſſeſſo [...] might ſuffer as little diminution as might be in the Honour of h [...]s Seſſion, he was removed no lower than to the Stall which King Henry IV. lately held, when he was Earl of Derby.

Upon the D [...]ath of Henry IV. Henry V. being Sovereign, S [...]r John Dab [...]ichcou [...]t ſuppl [...]ed the vacancy, and was inſtalled therein; and he dying in the fifth Year of that King [...]ſſeſs'd thereof, his Plate continues in that Stall to th [...]s Da [...], and the Emperor Sigiſmond ſucceeds Sir John Dabrichcourt in the Prince's Stall.

[Page 295] Some few Years before King Henry VI. died, he had a Son Born; and though the Emperor F [...]ederick was el [...]cted into the O [...]der, Anno 35 Henry VI. yet was that S [...]all reſer [...]ed for the Prince, (though he never [...]oſſ [...]ſs'd i [...]) and the Emperor 37 Henry VI [...] was inſtal [...]ed by P [...]oxy in the Duke of S [...]merſet's Stall, then latel [...] decea [...]ed.

In Edward IV's Reign, the right of this Stall retu [...]ned again to Edward his Son, the Prince of W [...]les, and in Hen [...]y VII's, to Prince Arthur, but upon his De [...]h, to Maximilian, Son of Frederick King of the R [...]mans, and after Emperor, enjoyed it. So did [...]he Emp [...]ror Charles V. (his Grandchi [...]d,) in regard there was no Son as yet B [...]n to the S [...]vereign.

But Prince Edward being Born, while the Stall was poſſeſſed by Cha les V. it chanc'd likewiſe that the K [...]ng o [...] the Scots died, which caus'd King Henry VIII. to reſerve his Stall for that Prince, although he never had Poſſeſſion of it, or was elected into the Order, tho [...]gh we find him once regiſtred in a Scrutiny. King H [...]n [...]y VIII. dying. Prince Edward became, bo [...]h by I heritance and Succeſſion, Sovereign of this moſt Nob [...]e Order.

From this Time, to the eighth Year of King James I there was no Prince of Wales, who fi [...]ing [...]he Prince's Stall vacant, at h [...]s entrance up [...]n the Engliſh Thr [...]ne, did in a Chapter in the firſt Year of his Reign, ad [...]ance the French King Henry IV. f [...]m the ſecond Stall on t [...]e Sovereign's ſide, into it; and appointed Pri [...]ce Henry t [...] be inſtalled in that King's vo [...]d Seat [...] whe [...]e he continued till Anno 3 Jac. I. that Chriſtierne IV. King of Denmark, came to be inſtalled by Proxy, an [...] the Prince was m [...]ved lower to make way for him, though he was Senior both by Election and Inſtallation. Anno 9 Jac. I. upon the Death of the French King, not the Prince, whoſe Right it was, ſince he was created Prince of Wales, but the ſaid King [...]f Denm [...]k, was tranſlated to the vacant S [...]al [...]; and hereupon Prince Henry was returned again to the ſecond Stall on the Sovereign's ſide, which he enjoyed as long as he ſurvived, and upon his Dea [...]h, Prin [...]e Charles was removed into it, and there remained all King James's Reign.

When Ki [...]g Charles II. came to be inſtalled, the Sovereign finding him prevented from aſſuming the P [...]ince's Stall, the King of Denmark being yet alive, aſſigned to [Page 296] him the ſecond Stall on the Sovereign's ſide, (wherein himſelf ſat whilſt Prince of Wales,) and where hitherto his Plate remains as a fixed Memorial of his Inſtallation therein.

Although it has been made apparent, that the Knights-Companions, at their Election or Inſtallation, ſucceeded the immediate defunct Knight in his Stall, yet we may obſerve, that ſometimes after Inſtallation, as an eſpecial ſignal of Favour and Indulgence, the Sovereign hath been pleaſed, though very rarely, to advance a Knight-Companion to a higher Stall than that wherein he was firſt placed; and though there be no ſuch Permiſſion granted by the Law of the Order, yet we find John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaſter, removed from the ſeventh Stall on the Prince's ſide, to the Prince's Stall it ſelf, and it's ſaid to be done by the Decree of the Sovereign and the Knights-Companions. And no doubt but as this was done by ſo good Authority, and ſo upon no leſs enducements to the Sovereign, and the whole Society. We ſhall here mention a few of theſe extraordinary Caſes. William Henalt, Earl of Oſtervant, was advanced by King Richard II. from the eleventh Stall on the Sovereign's ſide, to the Duke of Britain's, being the ſecond on the Prince's ſide. Humphry Duke of Glouceſter, in the Reign of King Henry VI. was removed from the eleventh Stall on the Sovereign's ſide, to the ſecond on the ſame ſide; and Richard Nevil, Earl of Warwick, by the Conſent of the Knights-Companions in Chapter, Anno 39 Henry VI. was tranſlated to the Duke of Buckingham's Stall; the Lord Bonvil, to the Lord Scales's Seat; Sir Thomas Kyriell, to the Place of the Earl of Shrewsbury; and the Lord Wenlock, to the Stall of Viſcount Beaumont. But King Henry VIII. thinking it requiſite for the Sovereign of this moſt Noble Order, to be impowered by a General, how to Act that at Pleaſure, which the former Sovereigns did not, but by the Power of particular Acts, or Orders, in the Chapter; after he had confirmed the ancient Law of ſucceeding in the Stall of the immediate Predeceſſor, and not to ſuffer an alteration without the Sovereign's Licence, in the next Article he eſtab [...]iſhed this Privilege upon Himſelf and Succeſſors: That if there were any Place or Stall void, the Sovereign, at his own Pleaſure, might Advance and Tranſlate any Knight [Page 297] of the Society into the void Stall, ſo that it were higher than that, wherein he ſate before.

This in Effect did vacat the ancient Law of ſucceeding in Stalls, though at the ſame Time he ſeem'd to Confirm it to the Knights-Subjects, for afterwards Tranſlations preceeding to Inſtallations, became ſo frequent, that the Right an elect Knight had to his Predeceſſor's Stall, was ſeldom enjoyed. However, hereby he confirmed a Power to gratify ſuch of the Knights-Companions, as he ſhou'd think [...]it to advance, without having recourſe to a Chapter; and from hence began the Cuſtom to Iſſue out Warrants, under the Sovereign's Sign Manual, for the Tranſlation of Stalls, and conſequently the alteration and removal of ſuch of the Knights-Companions Helms, Creſts, Banners, and Plates, who ſhou'd receive a higher Exaltation.

Beſides the Power eſtabliſhed upon the Sovereigns of this moſt Noble Order, of tranſlating Stalls, when a vacancy happened, they farther added this larger Prerogative: That the Sovereign, once in his Life, might, if [...]t pleaſed him, make a general Tranſlation of all the Stalls at his P [...]eaſure, except of Emperors, Kings, Princes, and Dukes, who ſhou'd keep their Stalls and Places, unleſs advanced to a higher Room and Stall. In which Tranſlation, the long continuance in the Order, and the Praiſes, Worthineſs, and Merits of the Knights-Companions, were to be conſidered and remembred.

But this Branch of the Sovereign's Prerogative, as far as we can find, was never put in Execution, though the Tranſlation, Anno 27 Henry VIII. border'd ſomething u [...]on it, perhaps left it might raiſe too great Feuds among the Knights-Subjects; foraſmuch as that of tranſlating only, (when there happened a vacancy,) begot great Emulations, which at length introduced a Change, to which we ſhall paſs, after we have taken notice of a Clauſe added in the twenty ſecond Article of King Henry VIII's Statutes, relating to Princes.

It is obſervable the ancient Law of ſucceeding in Stalls, in relation to them, was wholly altered. For King Henry VIII. upon the Eſtabliſhment of his Body of Statutes, not only appointed thoſe Strangers, then preſent of the O [...]der, to be ſeated next himſelf; but that all Empe [...]or [...], Kings, and Princes, ſhould hold their Stalls after their Eſtates, and the very next unto the Sovereign, tho' [Page 298] Knights-Subjects, upon vacancy, become removable at Pleaſure.

For this reaſon, the Emperor Maximilian II. and after him Rudolph II. his Son, had the Prince's Stalls aſſigned them after their Election into the Order; and ſeveral of the Kings of France were placed in the next below, being the ſecond on the Sovereign's ſide. And when there chanced to be more than one King at a time in the Order, the ſecond Stall on the Prince's ſide was aſſigned him; for Precedency was meaſured now by Dignity and State, and not by the Antiquity of the Order; As appears from the King of Bohemia, Anno 19 Henry VIII. and the King of Spain, Anno 8 Elizabeth, Princes Stra [...]gers, according to their regality, and illuſtrious extraction, had their Scituation next to Kings, as is manifeſt from the Dukes of Savoy, Montmorency, and Holſtein, Anno 3 Elizabeth, and Frederick Prince Palatine, and Maurice Prince of [...]ange, Anno 11 Jac. I.

But notwithſtan [...]ng theſe Aſſignments of Stalls to Strangers, they were nevertheleſs ſubject to removal, ſometimes to Stalls higher than their own, upon the Death of a Stranger, who died poſſeſſed of a ſuperior one; and ſometimes again to others lower, for the advancing a Knight of greater Degree and Diſtinction, where the upper Stalls were already ſupplied; elſe they could not be ſo ranked, according to their reſpective Quality, as the Statut [...]s enjoyn; nor indeed wou'd any Stranger King have accepted of an Election, unleſs he was placed in a diſtinguiſhable Stall, ſuitable to his Dignity. Ferdinand, Emperor of Germany, is an inſtance of Advancement in [...]anſlation of Stalls; for after the Death of the Emperor Charles V. his Brother, he was advanced from the ſecond Stall on the Prince's ſide, into the Prince's Stall. And Henry IV. of France, from the ſecond on the Sovereign [...] ſide, to the Prince's Stall, and Chriſtierne IV. King o [...] Denmark, Anno 9 Jac. I.

Among Princes Strangers, we find Emanuel Duke of Savoy, advanced from the third on the Prince's ſide, to the ſecond on the ſame ſide, Anno 2 Elizabeth; and F [...]ederick Prince Palatine, Anno 1 Charles I. was advanced f [...]om the ſecond of the Prince's, to the ſecond on the ſide of the Sovereign; likewiſe Henry Frederick, P [...]ince of Ora [...]ge, was advanced from the third of the Sovereign's, to the [Page 299] ſecond of the Prince's, upon the Death of the King of Sweden, Anno 10 Charles I.

When the French King Charles IX. was elected, Anno 6 Elizabeth, the ſuperior Stalls were already filled with Strangers, and there was no Ex [...]edient left to give him the S [...]all the Sovereign deſign'd him, but by the removal of ſome of thoſe Knights-Strangers lower; and upon this, Emanuel Duke of Savoy was diſplaced to the third on the Sovereign's ſide.

But the French King was not inſtalled, until the 16th of January, Anno 8 Elizabeth, and before that it was concluded to remove the King of Spain to the Duke of Savoy's Stall, as void before, and to inſtal the French King in the King of Spain's, which was accordingly done; ſo that upon this occaſion, there were four Strangers, and five Knights-Subjects, removed lower, to make way for the French King.

The 20th of April, Anno 2 Jac. I. The Duke of Wirtemberg was inſtalled in the third Stall on the Prince's ſide, and the Year following advanced to a higher.

The 26th of May enſuing, Ulerick Duke Holſt, had aſſigned unto him that Stall from which the Duke of Wirtembe [...]g was advanced: But againſt the Inſtallation of Chriſtierne, the fourth King of Denmark, the Duke was removed back to his Sea [...], wherein he was inſtalled, and the Duke advanced into the vacant one. All which will appear more conſpicuous, from the appointment of St [...]lls on theſe Occaſions, which follow.

Table 8. A remove of Banners and Plates, at the Inſtallation of Frederick Duke of Wirtemberg, Anno Jac. I. Reg. 2.


  • 1. The Sovereign
  • 2. The Prince
  • 3. Earl of Nottingham
  • 4. Earl of Ormond
  • 5. Earl of Shrewsbury
  • 6. Earl [...]f Northumber.
  • 7. Lord Sheffeild
  • 8. Earl of Devonſhire
  • [Page 300] 9. Earl of Suſſex
  • 10. Earl of Derby
  • 11. Duke of Lenox
  • 12. Earl of Marr
  • 13. Void
[Page 299]
  • 1. The French King
  • 2. Void
  • 3. Duke of Wirtemberg
  • 4. Earl of Dorſet
  • 5. Earl of Cumberland
  • 6. Earl of Worceſter
  • 7. Earl [...]f Suffo [...]k
  • 8. Sir Henry Lea
  • [Page 300] 9. Lord Scroop
  • 10. Lord Burleigh
  • 11. Earl of Southampto [...]
  • 12. Earl of Pembrook
  • 13. Void
Table 9. The Order of Stalls at the Feaſt of St. George Anno Jac. I. Reg. 3.


  • 1. The Sovereign
  • 2. The Prince
  • 3. Duke of Wirtemberg
  • 4. Earl of Ormond
  • 5. Earl of Shrewsbury
  • 6. Earl of Northumber.
  • 7. Lord Sheffeild
  • 8. Earl of Devonſhire
  • 9. Earl of Suſſex
  • 10. Earl of Derby
  • 11. Duke of Lenox
  • 12. Earl of Marr
  • 13. Void
  • 1. The French King
  • 2. Void
  • 3. Earl of Nottingham
  • 4. Earl of Dorſet
  • 5. Earl of Cumberland
  • 6. Earl of Worceſter
  • 7. Earl of Suffolk
  • 8. Sir Henry Lea
  • 9. Lord Scroop
  • 10. Lord Burleigh
  • 11. Earl of Southam [...]ton
  • 12. Earl of Pembrook
  • 13. Void
Table 10. A remove of Banners and Plates, at the Inſtallation of Chriſtian IV. King of Denmark, the 8th of September, Anno Jac. I. Reg. 3.


  • 1. The Sovereign
  • 2. The King of Denmark
  • 3. Duke of Holſt.
  • 4. Earl of Nottingham
  • 5. Earl of Dorſet
  • 6. Earl of Cumberland
  • 7. Earl of Worceſter
  • 8. Earl of Suffolk
  • 9. Sir Henry Lea
  • [Page 301] 10. Lord Scroop
  • 11. Earl of Exeter
  • 12. Earl of Southampton
  • 13. Earl of Pembrook
[Page 300]
  • 1. The French King
  • 2. The Prince
  • 3. Duke of Wirtemberg
  • 4. Earl of Ormond
  • 5. Earl of Shrewsbury
  • 6. Earl of Northumber.
  • 7. Lord Sheffeild
  • 8. Earl of Devonſhire
  • 9. Earl of Suſſex
  • [Page 301] 10. Earl of De rby
  • 11. Duke of Len ox
  • 12. Earl of Marr
  • 13. Earl of Northampton

In this laſt Scheme, we find Prince Henry removed from the ſecond on the Sovereign's, to the ſecond on the Prince's ſide, to make room for the King of Denmark. And tho' the Duke Chevereux, Anno 3 Charles I. was advanced from the third Stall on the Sovereign's ſide, to the ſecond on the Prince's ſide, that became vacant by the Death of the Duke of Brunſwick; yet the Year after, upon the admiſſion of Guſtavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, he was removed two Stalls lower, and the Prince Elector Palatine one.

We paſs on now from the removal and tranſlation of a Knight-Subject, after he had been inſtalled, to the aſſignment of his Stall, at the Time of the Inſtallation it ſelf; where it is worthy of Remark, That on the 24th of April, Anno 6 E [...]izabeth, in lieu of the ancient Law, which app [...]inted each elect Knight to ſucceed in the Stall of his Predeceſſor, a new one was introduced, being compoſed, as was conceived, upon a more juſt level than the former, [...] as far as was poſſible, to extinguiſh all danger that might ar [...]ſe from Emulation. The Words are: That all Knights, who for the future were admitted into the Society of the Order, ſhould take and be inſtalled in the loweſt Stall, according to the Cou [...]ſe and Seniority of their Election, except only Strang [...]r Kings and Princes.

Upon which it chanced, that when a Knight-Subject elect was to be inſtalled, all the Knights-Companions, bet [...]een him and the vacant Stall, were removed higher, that the ſpace might be ſupplied: And if two or more [...]ere to be inſtalled together, they poſſeſſed the loweſt [...]ta [...]ls, according to the Seniority of their Election. And th [...]ugh the manner and order in removals, is become a [...]ing of courſe, and rendered familiar and eaſy; yet it [...]annot be effected, or the Atchievements, Banners, or [...] diſplaced, unleſs by a Warrant iſſued from the [...]vereign, to juſtify the Garter for ſuch his removals; which will plainly appear by the inſertion of theſe S [...]hemes.

[Page 302]
Table 11. The Order of Stalls, as they ſtood at the Feal of St. George, Anno 29 Eliz.


  • 1. The Sovereign
  • 2. The French King
  • 3. The King of Denmark
  • 4. Duke John Caſimire
  • 5. Viſcount Mountague
  • 6. Earl of Shrewsbury
  • 7. Lord Hunſdon
  • 8. Void
  • 9. Earl of Huntington
  • 10. Lord Grey
  • 11. Earl of Pembrook
  • 12. Void
  • 13. Lord Scroop
  • 1. Void
  • 2. The King of Spain
  • 3. Void
  • 4. Void
  • 5. Earl of Leiceſter
  • 6. Earl of Warwick
  • 7. Void
  • 8. Earl of Worceſter
  • 9. Lord Burleigh
  • 10. Earl of Derb [...]
  • 11. Ld. How [...] of E [...]ingh.
  • 12. Lord Cobham
  • 13. Void
Table 12. A Tranſlation of Stalls made againſt the Feaſt of Inſtallation, Anno 30 Eliz.


  • 1. The Sovereign
  • 2. The French King
  • 3. The King of Denmark
  • 4. Duke John Caſimire
  • 5. Viſcount Mountague
  • 6. Earl of Shrewsbury
  • 7. Lord Hunſdon
  • 8. Earl of Huntington
  • 9. Lord Grey
  • 10. Earl of Pembrook
  • 11. Lord Cobham
  • 12. Earl of Eſſex
  • 13. Sir Chriſtop. Hatton
  • 1. Void
  • 2. The King of Spain
  • 3. Void
  • 4. Void
  • 5. Earl of Leiceſter
  • 6. Earl of Warwick
  • 7. Earl of Worceſter
  • 8. Lord Burleigh
  • 9. Earl of Derby
  • 10. Ld. How [...] of E [...]i [...]gh.
  • 11. Lord Scroop
  • 12. Earl of Ormond
  • 13. Void

The firſt of theſe Schemes plainly evince, how the Stalls were ranked on St. George's-Eve, Anno 29 Elizabet [...], and the other how modelled againſt the Inſtallation [...]f the Earls of Eſſex and Ormond, and that of Sir Chriſtop [...]r [Page 303] Hatton, the 23d of May, Anno 30 Elizabeth, which demonſtrates thoſe three elect Knights appear to be inſtalled in the lowermoſt Stalls, (as the laſt mentioned Decree enjoyns,) and by reaſon the Earl of Eſſex, and Sir Chriſtopher Hatton, were ſettled on the Sovereign's ſi [...]e, the vacancy in the eighth and twelfth Stalls of the ſame ſide became filled up; the Earl of Huntington being advanced into the eighth, the Lord Grey in the ninth, and the Earl of Pembrook in the tenth Stall, by the advance of the Earl of Worceſter into the ſeventh on the Prince's ſide, the vacancy is there ſupplyed, and the other Knights ſeated below him, by a like removal, left the twelfth Stall for the Earl of Ormond, and the thirteenth void.

The ſame Order was obſerv'd by King James, as appears by another Scheme of the Stalls ſettled on the 3d of July, Anno 1 Jac. I. at t [...]e Election of the Duke of Lenox, the Earls of Northampton, Marr, and Pembrook.

Table 13. Stalls altered at a Chapter held at Windſor, the 3 July, Anno 1 Jac. I.


  • 1. The Sovereign
  • 2. The Prince
  • 3. Earl of Nottingham
  • 4. Earl of Ormond
  • 5. Earl of Salop
  • 6. Earl of Northumberl.
  • 7. Lord Sheffeild
  • 8. Lord Hunſdon
  • 9. Sir Henry Lea
  • 10. Lord Cobham
  • 11. Earl of Derby
  • 12. Duke of Lenox
  • 13. Earl of Marr
  • 1. The French King
  • 2. Void
  • 3. Void
  • 4. Lord Buckhurſt
  • 5. Earl of Cumberland
  • 6. Earl of Worceſter
  • 7. Ld. How. of Walden
  • 8. Lord Montjoy
  • 9. Earl of Suſſex
  • 10. Lord Scroop
  • 11. Lord Burleigh
  • 12. Earl of Southampton
  • 13. Earl of Pembrook

From hence it is evident, that theſe elect Knights were inſtalled in the loweſt Stalls, and ſo continued throughout the ſeries of his Reign, a [...]d ſince, except the Prince of Wales, and Charles Duke of York, Sons to the ſaid Sovereign: For the Prince was inſtalled on the ſecond on the [Page 304] Sovereign's ſide, and upon that Election of the Duke o [...] York, Anno Jac. I. the ſecond Stall on the Prince's ſide was aſſigned him, and the Morrow after St. George's Day, upon which he was elected, he made a ſolemn Progreſſi [...]n to the Chapel, in order to take Poſſeſſion of it. U [...]on W [...]itſunday following, at a ſerious Debate, it was determined in Chapter, that notwithſtanding he was the Sovereign's Son, yet he ſhou'd have no more Preheminence than other Knights-Companions, and that his Atchievements, which had been ſet up over the ſecond Stall on the Prince's ſide, ſhou'd be removed to that Stall next above the Viſcount Rocheſter's, and to be conſerted wi [...]h the Earl of Montgomery, before whom he had the Preference, on Whitſun-Munday, as they proceeded to the Chapter-Houſe, in order to their Inſtallation. And where it was farther Decreed, That all Princes not Abſolute, ſh [...]u'd be inſtalled thenceforth in the Prince's Place. But after this had paſſed, Endeavours were uſed to advance the Duke into the Stall he was firſt appointed to, and the Kings of Arms were conſulted upon this Point; who certified, that Richard Duke of York, ſecond Son to King Edward IV. was inſtalled in the fourth Stall on the Prince's ſide, and had Precedence of the Duke of Suffolk, and the Earls of Dowglaſs and Eſſex, who were elected long before him: That Henry Duke of York, ſecond Son to King Henry VII. was inſtalled in the third Stall on the Sovereign's ſide, and had the Preference of the Duke of Buckingham, and the Earls of Oxford and Derby, his Seniors; and in the laſt Place, that Henry Fitz R [...]y, Duke of Richmond, baſe Son of King Henry VIII. had Place and Precedence before the Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, and other Knights-Companions. Upon which Grounds it was thought requiſite, that the Iſſue of the Sovereign ſhould enjoy the ſame Privileges in this Affair, as thoſe Princes that we [...]e Strangers; and therefore at another Chapter aſſembled a [...] White-Hall, on Eaſter-Monday, being the 13th of April, Anno 10 Jac. I. the Order which paſſed the Year before [...] for making the Duke a Puiſne, was abrogated, and he was tranſlated to the ſecond Stall on the Prince's ſide, and paired with Prince Henry, as may be ſeen by the Stalls then ſettled, and entered into the Blue Book of th [...] Order.

[Page 305] We need not bring any more corroborating Circumſtances of the Obſervation of the Chapter Act, made Anno 6 Elizabeth, as it relates to Knights-Subjects, which has been punctually performed; but ſince Strangers are therein excepted, it will not be amiſs to note, that the Rule and Practice con [...]inued as was eſtabliſhed by King Henry VIII. viz. that they were inſtalled in Seat [...] next to the So [...]ereign, according to the illuſtriouſneſs of their Dignity and Birth.

We ſhall mention one Inſtance, of the manner of placi [...]g both Strangers and Knights-Subjects at one and the [...]ame Time. At the firſt coming of King Charles I. to the Crown, there were of both Conditions to be inſtalled in one D [...]y, to wit, the Duke of Brunſwick a Stranger Prince, the Earls of Salisbury and Carliſ [...]e, Knights-Subjects, elected by King James I. in the 22d Year of his Reign, and on the 15th of May following, the Earls of Dorſet and Holland were elected with th [...] Viſcount Andove [...], and the Duke of Chevereux the 4th of July after. And when the removal of Stalls was propounded for the Admiſſion of theſe ſeven el [...]ct Knights, it was agreed too, that the Dukes of Brunſwick and Chevereux ſhou'd be inſtalled in the uppermoſt Stall among Strangers, as King Henry VIII. had before ordained, but the Knights-Subjects in the lowermoſt S [...]alls, according to the priſtine Practice, as appears from the Decree, Anno 6 Elizabeth, and from the ſettlement of S [...]alls then made, and thus intituled.

Table 14. A remove of Banners and Stalls, at the Feaſt of St. George, and Inſtallation holden at Windſor, the 13, 14, 15 Days of December, Anno 1625. At which time were inſtalled the Dukes of Brunſwick, and Chevereux, the Earls of Salisbury, Carliſle, Holland, Dorſet, and the Viſcount Andover, as follows.


  • 1. The Sovereign
  • 2. The P [...]ince Palatine
  • 3. Duke Chevereux
  • 4. Earl of Worceſter
  • 5. Earl of Suffolk
  • [Page 306] 6. Earl of Darby
  • 7. Earl of Pembrook
  • 8. Earl of Arundel
  • 9. Earl of Kelly
  • 10. Earl of Ru [...]land
  • 11. Earl of Leiceſter
  • 12. Earl of Carliſle
  • 13. Earl of Holland
[Page 305]
  • 1. The King of Denm [...]rk
  • 2. The Duke of Brun [...]w [...]ck
  • 3. Earl of North [...]m [...]erl.
  • 4. Lord Sheffe [...]d
  • 5. Ea [...]l of Suſſ [...]x
  • [Page 306] 6. Earl of Ma [...]r
  • 7. Earl of Montgomery
  • 8. Earl of [...]omerſet
  • 9. Viſcount Wallingford
  • 10. Duke of Buckingha [...]
  • 11. Ea [...]l of Salisbury
  • 12. Earl of Dorſet
  • 13. Viſcount Ando [...]er

After the Reſtauration of King Charles II. to his Crown and Kingdoms, when ſeveral Knights-Companions, both S [...]rangers and Subj [...]cts, were to be inſtalled, a Debate aroſe in the Chapter held at White-Hall, the 10th of April, Anno 13 Car. II. about placing their Atchievements over th [...] Stalls; upon which the following Order was iſſued out.



Whereas divers elect Knights and Companions of our moſt Noble Order of the Garter are, by our ſpecial Appointment, to be inſtalled in the Chapel of our Caſtle of Wi [...]dſor, upon the 15th Day of this Inſtant; and that ſome of them who are Strangers, do not as yet, nor are likely to appear, either in their own Perſons, or by their ſufficient P [...]oxi [...]s at the ſaid Inſtalment, and ſo might run t [...]e hazard to loſe t [...]e Benefit and Advantage of their Pre election, in Point of Rank and Pr [...]cedency, in reſpect of ſome of [...]ur Subject-Knig [...]ts, who, though ſi [...]ce elected, will be fi [...]ſt i [...]ſtalled, without ſ [...]me Expedient taken therein to prevent it. T [...]e [...]e b [...]ing no reaſon, (nor is it our intention) that th [...]ſe noble Pe [...]ſons ſhou'd ſuffer t [...]t prejudice, for want of t [...]at uſual fo [...]mality, and for which they are not in the fault, but others, who, according to the Statutes and ancien [...] Cuſtom, were to give timely Advertiſement to the ſ [...]i [...] F [...]ei [...] elected Knights, and to Summ [...]n t [...]em by themſelves or [...]r [...]xies, to aſſiſt at the ſaid Inſta [...]ment [...] Our Will and Pleaſu [...]e is, you p [...]oceed fo [...]t [...]ith to the pla [...]ing of the [...]atchme [...]ts [...]f all the reſpective K [...]ights and Compa [...]ions of [...]ur ſaid Order, whether inſtalled or elect, Subject or Stranger, [...]ver t [...]e Sta [...]ls, which we do in manner as followeth aſſign, and app [...]int them in our aſoreſaid C [...]appel.

[Page 307]
  • 1. The Sovereign
  • 2. The Duke of York
  • 3 Prince Elector of Brand.
  • 4. Prince Rupert
  • 5. Earl of S [...]lisbury
  • 6. Earl of Northumberl.
  • 7. Duke of Orm [...]nd
  • 8. Earl of S [...]uthampton
  • 9. Earl of Briſtol
  • 10. Count Marſhin
  • 11. Earl of S [...]ndwich
  • 12. Duke of Richmond
  • 13. Earl of Mancheſter
  • 1. Void
  • 2. The Elector Palatine
  • 3. Prince of Orange
  • 4. Prince Edward
  • 5. Earl of Barkſhire
  • 6. Duke of Eſpernon
  • 7. Duke of Buckingham
  • 8. Marquiſs of Newcaſtle
  • 9. Prince Tarente
  • 10. Duke of Albermarle
  • 11. Earl of Oxford
  • 12. Earl of Lindſey
  • 13. Earl of Strafford

And for ſo doing, this ſhall be your ſufficient Warrant, any Statute, or Cuſtom, to the contrary notwit [...]ſtanding.

To our Truſty and Well-beloved Servant, Sir Edward Walker, Kt. Garter, and Principal Ki [...]g of Arms, of our moſt Noble Order of the Garter.

By the Sovereign's Command Hen. de Vic.

By which we find the Stranger Princes are placed in the upper Stall, near [...]ſt the Sovereign, according to their Dignities and Degrees, and all the Knights-Subjects as to the Time of their Elections. It is to be ob [...]erved up [...]n thi [...] Settlement, that though the Earl of Southampten d [...]d not receive his Garter and George, till the S [...]vereign, upon his happy arrival in England, conferred it up [...]n h [...]m with his own Hand; yet, according to the Time of the Election, Place and Precedency were allowed him; which was in January, An. Dom. 1649. in the Iſle of Jerſ [...]r, [...]ome [...]ew Days be [...]ore Duke Hami [...]ton and the Marqu [...]s of N [...]wcaſtle were e [...]ected.

It was ordered by the S [...]vereign and Knights-Compt [...]ions, convened in Chapter on the 10th of January, Anno 14 Car. II. That thenceforw [...]rd all Princes Strangers, of what Conditi [...]n ſoever, ſhou [...]d have P [...]ced [...]ce amo [...]g themſelves, according to the Seniority of their Elections a [...]d [Page 308] Inſtallations. Upon which the Sovereign, under the Signet of the Order, authorized the Garter, upon the 30th of March, to ſet up their Atchievements in St. George's Chapel, in the Order here exhibited.


  • 1. The Sovereign
  • 2. Duke of York
  • 3. Prince Ru [...]ert
  • 4. Elector of Brandenbur.
  • 5. Earl of Salisbury
  • 6. Earl of Northumberl.
  • 7. Duke of Buckingham
  • 8. Marquiſs of Newcaſtle
  • 9. Prince Tarente
  • 10. Duke of Albermarle
  • 11. Earl of Oxford
  • 12. Earl of Lindſey
  • 13. Earl of S [...]rafford
  • 1. Void
  • 2. Prince Elector Palatine
  • 3. Prince of Orange
  • 4. Prince of Denmark
  • 5. Earl of Barkſhire
  • 6. Duke of Ormond
  • 7. Earl of Southampton
  • 8. Earl of Briſtol
  • 9. Count Marſhin
  • 10. Earl of Sandwich
  • 11. Duke of Richmond
  • 12. Earl of Mancheſter
  • 13. Duke of Monmouth

But upon mature Conſideration of a Law made by Henry VIII. for placing of Strangers, and for another founded by Queen Elizabeth for Knights-Subjects; the Sovereign, by the conſent of the moſt Noble Companions preſent, at a Chapter held the 19th of November, 1699. was [...]leaſed to Ordain, firſt, That the Prince of Wales, and ſuch Emperers and Kings that ſhou'd be of the Order, ſhou'd be placed in the nea [...]eſt Stalls to that of the Sovereign, according to their Elections and Inſtallations.

Then, That all other Sove [...]eign Princes, and Princes of the Blood, ſhou'd be placed in their Stalls next unto the King's, according to the Seniority, in the Order. And thirdly, That all other his Majeſty's Subjects and Strangers, not of the D [...]gnity above-mention'd, ſhou'd be inſtalled in the loweſt Stalls, according to their Antiquity in the Order, and the a [...]cient Pract [...]ce.

And whereas the Stall [...]rmed the Prince's had been long vacant, the Sovereign King Charles II. by the advice of the moſt Noble Com [...]anions, at the ſame Chapter, was pleaſed to order, That the preſent King of Sweden ſhou'd, by his Proxy, be placed in that Stall, and his Atchievements bung up t [...]ereon accordingly, in convenient Time. Whi [...]h [Page 309] order was ſtrictly put in Execution, and the Stalls at the Feaſt of St. George, Anno 23 Car. II. were thus ranged.


  • 1. The Sovereign
  • 2. King of Denmark
  • 3. Prince Elector Palatine
  • 4. Prince of Orange
  • 5. Pr. Elector of Saxony
  • 6. Duke of Buckingham
  • 7. Earl of Briſtol
  • 8. Count Marſhin
  • 9. Earl of Oxford
  • 10. Earl of Strafford
  • 11. Duke of Albermarle
  • 12. Void
  • 13. Void
  • 1. The King of Sweden
  • 2. The Duke of York
  • 3. Prince Rupert
  • 4. Elector of Brandenbur.
  • 5. Duke of Ormond
  • 6. Duke of Newcaſt [...]e
  • 7. Prince Tarante
  • 8. Ea [...]l of Sandwich
  • 9. Duke of Richmond
  • 10. Duke of Monmouth
  • 11. Void
  • 12. Void
  • 13. Void

11.6. 7

§ 7. Having diſpatch'd the ancient Law of Succeſſion into void Stalls, and of Tranſlation from one to another; we come now to conſider what is farther to be prepared for the Knight elect, againſt the Day of the great Solemnity, at his own Expence; the chief of which are;
  • 1. A Mantle or upper Robe, with its Appurtenance.
  • 2. A Collar of the Garter and Great George.
  • 3. A Cap of black Velvet, adorned with Plumes.
  • 4. A Helmet, Creſt, Mantlings, and Sword.
  • 5. A Banner of his Arms.
  • 6. A Plate of his Arms and St [...]le.
  • 7. A Cuſhion, to carry his Robes and Collar upon.
  • 8. Lodging Eſcutcheons.

Though the Kirt [...]e on the Surcoat was anciently given by the King to the Knights-Subjects, yet we do not find the Mantle of the Order was, no [...] indeed of a [...]ater Date, unleſs now and then, as a diſtinguiſhing mark of Favour. But the Sovereign always beſtows the M [...]ntle upon Strangers, as well as the whole Habit, when he has elected them into the Society of the Order. And u [...]on ſending of the whole Habit over by Garter to the King of Portugal, [Page 310] Anno 13 Hen. VI. the Mantle, Surcoat, and Hood [...] were accompted for in the Great Wardrobe, and is to this Day practiſed.

However of late the Sovereign hath been pleaſed, now and then [...] to confer the Mantle upon a Knight-Subject. Witneſs King James I. Anno 21. did to James Marqui [...]s of Hamilton; and King Charles I. Anno 4. to Theophilus, Earl of Suffolk, and the Year enſuing to William, Earl of Northampton: And Anno 14. Sir James Palmer, by his Sovereign's Direction, paid for the Velvet and Taffety of the Earl of Kelly's Mantle and Surcoat, to Sir Peter Richaut, and put it upon the Account of the extraordinary Expence of the Order.

King Charles II. as a ſignal Mark of his Favour, cauſed ſeventeen Mantl [...]s (with the uſual Liveries of Surcoat and Hood,) to be made ready againſt the grand Feaſt of St. George, Anno 13. which he confered not only among the new elect Knights, but upon the Earls of Salisbury, Barkſhire, and No [...]thumberland, that were three Senior Knig [...]ts-Comp [...]nions.

The Collar of the Order, and the great George, the elect Knight is to provide himſelf, unleſs where the Sovereign is pleaſed to beſtow the Mantle, [...]hich is always accompanied with the Collar, and then a like Warrant iſſu [...]s to the M [...]ſter of the Jewel-Houſe, as was uſed for providing the ſeventeen Collars, Anno 13 Car. II.

The black Velvet Cap before-mentioned and deſcribed, with the Helm, Creſt, and Mantlings, together with a Sword and Gird [...]e, are to be got in readineſs by the care and direction of the Garter, but at the Expence of the Knights e [...]ect; all whi [...]h are to be ſet over his Stall, as ſoon as [...]i [...] Inſtallation Fees are paid.

This Honour, that every Knight-Companion ſhall have his Helm, Cr [...]ſt, and Sword, affixed over his Stall at the Chappel of St. George, is particularly provided for in all the ſeve [...]al Bodies of S [...]atutes; and are ordained to remain there during the Lives of the Poſſeſſors, In [...] of [...]im that bears them, and a T [...]ſtim [...]ny [...]f t [...]e Defence [...] the Chu [...]ch, as the Oaths of Military Orders requi [...]e.

The He [...]ms upon this Occaſion are compoſed of Steel, and of a more than ordinary proportion; thoſe for Sove [...]eign P [...]i [...]ces are framed open, with large Barrs; but thoſe fo [...] the Knights-Subjects are made cloſe. About King [Page 311] Henry VIII's Reign, the Knigh [...]s-Subjects Helms were parcel gilt with fine Gold in Oil, wrought with curious Works, and burniſhed with fine Gold. But in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, and ſince that Time, it hath been the Cuſtom to gild their Helms all over, and place the Arms of St. George in the Middle before the Vizors.

The Mantlings that hang down on either ſide of the Helm, together with the Wreath, are in ſome places called Appendixes, and are all of Tiſſue, or Cloth of Gold, and formerly lined with Sarcenet; but in the Reign of Queen Mary they were exchanged for white Satin, for ſo were the Mantlings of Anthony B [...]own, Viſcount Montague, and William Howard, Lord Admiral, lined.

At the bottom of theſe Mantlings hang a pair of gilt Knobs burniſhed with Gold, from which ſpring out Toſſels either of Gold or S [...]lver, (conſentaneous to the Metal in the Knights Court of Armour) mixed with Silk of the chief Colour in his Arms.

Upon the Helm and Mantlings, is placed a Wreath of corded Silk, of the Knight's Colou [...]s, which was formerly of Sarcenet, but now of Taffety.

The Creſt of the Knight is placed either upon theſe W [...]eaths, or Iſſuant out of a Crown, or Ducal Cap, turned with Ermin; and of what kind ſ [...]ever the Creſt is, the ſame is neatly carved in Wood, and either gilt, or wrought in; Directly before the Helm, an armed Sword hangs down, the Pomel, Croſs, and Chape are gil [...]; the Scabbard is made of the ſame Tiſſue or Cloth of Gold as the Mantlings are, as is the Girdle that belongs to it; but the Buckles and Pendants are of Copper Gilt.

The Cuſtom of ſetting up the He [...]m, Creſt, and Sword, over the Stall of the Knights, is as ancient as the I [...]ſtitution of the Order; but when the Banners were firſt hung up, we have not ſo clear a Conviction; for neither the Statutes of Inſtitution, nor thoſe of Henry V. make mention of them.

The firſt time they occur to us, we find to be in Anno 2 Hen. VI. in the black Book of the Order, where the Banners of the King of Portugal is particularly [...]poke of, among the Atchievements then ſet over the S [...]all: But they are more particularly mentioned in the B [...]dy of King Henry VIII's Statutes.

[Page 312] The Faſhion of the Sovereign's and all the Knights-Companions Banners are ſquare; yet it does no where appear what the exact Standard was; yet we find them in the Reign of Q [...]een Elizabeth to be two Yards and a Quarter Long, and a Yard and three Quarters Broad, beſides the F [...]inge, which is compoſed of Gold, or Silver and Silk, of the Colours in the W [...]eath; and on them are wrought, upon Taffety-Sarcenet, double Sarcenet, or rich Taffety, with fine Gold Colours on both ſides, the Pate [...]nal Coat of the Knights-Companion, toge [...]her with his Quartering, or ſo many of them as he pleaſes to uſe, and the Garter is to take care they be warrantably Marſhalled.

And becauſe a ſi [...]gle Coat was not conceived to ſtand fair enough in a Banner of this proportion, the Sovereign hath been pleaſed to grant a new Coat, to bear in Quarters his Paternal one, if he wanted it; as King James I. did to Robert Carr, Viſcount Rocheſter; to who [...]e Paternal Coat he fi [...]ſt added a Lion Paſſant, Gardant Or, in the dexter Part, as an eſpecial Gift of his Favour, and then invented a new C [...]at, to be born in Quarter therewith, viz. Q [...]arterly Or and Gules, a Lyon Rampant Sab [...]e over all, June 8. Anno 9 Jac. I.

Theſe Banners of Arms are fixed to the End of long S [...]aves, painted in Oil, formerly of the Colour of the Wreaths, but now Red; their Ends are put into Socke [...]s of Iron, well fixed in the Wall, directly over the Knights-Companions Helms and Creſts, and frequently lined with Fuſtian to preſerve them.

There is moreover to be provided a Copper Plate Gilt, whereupon are engraved, the Eſcutcheon of the Knights elect Arms in Colours Enamilled, with his Quartering, Helm, Cr [...]ſt, and Supporters, and underneath, his Style and Titles of Honour, enc [...]cled with a Garter. Which Plate the Garter uſually takes Care to provide, and is to be fixed on the back of the Knights Stall, aſſigned for his Inſtallat [...]on.

A Ve [...]et Cuſhion is likewiſe to be provided, to carry the Knight's el [...]ct Mantle, Collar, Hood, and Book of Statutes, before h [...]m, in the Progreſs into the Ch [...]ire, in order to his Inſtallation. At the Inſtallation of the Lord Treaſurer [...]ſton, and the Earls of Exeter and Lindſey, who were i [...]ſtalled, Anno 6 Car. I. the mater [...]als and garniſhing of theſe Cuſhions are recited ſeverally, to contain [Page 313] one Yard and a Half of Crimſon Velvet, one Ell of rich Taffety for their Lining, four Yards of Fringe, and four great Toſſels.

Laſtly, There have frequently been made ready a convenient Number of Lodging Eſcutcheons of the elect Knights Arms, invironed with a Garter, and his Stile and Titles placed underneath; it having been an ancient Cuſtom, for the Knights to diſtribute theſe Eſcutcheons at the Inns, in their Paſſage to, and at Windſor, as a Memorial of their Inſtallation.

What falls under the Care of the Garter to prepare and make ready, the Expence ſometimes has been caſt up, and the Account ſtated and defraid before-hand; by which means, he was in a better capacity to furniſh out the Ceremony, for ſo did the Earls of Shrewsbury and Cumberland, Anno 34 Eliz.

Beſides theſe mentioned to be prepared and provided either by the Chancellor of the Order, or the Garter, the Knight elect muſt take care of other Affairs more particularly relating to himſelf and his retinue; ſuch as are Apparel, the Number of his Attendants and Servants, [...]th their Cloaths and Liveries, his Coach and Saddle Horſes, both for himſelf and them, with other material Circumſtances, to ſet off his Cavalcade and Proceeding with greater Pomp and Gallantry. The Proviſions for Dyet at Windſor (if the Feaſt be kept at the elect Knight's Ch [...]rge and Expence,) are to be conſidered of, and very o [...]ten ſome Clark of the Sovereign's Kitchin is to be conſulted, in the management of that Affair.

The Hall or Room where the grand Dinner is to be kept, as well as the Chapter-Houſe and Chappel, ought chiefly to be decked and adorned with rich and [...]umptuous Furn [...]ture, againſt this Solemnity, over and above what is commonly uſed. The Hall or Dining-Room is to be ſet off with rich Hangings; and if the Sovereign or his Lieutenant hold the Feaſt, there muſt be placed a Cloth of State at the upper End of it. The Chapter-Houſe is alſo to be hung, and a rich Carpet ſpread upon the Table, ſet about with Velvet Chairs and Cuſhions; and becauſe in the late Times of Rebellion and Plunder, this Place was not exempr. and nothing was found there upon the R [...]ſt [...]uration; King Charles II. in a Chapter convened the [...] o [...] January, Anno 14th of his Reign, cauſed Directions [Page 314] to be given to the Maſter of the Wardrobe, to provide Velvet for Chairs, to furniſh the Chapter-Houſe, and Cuſhions to be uſed in the Choir of St. George's Chappel, which accordingly were prepared againſt the following Feaſt.

Againſt the Inſtallation of Philip, King of Caſtile and Leon, Anno 22 Henry VII. The Table in the Chapter-Houſe was covered with Cloth of Gold, and the Forms with Baudkin; before the Sovereign was laid a Cuſhion of Cloth of Gold, whereupon a Crucifix lay, and the Evangeliſt turned open to a place of the Cannon, with ſeveral Tapers burning on either Side. At the upper End of the Table, towards the Right Hand, was ſet a Chair for the Sovereign, under a golden Canopy, with Cuſhions of Cloth of Gold, and on the Left Hand a Stool with like Embelliſhments, for the King of Caſtile.

In St. George's Chappel, the High Altar is to be richly adorned with Plate, the Sovereign's Stall with a Canop [...], and other uſual Ornaments, and the Stalls of the Knights-Companions preſent at the Ceremony, with Velvet Cuſhions. As to the Furniſhing of other Places in the Caſtle of Windſor, on ſo ſolemn an Occaſion, we ſhall relate the Account of the Ceremony of the Inſtallation of the King of Leon and Caſtile, juſt now mentioned. The Words are th [...]ſe:

To wit of the gret rich Cobbord, which continually ſtode in the gret Hall, which was all gu [...]lt Plate, or of the gret and rich Beds of Eſtate, Hangings of rich Cloth of [...]old, or of the rich and ſumptuous Clothes of Arras, with divers Clothes of Eſtate, both in the King's Loggings, and in the King of Caſtile's Loggings, ſo many Chambers, Haulls, Chappels, Cloſettes, Galleries, with odir Loggings, ſo richly and very well appointed, with divers odir things, that I ſuffice or cannot diſcern, and as I ſuppoſe few or none that there were, that ever ſaw Caſtell or odir Loggings, in all things ſo well and richly appointed, and the [Page 315] great continual fare, open Houſhold, ſo many Noble Men ſoo well appareilled and with ſoo ſhort Warnying, heretofore, as I think hath not been ſeen.

12. CAP. XII. The Perſonal Inſtallation of a Knight-Subject.

12.1. 1

§ 1. FOrmerly the Knights elect proceeded from London to their Inſtallation at Windſor, in the nature of a Solemn and ſtately Cavalcade, which was performed on Horſe-back, with the greateſt Grandeur, and exceeding Pomp, whether we refer to the great Number of their Honourable Friends, who, on gallant Courſers, rode along with them; or the multitude of their own Attendants well mounted, the magnificence of whoſe Apparel, Jewels, Gold Chains, rich Embroideries, and Plumes of Feathers, of their Lord's Colours, ſtruck Amazement, and even dazled the Eyes of the Spectators.

Equivalent to this Pompous Show was the Feaſt, which contained in it all manner of Statelineſs and Plenty, as well of Proviſion, as other Incidents that might increaſe its Glory, in which the elect Knights, who kept it at their own Expence, ſtrove not only to out-vie their Predeceſſor, but to Excel one another; That all Embaſſadors and Strangers eſteemed it one of the goodlieſt and nobleſt Sights, that was to be exhibited in Chriſtendom.

But to make the ſplendor of the Cavalcade no leſs conſpicuous to the City of London, than to the Town and Caſtle of Windſor, the Knights elect have taken up their Lodgings, ſometimes in the Strand, ſometimes in Salisbury-Court, in Holborn, or within the City; and for intent they choſe to paſs through ſome Eminent Streets, that the People might the better Survey them, and receive the [Page 316] greater Satisfaction. To illuſtrate which Matter, we ſhall deſcend to ſome Particulars.

Anno 34 Eliz. Gilbert, Earl of Shrewsbury, in order to his Cavalcade, was lodged in Mr. Greſham's Houſe, (now known by the Name of Greſham-College,) whence he Rode through the City, accompanied with many of his Honourable Friends, and a numerous and gallant Train of Attendants and Servants, to Charing-Croſs, where he met George, Earl of Cumberland, (his Companion elect) and thence both Rode together towards Windſor; within a Mile or two of which Place, Garter King of Arms me [...] them, and Marſhalled their Attendants in Order; and then the elect Knights proceeded with their gallant Tra [...]n through the Town into the Caſtle in this Order.

  • 1. Trumpets, two and two.
  • 2. Gentlemen in Blue Coats and Gold Chains.
  • 3. Gentlemen of Note.
  • 4. Garter.
  • 5. Gentlemen Uſhers.
  • 6. The two elect Knights, Earl of Ormond, and Baron of Effingham; with their Footmen about them.
  • 7. Noblemen, Knights, and Gentlemen of Quality.
  • 8. All their Servants in the Rear.

Cuſtom and Peace contributed to make the Cavalcades more glorious, during the Reigns of Queen Elizabet [...], and King James I. and eſpecially that o [...] Robert, Earl of Salisbury, and Thomas, Viſcount Bindon, May 21ſt, A [...]no 4 Jac. I. who arrived at Windſor honourabl [...] accom [...]anied, with a great appearance of Nobility, Knights, and Gentlemen of Figure.

But the Fate of this Solemnity, much like that glorious Body of the Sun, (whoſe Luſtre at ſuch times it ſtro [...]e to outſhine) had now and then its interpoſitions, and intermitting Clouds, at other times long Nights, and the Splendor and Glory thereof but ſtruck the Sight now and then; when the Pleaſure of the Sovereign grew auſpicious, or the Honour of the Order became fixed upon more generous S [...]irits. But to ſpeak im [...]artially, there may grow an Exceſs in ſuch Solemnities, even to Sh [...]me and Surfeit; and the beſt Cure to preſcribe for it, is a long Abſtinence. Nor was this Feſti [...]al at all Times [...]ree [Page 317] from this Diſtemper, but then a quick Application of the Sovereign's ſoon rectified it by taking away the Cauſe, and prohibiting Exceſs in their Attendants.

For this reaſon it was that King James I. obſerving thoſe Exceſſes the elect Knights run in [...]o upon this Occaſion, and willing to cheque the growing Inconveniencies, at the Inſtallation, of Francis, Earl of Rutland, Sir George Villars, Kt. (afterwards Duke of Buckingham) and the Viſcount Liſle, Anno 14 of his Reign, fo [...]bid Livery Coats, for ſaving Charge, and avoiding Emulation; and ſhortly a [...]ter, in a Chapter at W [...]ite-Hall, Anno 16. with the Conſent of the Knights-Companions then aſſ [...]mbled, to put ſome reſtraint upon the Number of Attendants, decreed, T [...]at every of the Knights-Companions ſhould have fifty Perſons to attend him unto the Annual Solemnities of the O [...]der, and no more.

In the Inſtallation of William, Earl of Northampton, Anno 5 Car. I. we find this ſtinted Number encreaſed to fourſcore, who began his Cavalcade to Windſor, from Sali [...]bury Houſe in the Strand, and certainly wou'd have exhibited a more glorious Show, had not a continual Rain for three Days ſpace impeded him. Nevertheleſs, that what he deſigned with ſo mu [...]h Splendor and Gallantry might out-live the accident of foul Weather, the Order of it ſhall be inſerted here.

The Order of riding to the Inſtallation of William, Earl of Northampton, 20th of April, 1629.

  • 1. Trumpets, whoſe Banners were of Damask, and had the Earls Arms, with his Creſt and Supporters environed with a Garter.
  • 2. The meaneſt of his Servants; as Grooms and Yeomen, in Blue Coats, two and two.
  • 3. His Lordſhip's other Servants, in Blue Coats; as Gentlemen, E [...]quires, and Knights, two and two.
  • 4. Two Secretar [...]es; Mr. Ralph Goodwin, and Mr. Francis Mer [...]ſſe.
  • 5. S [...]eward, Mr. Cuthb [...]rt Ogle.
  • 6. Comptroller, Mr. William Goodwyn.
  • 7. Two Pages.
  • 8. His ſpare Horſe, led by the Gentleman of his Horſe.
  • [Page 318] 9. His Chaplain to diſtribute his Alms.
  • 10. Purſiuvants at Arms, two and two.
  • 11. Gentleman Uſher, Mr. Walter Thomas, Bareheade [...]
  • 12. The Senior Herald covered.
  • 13. The Earls of Berkſhire, Northampton, and Salisbur [...]
  • 14. Noblemen in their Places, two and two.
  • 15. Knights, Eſquires, and Gentlemen, which accompanied him.
  • 16. The Commiſſioners Servants.
  • 17. Other Noblemens, Knights, Eſquires, and Gentlemens Servants.

Henry Earl of Danby, and William Earl of Morton, being to receive the Honour of Inſtallation, Anno 10 Car. I [...] diſpoſed themſelves for their more commodious Paſſage, and the Peoples View; one was at Warwick Houſe in Holbourn, and the other at Dorſet Houſe in Salisbury-cou [...]t, and made their Progreſſion ſeverally through the Streets to Hyde-Park, each having two Noblemen to ſupport him, with their Footmen in rich Coats on either ſide them.

Their Gentlemen Uſhers rode Bareheaded, and before them the Officers of Arms wearing their Coats, and their Servants in blue Coats and Cognizances, (as was the ancient Mode,) were all led on by Trumpe [...]s. The reſt of the Lords, Knights, and Gentlemen followed after each Knight's elect Troop, according to their Rank and Quality foremoſt. The Proceeding of the Earl of Morton, was Marſhalled in this manner.

  • 1. Trumpets, two and two.
  • 2. Grooms in Coats, two and two.
  • 3. Yeomen, two and two.
  • 4. Gentlemen, two and two.
  • 5. Secretaries.
  • 6. Stewards.
  • 7. Gentleman of the Horſe.
  • 8. Pages.
  • 9. Four Officers of Arms.
  • 10. Gentleman Uſher bare.
  • 11. Lancaſter Herald covered [...]
  • 12. Earl Morton, ſupported between two chief Lord [...]
  • 13. Foot-men on each ſide, in rich Coats.
  • 14. Noblemen and Gentlemen, according to their Degrees.

[Page 319] At Slough, (two Miles on this ſide Windſor,) they all made a ſtand, and being again placed in Order, they proceeded to Windſor Caſtle, where, alighting in the lower Court, the Knights elect were conducted to their ſeveral Apartments.

The laſt Cavalcade this Age has beheld, was exhibited by Algernoon, Earl of Northumberland, May 13. Anno 11 Car. I. from Dorſet Houſe in Salisbury-court, toward Windſor; nor was it the leaſt in Pomp and Glory: E [...]ght and forty Gentlemen preceeded, then came the Pages, being E [...]rls Sons, viz.
  • 1. Mr. William Herbert, Mr. John Herbert, Mr. Philip Cecil, Mr. Algernoon Sidney.
  • 2. Heralds at Arms, two and two.
  • 3. Mr. Blundeville, Gentleman Uſher, Barcheaded.
  • 4. Norrey King of Arms.
  • 5. Marqu [...]ſs of Wincheſter.
  • 6. The E [...]rls of Northumberland and Kent.

And ſomewhat behind him, the reſt of the Lords, Knights, and Gentlemen in order; they had Priority according to their Quality, Riding two and two, and the Coaches cloſi [...]g up the Troop.

There was a publick Cavalcade deſigned from Somerſet Houſe in the Strand, to Windſor Caſtle, when King Charles II. was to have been inſtalled, which though it proved Abortive, yet ought not to be omitted, by reaſon of the Chancellor's Letter to each Knight-Companion, to make Preparation to attend him thither.

May it pleaſe your Lordſhip,

THE King's Majeſty, Sovereign of this moſt Noble Order of the Garter, having determine [...] to Create the Prince his Eldeſt Son Knight, and to propoſe him in Election, to be a Companion of his Order; for the better Conveniency of his I [...]ſtallation, hath [...]rorogued, by a Commiſſion under the Se [...]l of his Order, given the 2 [...]th of February, now remaining in my Cuſtody, the Celebration of the Feaſt of St. George, from the 22, 23 [...] and 24 of April next, whereon it ſhou'd have been Solemnized, unto the 21 [...] 22, and 23 of May immediately enſuing; and thereby given Command to all [Page 320] the Knights-Companions, and Officers of this Order, that they ſhould attend his Royal Perſon, at his Palace of White-Hall, upon thoſe Days appointed. In diſcharge of the Duty of my Place, and by ſpecial Order, I do ſignify unto your Lordſhip his Majeſty's Wi [...]l, and that it is his Pleaſure, for the more Honour of the Prince, and the Noble Feaſt of his Election and Inſtallation, that your Lordſhip ſhou'd be attended with your Servants and Retinue, according to ſolemn Cuſtom, a [...]d be prepared to Accompany his Higneſs, from Somerſet Houſe in the Strand, unto the Caſtle of Windſor, upon the 18th of that Month, and aſſiſt at the Ceremony and Feaſt of his Inſtallation, upon the Day following: Praying your Lordſhip that you would be pleaſed to take knowlege hereby, both of the Time and Place deſigned, and of the Sovereign's Order, I humbly reſt,

In all due Obedience, and Obſervance, Thomas Rowe.

When this Letter was iſſued out, the Sovereign intended to create the Prince Knight of the Bath, which Ceremonies were intended to begin at the old Palace-yard in Weſtminſter, upon the 21ſt Day of May, Anno 13 Car I. and to Solemnize the Feaſt of St. George, upon the 23d of the ſame Month at White-Hall, and to take the Scrutiny that Evening for his Election into this Order: The next Day was deſigned to inveſt him with the Garter and George, and the Day after to ſet forward the Cavalcade towards Windſor, wherein alſo the Knights of the Bath, (intended to be created with the Prince,) were to Ride with their Robes. But this Reſolution being altered, ſtop'd the Progreſſion of the Cavalcade, and in the room of a Knight of the Bath, he was created a Knight-Batchellor at Windſor.

Formerly it was the manner for the Sovereign's Lieutenant to Ride to Windſor, attended with a gallant and glittering Train, and no ſmall Number of his own Gentlemen and Yeomen richly attired, and in every Punctilio [Page 321] lio fifty ſet out, as was ſeen in the Cavalcade of the Duke of Norfolk, Earl Marſhal of E [...]gland, and Lieutenant for the Sovereign, for St. George's Feaſt, Anno 5 Eliz. who had attending him twenty of his own Gentlemen and Yeomen, at the Time the Earls of Northumberland and Warwick were to be inſtalled; but this was never put in Practice, but when the Sovereign appointed the I [...]ſtallation and the Feaſt of St. George to be celebrated together.

The Lieutenant, and his Aſſiſtants, or ſometimes the Knights-Commiſſioners, (if the Feaſt of St. George be not then Solemnized,) being arrived in the Caſtle, immediately retire to their Lodgings, which for the moſt part have been prepared at the Dean's Houſe, whoſe Rooms are the faireſt in the Caſtle, and the beſt [...]tted for Accommodation, next to tho [...]e of the Sovereign's in the u [...]per Ward; and for the Knights elect, they were at all Times furniſhed with Lodgings in ſome of the Prebends Houſes.

12.2. The Offering in the Chappel, on the Eve of the Fe [...]ſt.

§ 2. If it ſo chanced that the Inſtallation was performed by Commiſſioners, and the Cavalcade proceeded from London, in the Morning of the Day [...]receeding the Inſtallation, and arrived at the Caſtle of Win [...]ſor early that Afternoon; then the Knights-C [...]mmiſſioners have been accuſtomed only to put on their Mantles, and ent [...]r St. G [...]rge's Chappel to offer; but without the Attendance of Heralds, or any ſolemn Proceſſion into the Choir, ſa [...]e one of the Prebends; where having placed themſelves in their Stalls with uſual Reverences, and heard an Anth [...]m, th [...]y paſſed up to the Altar [...]ith the Verger and Garter befo [...]e them, and there made their Offeri [...]g, both of Gold and Silver, according to the uſual Cuſtom. As ſoon as V [...]ſpers were finiſhed, after the ſame manner they deſcended from their Stalls, and de [...]arted to their Lodgings; and in this caſe the Knights-Commiſſioners did not lay by their Mantles till Supper was ended.

In this nature was the Ceremony of Off [...]ring (on the E [...]e of the Inſta [...]lation) perform [...]d by the Lord Adm [...] ral and Earl of O [...]mond, Commiſſioners for the Inſt [...]ll [...]ion [Page 322] of the Earl of Shrewsbury and Cumberland, Anno 34 Eliz. But at the Inſtallation of the Earl of Rutland, an [...] others, Anno 26 Eliz. the Lord Hunſdon (one of the Commiſſioners for that Solemnity,) refuſed to make h [...]s O [...] fering alone, though he arrived timely enough, on the Eve o [...] the Feaſt at Windſor Caſtle, becauſe he wanted the Company of Viſcount Mountague, who was a joynt Commiſſioner with him, that arrived not till the Morning after.

This Offering of the Knights-Commiſſioners, coming to the Caſtle on the Eve of the Inſtallation, is founded upon an Article of Edward III. which runs to this Effect: That if any of the Knights-Companions, being upon a Journey, ſhou'd accident [...]lly paſs by Windſor-Caſtle, he is to turn in thither, in Honour of the Place, and prepare himſelf to enter into the Chappel to Offer; firſt putting on his Mantle, without which he muſt never preſume to enter into it; but upon Emergencies, and allowable Cauſes, he is to be excuſed.

After the Knight-Companion had entered the Caſtle, the Canons Reſident were, by the aforeſaid Article, appointed to meet and recieve him, and with due Reverence conduct him into the Choir. If it was at the Celebration of High Maſs, the Knight was obliged to ſtay and hear it, in Honour of God and St. George; but if he arrived in the Afternoon, he was to ſtay till the Canons, and the reſt of the Choir, had ſung the Anth [...]m de Profundis, which no ſ [...]oner was ended, but he proceeded to the High Altar and Offered, and returned to his Stall with u [...]ual Reverences, and then departed.

But if the Knight-Companion paſſed through the Town of [...]indſor, and neglected to Offer at the Chappel, as of [...]en as he o [...]t [...]ed i [...], he was bound, u [...]on his Obedience, to walk a M [...]e on F [...]ot to the Cha [...]pel, in Honour of St. Geo [...]ge, a [...] u [...]on defailure, to offer a Peny, which by King [...] VIII's Statutes is inlarged to a Croat. Upon the Exp [...]cation of this Article, t [...]ere aroſe a Diſpute about the j [...]ſt Diſtance intended from the Caſtle; and that the K [...]ights-Companions might be ſenſible o [...] the [...]rea [...]h of the Inj [...]nction, it was thought requiſite by King Hen [...]y VIII. to ſet down a certain Bound, which in his S [...]a [...]utes is declared to be two Miles; within which, if any of the Knights-Compani [...]ns come, and do not repa [...]r [Page 323] to the Chappel and Offer, he is liable to the Mulct before ſpecified.

Upon Hunting, or other Paſtimes the Foreſt afforded, they uſed to ſend their Offering in Money to the Canons, which being received, the Knights took it for a Diſpenſation of the Ceremony enjoined by the Statu [...]es.

Endeavours were uſed to have this Article interpreted with greater Latitude, which ſo far took Effect, that at a Chapter called at Windſor the 10th of October, Anno 15 Car I. it was ordered, that ſome Expedient might be found out, to ſave the Knights from the Breach of their Oath, if they came within the limited Diſtance of the Place, and paſſed thence without Offering. But no farther Progreſs being made in that Affair, the Law ſtands as it did.

12.3. The Supper of the Eve.

§ 3. The Supper, after their arrival at Windſor, is but in the Nature of a private Meal, and prepared for the Lieutenant (or Commiſſioners) or Knights elect, moſt commonly at the Dean's Houſe. Anno 26 Eliz. on the Eve of the Inſtallation of the Earl of Rutland and Lord Cobham, the Commiſſioners ſu [...]ped together with ſuch Lords and Gentlemen of Figure as came along with them; and no Nobleman had above one Servant to a [...] tend him at the Table, and the reſt provided for themſelves at their proper Inns. Sometimes they have been permitted to Sup in ſome Appartments of the Sovereign's Lodgings; for ſo it was at the Inſtallation of the Lord Ruſſel, and other elect Knights, Anno 31 Henry VIII. and likewiſe of the Earl of Shrewsbury, and Lord Hunſd [...]n, Anno 3 Eliz. the Lieutenant and Knights ſupped in the great Chamber there, in the ſame Regularity that was uſed at other Times. And in the 34th of Queen Elizabeth, when the Earls of Shrewsbury and Cumberland were inſtalled, all the Lords and Gentlemen ſupped together at one long Table ſet in the Council Chamber.

12.4. The Order in proceeding to the Chapter-Houſe.

[Page 324]

§ 4. Before we come to the particular Ceremonies of the Inſtallation, tranſacted either by the Sovereign, (or in his abſence by his Lieutenant or Commiſſioners,) we ſhall premiſe this general Remark: That ſince neither the Statutes of Inſtitution, nor thoſe of King Henry V. afford us a Formulary for the Perſonal Inſtallation of a Knight elect; yet thoſe enacted by King Henry VIII. do briefly exhibit the Order and Method of it. And we muſt farther obſerve, that if the Inſtallation be appointed [...]ogether with the Feaſt of St. George, then either the Sovereign, or elſe his Lieutenant and Aſſiſtants are preſent; but if at any other Seaſon, then it paſſeth by Commiſſioners only.

After ſuch time therefore as the Sovereign, his Lieutenant, or Commiſſioners, have prefixed the Hour wherein to proceed to the Chapter Houſe, in Order to the Inſtallation, (which has generally been diſpatched in the Evening,) all the Knights-Companions, and elect Knights, the Officers of the Order, and of Arms, the Prebends of the College, and Alms-Knights, are to give their Attendance, viz. the Knights-Companions, and elect Knights, and Officers, of the Order, on the Sovereign, in his inward Lodging; the elect Knights, and Officers of Arms, in the Preſence Chamber, the Prebends and Alms-Knights, in the Great Chamber, where they waited the Sovereign's coming forth.

The Attendance to be given upon the Sovereign's Lieutenant, and ſuch of the Knights-Companions as are appointed for his Aſſiſtants, is by the Officers of the Order and of Arms, the Prebends and Alms-Knights, either at his Lodgings, or elſewhere he ſhall deem meet to appoint; from which the Knights-Companions are exempt. For though the Knights-Companions have ſometimes proceeded to the Chappel before the Sovereign's Lieutenant, at an Inſtallation, yet hath it been at ſuch time only, as they accompanied their Sovereign to Windſor, to hold the Feaſt of St. George; and if the Sovereign, through any Indiſpoſition, or weighty Affair, cou'd not paſs down to the Chappel on the Eve of the Feaſt, yet they being obliged [Page 325] by the Statutes to celebrate Veſpers, did upon this Occaſion proceed thither, though not upon the Account of Inſtallation; as it fell out at the Inſtallation of Prince Henry, and four other Knights, Anno 1 Jac. I. when the Progreſſion began from the Preſence Chamber, and thence paſſed to the Chappel in the following Order.

  • 1. Alms-Knights.
  • 2. Prebends.
  • 3. Purſuivants.
  • 4. Heralds.
  • 5. Ulſter King of Arms.
  • 6. Lyon King of Arms.
  • 7. Clarenceux King of Arms.
  • 8. The four elect Knights.
  • 9. Knights Companions.
  • 10. Garter.
  • 11. Regiſter.
  • 12. Black Rod.
  • 13. Chancellor.
  • 14. The Sovereign's Lieutenant leading the Prince in his Hand.

At the Inſtallation of the Duke of Brunſwick, and five other elect Knights, the 23d of November, Anno 1 Car. I. the Knights-Companions like wiſe proceeded before the Sov [...]reign's Lieutenants, tho' the Sovereign was at Windſor, but not in the Cavalcade.

Upon the Sovereign's Commiſſioners, neither the Knights-Companions, nor the Prelate, nor Chance [...]lor, do give their Attendance; only at the Grand Feaſt of S [...]. George, Anno 13 Car. II. the Chancellor then waiting on the Sovereign at Windſor, in the Duties of his Place, out of a ſingular Regard to his Royal Highneſs the Duke of York, attending the Commiſſioners in the proceeding to his Inſtallation, for at that time he was Comptroller of his Houſhould.

The Proceedings on this ſolemn Occaſion have been generally order'd on Foot; yet upon extraordinary Incidents have been marſhalled and diſpoſed on Horſe-back, in manner of a Cavalcade, as was u [...]ed at the Inſtallation of Philip King of Caſtile, Anno 22 Hen. VII. and that when the Lord Ruſſel and other elect Knights were inſtalled, [Page 326] Anno 31 Hen. VIII. King Philip (when the Earl of Suſſex was inſtalled, Anno 1 and 2. Ph. and Mar.) honoured him with his Preſence, and riding on Horſe-back, with ſeveral of the Knights-Companions, from his Lodgings in the Caſtle, down to the Cloiſter Door, at the Eaſt-End of the Chappel, and there alighting, proceeded directly to the Chapter-Houſe. The Proceeding was on Horſeback, at the Inſtallation of the Earl of Shrewsbury and the Lord Hunſdon, Anno 3 Eliz. and at the Earl of Nort [...]umberland's and Earl of Wa [...]wick's, Anno 5. At the Inſtallati [...]n of Francis, Duke Montmorency, the Viſcount Hereford, and the Lords Bu [...]leigh, Grey, and Shandos, Anno 14 Eliz The Sovereign's Lieutenant and Knights Aſſiſtants did Robe themſelves in the Sovereign's Lodging in the Caſtle; and meeting in the Preſence Chamber, proceeded downwards towards the [...]u [...]er Hall-door, in the upper Ward of the Caſtle, when taking their Horſes, adorned with Foot Clothes, they proceeded on Hor [...]e-back to the Weſt Door of the Chappel.

If the Progreſſion was begun on Horſe-back at the beginning of the Feaſt, ſo it continued, as often as the Sovereign (his Lieutenant or Commiſſioner) went to the Chapter-Houſe, or Chappel, and their returns were marſhalled in the like Order at their ſetting out.

The Servants and Attendants belonging to the Knights elect, (if they be taken into the Proceſſion,) paſs on firſt two and two in a Rank, according to their Quality; and thoſe who are the moſt inferior, the foremoſt: Next the Alm [...] Knights in their Habits and uſual Order.

Then follows the Virger of the College.

After him the Prebends or Cano [...]s: But what attendance they have given hereto [...]ore at the Inſtallati [...]ns, the Memoirs of this illuſtrious Society is wholly ſilent in; for in thoſe Schemes le [...]t us of proceeding to Inſtallations, in the Reigns of King Henry VIII. King Edward VI. Queen Mary, and part of Queen Elizabeth, we find them no [...] inſerted, though ſince they are next to the Prebends of the College, the Purſuivants, Heralds, and Provincial Kings of Arms, proceed i [...] a Body.

After them the Knights-Subjects elect, unleſs the Pr [...] ctor of an abſent K [...]ight-Subj [...]ct, paſs at the ſame time in this P [...]c [...]eding, who take Place after the Provincial Kings: And i [...] i [...] ſo ch [...]nce, that the Pr [...]ctor to a Stra [...]ger-P [...]e [Page 327] be preſent at the ſame time, he is to proceed between the Knight-Subject's Proctor, and the Knights-Subject elect. But Prince Henry at his Inſtallation, Anno 1 Jac. I. moved in a Place Superior to all the Knights-Companions, and was paired with the Earl of Nottingham, the Sovereign's Lieutenant for that Occaſion. Where two or more elect Knights prepare for their Inſtallation at the ſame time, they take Place according to the Seniority of their Election, going two and two together; and if the Number be odd, the Junior elect Knight paſ [...]eth alone. Formerly the elect Knight paſſed in his ordinary Apparel, wearing over it in Days of Yore a ſhort Gown, afterwards a Cloak, and of latter Times a Coat, as did the Earl of Northumberland, Anno 5 Eliz. and the Earls of Pembrook and Derby, Anno 16 Eliz. and the Annals of the Order make this remark upon the Earl of Suſſex, and the Lord Buckhurſt, Anno 31 of Eliz. of Charles Duke of York, An. 9 Jac. I. But this was before any peculiar under Habi [...], was appointed to the Knights-Companions, for now there being a Cloth of Silver Doublet, and Trunk Hoſe, eſtabliſhed to be worn at the Feaſt of Inſtallation, and of St. George, the elect Knight proceeds in this Dreſs, as did the Duke of Albermarle, Anno 23 Car. II.

In this proceeding to the Chapter-Houſe, he wears only the Garter about his Leg, and the George and the R [...]bbond wherewith he was inveſted, either about his Neck, or as of late drawn under his right Arm, which being o [...]itted by Sir George Villars, and Viſcount Liſle, is noted to be contrary to order.

The Earl of Rutland with his Fellow elect Knights, Anno 14 Jac. I. proceeded Bar [...]-headed, as did the Duke of Lenox, Anno 9 Car. I. as well as the Duke of Albermarle, Anno 23 Car. II.

The elect Knight does not always make one in this Proceeding, but ſometimes ſtays at his Lodgings in the Caſtle, as did the Earls of Shrewsbury and Cumberland, Anno 34 Eliz. or elſe at ſome other convenient Station adjoining to the Chapter-Houſe, till he be ſent for in thither, to receive Inveſtiture with the Surcoa [...], as the Duke o [...] Montmorency did, and other elect Knights, Anno 14 Eliz. who went privately from the Sovereign's Lodgings, down to the Houſe of Mr. French, (then one of the Prebends,) and reſted in the Parlour, un [...]il they were ſent [Page 328] for: Sometimes the Knight elect goes privately into the Eaſt-Iſle of the Chappel behind the High Altar, and there remains till called in, as did the Duke of Monmouth, Ann [...] 15 Car. II.

If the Sovereign be preſent at the Inſtallation, the Knights-Companions proceed next after the Knights elect, according to the order of their Stalls; but if the Sovereign's Lieutenant, then his Aſſiſtants go in their Places; as at the Inſtallation of the Earl of Shrewsbury and Lord Hunſdon, Anno 3 Eliz. makes plain, the proceeding being ordered after this manner.

  • 1. Vergers.
  • 2. Alms-Knights.
  • 3. Officers of Arms.
  • 4. Elect-Knights.
  • 5. Aſſiſtants to the Lieutenants.
  • 6. Officers of the Order.
  • 7. Earl of Arundel, Lieutenant.

If the Inſtallation be diſpatched by Commiſſioners, then the three inferior Officers of the Order immediately follow the Knight elect, and proceed next before the Commiſſioners, and they were thus marſhalled at the Inſtallation of the Earl of Northampton, Anno 5 Car. I.

  • 1. The Earls Servants.
  • 2. Alms-Knights.
  • 3. Prebends.
  • 4. Heralds.
  • 5. Elect-Knights.
  • 6. Officers of the Order.
  • 7. The Sovereign's Commiſſioners.

Yet Anno 16 Eliz. at t [...]e Inſtallation of the Earls of Pembrook and Derby, we find the Officers did [...]recede the elect Knights, but it was through inadvertency; at the I [...]ſtallation of the Earl of Northampton, ſome Q [...]eſtion and D [...]ate aroſe, c [...]ncerning the precedency of the [...]e three Officers, in this proceeding, where it was at length concluded, that from the Caſtle to the Chappel, they ſhou'd proceed before the Commiſſioners; [...]ut in returning from the Chappel to the Caſtle, they ſhou'd follow.

[Page 329] We preſume the Queſtion, (whatſoever it was) chanced not to be propounded, till the proceeding was ready to paſs on, and then ſtarted on a ſudden, becauſe the Heralds (as the Annals note,) did not quickly diſcypher the matter, that it proceeded more from ſurprize, than want of Ability to reſolve.

This determination which took Place, was barely grounded upon Conjecture, and if ſeriouſly conſidered, will appear diſconſonant to Precedents and Practice, both before and ſince; where all returns are marſhalled anſwerable to their ſetting forth, unleſs the Condition of any Perſon in the mean time ſuffer a Mutation.

It's obſervable, that when Inſtallation paſs by Commiſſioners only, theſe three inferior Officers wear their Robes, but bear not the Enſigns of their Office in the Proceeding. And this ſeems to be deduced from particular Injunctions, laid down in the Conſtitutions belonging to the Officers of the Order, which appoint Garter an [...] Black-Rod to bear the Enſigns of their Offices at the Feaſt of St. George, when the Sovereign or his Deputy ſhall be preſent; whence it may be inferred, that if either chance to be abſent, they are under no obligation to bear th [...]m: For at the Inſtallations of Frederick, King of Denma [...]k, and John Caſimire, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Anno 25 Eliz. no Enſigns were born by the Officers; and ſo was it practiſed the Year after, at the Inſtallations of the Earl of Rutland and Lord Cobham, as the Red-B [...]ok of Order plainly ſets forth. But if the Sovereign hi [...]ſelf be preſent, or that he conſtitute a L [...]eutenant in his ſtead, the Regiſter then carries the Red-Book, and the Garter and the Black-Rod bear each of them their R [...]ds. It is remarkable, that in every proceeding to Inſtallati [...]n, b [...] Lieutenant, or Commiſſioners, the Garter c [...]es the Sovereign's Commiſſion in his Hand before them to the Chapter-Ho [...]ſe. At the Inſtallation of the Earls of Derby and M [...]eton, the Officers of the Order pro [...]eeded be [...]o [...]e the Knights to the Chapter-Houſe, not on [...] wi [...]hout the Enſigns of their Office, but their Heads co [...]red; and the re [...]o [...]ter of this In [...]allation gives this for a [...]eaſ [...]n; becauſe there was then neither the Sovereign, nor his Lieutena [...]t, repreſenting the King's Perſon, pr [...]t.

[Page 330] The Sovereign ſometimes being willing to confer additional Honours to ſome elect Knights, hath appointed their Inſtallation at ſuch time as he perſonally ſolemnized the Feaſt of St. George, as he did at the Inſtallation and Election of Philip King of Caſtile, Anno 22 Hen. VII. which for its memorableneſs, and mixt proceeding on Horſe-back, we ſhall inſert in this Place: He paſſed from the Sovereign's Lodging in the Caſtle, to the South-Door of St. George's-Chappel, and was thus ordered.

  • 1. Knights according to their Degrees.
  • 2. Lords after their Degrees.
  • 3. Knights-Companions in their whole Habi [...], bearing Company with ſome of the Knights of the Orde [...] of Joyſon d' Or.
  • 4. Prelate of the Order.
  • 5. Archbiſhop of Canterbury.
  • 6. The Spaniſh Ambaſſador.
  • 7. Joyſon d' Or, King of Arms, in Coat of Arms.
  • 8. Garter King of Arms, in his Coat of Arms.
  • 9. The Sword.
  • 10. Philip King of Caſtile.
  • 11. The Prince.
  • 12. King Henry VII. Sovereign of the Order.

Anno 19 Jac. I. was another inſtance at the Feaſt of St. George, when the Sovereign, with ſeveral Knights-Companions, proceeded alſo to the Chapel, at the perſonal Inſtallation of Frederick, Prince Palatine of the Rhine, we might add ſeveral other Examples, but ſhall o [...]ly mention that of the perſonal appearance of King Charles II. at the grand Feaſt of St. George, held next after his happy Reſtoration, whereat twelve elect Knights were [...] ſtalled. At this Solemnity of Inſtallation, the Sovereign proceeds in full Robes, having the Sword of State bo [...]n before him by a Nobleman not of the Order, his Trainbearers, &c. following the Sovereign's Lieutenant and his Aſſiſtants, as alſo the Commiſſioners proceed in full Robe [...], which is mention'd, Anno 31 Henry VIII. when the Earl of Arundel and his Aſſiſtants inſtalled the Lord Ruſſel and two other elect Knights, but the Sovereign's Lieutenan [...] [Page 331] only hath his Train carried up, which is uſually perform'd by ſome of his own Gentlemen.

The Proceſſional way (if beginning in the Preſence-Chamber,) is from thence in the upper Ward [...]f the Caſtle, and through the other Wards in at the Cloyſter D [...]r, and ſo to the Chapter-Houſe; but if from the Dean's Houſe, they go only through the Cloyſters, into which there is an immediate Paſſage from the Deanry: The proceeding having entred the Eaſt Door of St. George's Chapel, and paſt by the Chapter-Houſe Door, makes a ſtand in the North Iſle; while firſt the Offi [...]ers of the Order, next the Knights-Commiſſioners, or elſe the Knights-Aſſiſtants, and the Sovereign's Lieutenant; or laſtly the Knights-Companions, and the Sovereign with the Sword born before him, paſs into the Chapter-Houſe, but the Knight or Knights elect do not enter, but as they come in at the Chapel-Door, they fall off on the left Hand into the Eaſt Iſle behind the high Altar, and there repoſe themſelves, (on Chairs or Stools, with Cuſhions [...]urpoſely prepared,) until they are called into the Chapter-Houſe. This hath generally been the Cuſtom, of which many Examples might be produced, but in reſpect to great Perſonages they have been ſometimes (though rarely) admitted into the Chapter-Houſe, with the Sovereign or his Lieutenant, among whom Philip of Caſtile and Leon, Anno 22 Henry VII. and Prince Henry, Anno 1 Jac. I. the latter was led in by the Sovereign's Lieutenant, when four other elect Knights inſta [...]ed with him ſat till they receiv'd their Summons to enter.

Sometime the Sovereign and Knights-Companions wav'd going to the Chapter-Houſe, and paſs'd immediately into the Choir, as did King James Anno 9. when Charles Duke of York and others were inſtalled; the like did King Charles I. but then a Chapter was held in the Privy-Chamber, before the proceeding ſet forward; and in the former inſtance, when the proceeding came as far as the Eaſt End of the Chapel, the Duke of York, &c. with Norr [...]y before them, went out of the proceeding into the Chapter-Houſe, and there repoſed, while the Sovereign [...]oceeded on to the South Door of the Chapel, and thence [...]nto the Choir.

12.5. The Ceremonies perform'd in the Chapter-Houſe.

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§ 5. After the Lieutenant's entrance into the Chapter-Houſe, and opening the Chapter; Garter, with three Reverences, preſents firſt the Commiſſioners of Lieutenancy to hold the Feaſt, next that of Inſtallation, to the Lieutenant, (or if the Inſtallation paſs'd by Commiſſioners, then only the Commiſſion of Inſtallation to the Senior Commiſſioner,) which being receiv'd, he delivers it to the Regiſter of the Order, who forthwith Reads it; for to him this Duty belongs, as is recorded in the Black-Book of the Order, on occaſion of Garter's reading the Commiſſion for Inſtallation of Sir Thomas Brandon, Anno 22 Henry VII. the Regiſter being then abſent.

When the Regiſter hath read the Commiſſions, he returns them to the Lieutenant, (or Commiſſioners,) and he again to the Garter, as at the Inſtallation of the Earls of Shrewsbury and Cumberland, Anno 34 Eliz. If the Sovereign be preſent, the Chancellor acquaints him the Knights elect are without, otherwiſe the Lieutenant, and A [...]ſiſtants, (or Commiſſioners) conſult touching the calling in, and receiving them, and Garter is uſually employed in this Service; who, with all due reſpect, compliments and conducts him to the Chapter-Houſe Door: But in the inſtance of the Earls of Shrewsbury and Cumberland aforeſaid, Garter went to their Lodgings, and having delivered his Meſſage, they forthwith repaired to the Chapter-Houſe, their Train attending them to the Door: At the Inſtallation of Francis Duke of Montmorency, the Ea [...]l of Leiceſter, then the Sovereign's Lieutenant, as an evidence of ſingular reſpect, ſent from the Chapter two of the four Aſſiſtants aſſigned him, who taking Garter, and the Officers of Arms before them, led him thence between them to the Chapter-Houſe.

When there are two or more elect Knights, that wait in the Eaſt Iſle, expecting to be called i [...], Garter firſt c [...]nducts the Senior by Election to the Chapter-Houſe Door, and ſo the reſt in their ſeveral Orders, as in 14 Jac. I. by the Earl of Rutland, Sir George Villars, and the Vi [...] count Liſle; and ſo again 13 Car. II. As ſoon as Garter hath conducted the elect Knight to the Chapter-Hou [...]e [Page 333] Door, two of the Commiſſioners, (when the Inſtallation is performed by Commiſſioners,) or two of the Knights-Aſſiſtants, (when by the Sovereign's Lieutenant,) or two of the Senior Knights, (if the Sovereign himſelf be preſent,) receive him without, who is immediately conducted from the Chapter-Houſe Door, up to the Sovereign, (his Lieutenant, or Commiſſioners,) to whom he makes humble Reverence; when the Lieutenant, (or Senior Commiſſioners,) in a ſhort Speech, publiſhes the effect of his Commiſſion, and declares to him the Sovereign's bounty and ready kindneſs, in a full admittance into this Honourable Society, which the elect Knight very humbly acknowledges and accepts. When Philip King of Caſtile and Leon was inſtalled in Perſon, Anno 22 Henry VII. the Sovereign being preſent roſe from his Throne, and gave him Information of the Statutes and Ceremonies of the Order, and how he was bound by them; to all which he freely and readily aſſented.

Theſe Ceremonies of receiving an elect Knight being over, he diſrobes himſelf of his upper Garment, then the Surcoat and Kirtle is taken from the Table, with which he is inveſted; and during this Ceremony, the following Words of Admonition, entred at the end of King Hen. VIII's Book of Engliſh Statutes, are read or ſpoken.

Take this Robe of Purple, to the encreaſe of your Honour, and in Token, or Sign, of the moſt Honourable Order you have receiv'd; wherewith you being defended, may be bold not only ſtrong to Fight, but alſo to offer your ſelf to ſhed your Blood f [...]r Chriſt's Faith, the Liberties of the Church, and the juſt and neceſſary defence of them that are oppreſſed and needy.

After this, his Sword is cloſe girt about him over his Surc